3 Whey ingredients Functionality in confectionery Lactose provides many functional benefits as a food ingredient in confectionery products. This unique carbohydrate possesses solubility; acts as a bulking agent; acts as a flow agent in dry mixes; has a low level of sweetness yet contributes necessary solids; influences colour, flavour and texture; and influences browning reactions. Demineralised whey powder and condensed whey mainly influence the colour and flavour of the end product via browning reaction. WPC/WPI (defatted) have whipping properties.
4 Whey ingredients Functionality in confectionery Low solubility Low sweetness Reducing sugar Good flowability Low hygroscopicity Reducing sugar Proteins Milk solids Proteins Whipping ability Lactose is a substitute for sucrose, having distinct properties, however. Whey powder and condensed whey replace other milk products. WPC and WPI partially replace other aerating agents, i.e. egg albumin.
5 Application of lactose in confectionery When using lactose in confectionery products, it is important to look first which category this confectionery product belongs to: Products without any crystalline phase (e.g. high boiled candies, milk toffees, gums & jellies). Products with a crystalline and a non crystalline phase (e.g. fudges, fondant, crusted liqueur pralines). Products nearly free of water in which sugar is only present in the crystalline state (e.g. chocolate, compounds, fat fillings, spreads). The use of lactose will be more or less limited depending on the product category.
6 Application of lactose in confectionery High boiled candies High boilings are made of a supersaturated carbohydrate solution (usually sucrose and glucose syrup) obtained by cooking. The products are in a glassy state, i.e. that they are totally free of sugar crystals. They are characterised by: a very low residual moisture (1-3 %) a low E.R.H., below 30%
7 Application of lactose in confectionery High boiled candies Lactose has been used industrially for decades in the making of high boiled candies. Lactose brings less sweetness and improves the release of flavours. Approximately 10% lactose is used calculated on the final product. Basic recipe Recipe with lactose Sucrose 15.0 kg 12.0 kg Lactose kg Glucose syrup 42 DE A 15.0 kg 15.0 kg Water 5.0 kg 5.0 kg
8 Application of lactose in confectionery Fondant Fondants is a white soft to semi-hard paste. Fondant consists of tiny sugar crystals that are dispersed in a saturated sugar solution. It contains a maximum of 12% of residual water and 98% of the sugar crystals have a size < 20µm. Fondant thus consists of two phases, which are formed by the combined cooling and beating of a supersaturated solution.
9 Application of lactose in confectionery Fondant Particularly in the case of fondant or products made out of fondant, the manufacturing industry has repeatedly expressed the wish to produce a less sweet product to improve flavouring and meeting consumer demands. Fondant can be made with up to 20% of lactose. Lactose can be crystallized very finely and produces a quite firm fondant.
10 Application of lactose in confectionery Fat based masses & fillings These masses are suspensions, fat being the continuous phase and crystalline sugar part of the dispersed phase. The manufacturing process is usually a mixing process, followed by a refining process, with a final homogenizing process. In all those applications, lactose can replace part of the sucrose up to 20%. The limiting factor is the lack of sweetness.
11 Whey ingredients in confectionery Nougat bars Nougat bars are aerated products made of sucrose, glucose syrup, water and other added dry ingredients like skimmed milk powder, icing sugar, coconut rasps, cocoa powder. The sugar mass is cooked and added to the previously prepared foam. Finally the dry ingredients are added, the mass is spread and cut after cooling. Lactose can be used in the cooked sugar mass and as a dry ingredient. A high content of lactose is possible (up to 19%) aiming in a less sweet product with less stickiness and a better stability. WPCs and WPIs may replace part of the egg white solids for the preparation of the foam.
12 Whey ingredients in confectionery Milk toffees Soft caramels are supersaturated solutions made of sucrose, glucose syrup, fat and an emulsifier produced during a cooking process. They have a soft texture due to their water content of 6 to 10%. Milk toffees additionally contain milk products. These milk products are responsible for the browning reaction which give the milk toffees their typical caramel colour and taste.
13 Whey ingredients in confectionery Milk toffees In this product group lactose is always present as part of the milk powder or condensed milk. The addition of pure lactose enhances the caramel flavour while slightly reducing sweetness. A total lactose content of approximately 10% is sufficient to achieve this desired result. Basic recipe Recipe with lactose Sucrose 5.4 kg 3.76 kg Lactose kg Glucose syrup 42 DE A 8.25 kg 8.25 kg Water 5.0 kg 5.0 kg Sweetened condensed milk 6.2 kg 6.2 kg Hard fat 1.8 kg 1.8 kg Lecithin 0.05 kg 0.05 kg
14 Whey ingredients in confectionery Milk toffees / Browning Maillard reaction Ingredients Reaction Sucrose Sucrose Invert sugar Glucose syrup Dextrose Reducing sugars Colour Maltose Polysaccharides Maillard reaction caramelisation Milk / Whey Lactose Milk proteins Amino acids Flavour Milk fat Vegetable fats Vegetable fats Many recipes contain sweetened concentrated whey. This will increase the Maillard reaction during production and lower the raw material costs.
15 Whey ingredients in chocolate Chocolate and fat fillings Chocolate and fat fillings are suspensions made of a continuous fat phase in which finely grinded solids (sugar crystals, cocoa dry substance, milk solids, ) are evenly distributed. They are characterised by: a very low residual moisture of usually less than 1% a smooth texture (particle size less than 30µm) hard to creamy texture at room temperature (depending on the fat used)
16 Whey ingredients in chocolate Manufacture of chocolate 2-step refining process 1 Ingredient bins 3 Pre-refining 5 Conching 2 Mixing / kneading 4 Final refining 6 Electric plant control Source: Bühler
17 Whey ingredients in chocolate In chocolate sugar has following functions: sweetening the product reducing the bitterness of cocoa giving body to the chocolate Milk will give its special flavour to the milk chocolate. Commonly, recipes will contain sucrose and milk powder. In the EU, up to August 2003, it was only possible to replace sucrose by other sugar types and to add whey powder up to 5% of the total weight. With the new directive, the levels are not limited anymore.
18 Use of whey ingredients in chocolate Stages of development of the chocolate flavour Cocoa Fermentation Cocoa Drying and Roasting Mixing and Refining Conching Carbohydrates + Proteins Glucose + Free Amino Acids + Water influence Cocoa + Sucrose + Lactose (+ Milk/Whey powder) Chocolate specific and nonspecific flavors Glucose + Free Amino Acids Flavour development by Maillard Reaction and thermolyses Aromatisation + Homogenisation Degasing + Flavour Development by Maillard Reaction + Homogenisation
19 Use of whey ingredients in chocolate Manufacture of chocolate conching process The conching process will give the last touch to the chocolate mass. The mass is stirred during hours at quite high temperatures allowing bad flavors and moisture to escape and good flavors to be build. Lactose and whey proteins will take part in the Maillard reaction, giving a particular flavor note to the chocolate. As the conching temperature is far below 100 C, there is no risk of using lactose monohydrate in a recipe.
22 Samples from the market Be light Fruchtgummi plus Molke A new gum with whey, commercialised by Aldi Süd (Germany)
23 Resume (1) Commercially, four major categories of whey ingredients are used by the confectionery industry: demineralised whey powder sweetened condensed whey whey proteins lactose They have different functionalities: reduce the sweetness enhance the Maillard reaction stabilise foams
24 Resume (2) We find them mainly in: milk chocolate chocolate bars / aerated products milk toffees and fudges They are low-cost dairy products for the candy industry. The levels of use are not restricted. They fit perfectly in recipes for healthier sweets, thus there is still a lot of opportunities for new developments.
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