Nutrition Guidelines for Diabetes

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1 Nutrition Guidelines for Diabetes Eating healthy foods and keeping a healthy body weight are very important parts of a diabetes treatment plan. A healthy diet and weight helps to keep your blood sugar under control. Keeping your blood sugar under control helps protect against long term problems of diabetes. In order to control your blood sugar, it is very important to limit the carbohydrates in your diet. Sources of carbohydrates are starches, milk, fruits and sweets. You do not need to purchase foods labeled dietetic. Foods that are good for you are good for the rest of your household. These guidelines will help you change the way you eat and help keep your blood sugar under control. Eat three balanced meals a day at regular times. Do not skip meals. Choose meals and snacks with both carbohydrate and protein sources. Protein helps keep you feeling full and is an important nutrient for your body. You may need to eat a bedtime snack if you take insulin. Check with your doctor to see if you should. Eat a balanced amount of carbohydrates. Each meal should have about the same amount of carbohydrate. Include generous amounts of non-starchy vegetables in your meals and snacks. This will help fill you up, provides good nutrition and helps control your blood sugar. Avoid foods high in sugar such as candy, jelly, syrups, regular soda pop and other sugar sweetened drinks. Remember, your body does not know the difference between table sugar and fruit sugar (fructose) so drink fruit juices in moderation. Sweets, such as cookies, cakes, ice cream, pie and other rich desserts should only be eaten on special occasions. Sources of sugar include table sugar, brown sugar, honey and fructose. Limit the total fat in your diet. This will help control your weight, cholesterol levels and risk for heart disease. Avoid fried foods, high fat meats, whole milk dairy products, fried Learn more about your health care. More on next page Copyright March 12, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center - Upon request all patient education handouts are available in other formats for people with special hearing, vision and language needs, call (614)

2 Page 2 snack foods, fast foods and high fat desserts. Limit foods containing added fats, especially those that have saturated fats, such as butter, cream cheese, sour cream, gravies and creamy salad dressings. Use oils, trans fat free margarine and oil-based salad dressings in moderation. Know how much food you are eating. It is important to know the amount of food you are eating. It is a good idea to use measuring cups and a food scale to accurately measure how much food you are eating. Most people underestimate the amount of food they eat and this can lead to high blood sugar levels. Also, get into the habit of reading food labels. These provide portion sizes and nutrient information. Select a variety of foods from these groups Meat and Meat Substitutes: Include one 2 to 3 ounce (oz) serving at lunch and dinner. A 1 ounce protein source, such as an egg or 1 ounce of meat or cheese, also may be included at breakfast and bedtime snack. Beef, pork (lean cuts 3 times per week) Cheese (low fat) Chicken, turkey (white meat, no skin) Cottage cheese (low fat) Eggs (yolks, 3 times per week) Fish, seafood Lean lunch meat (ham, turkey) Peanut butter Breads and Starches (including starchy vegetables): Include 2 to 3 servings at each meal and 1 to 2 for snacks, if needed. One serving equals 1/3 cup unless otherwise stated, 1 ounce or one slice of bread, or ¾ cup of dry cereal. Remember breads and starches are high in carbohydrates and can raise your blood sugar if eaten in large amounts. Try to choose whole grain products to increase fiber in your diet. Bagels: ¼ bagel = 1 serving (1 oz) Biscuits: 2 ½ inches across Bread Buns: ½ bun = 1 serving Corn tortilla: ½ = 1 serving Crackers: ¾ oz English muffins: ½ Flour tortilla: 1, 6-inch = 1 serving Macaroni Noodles Pasta Popcorn: 3 cups Pretzels: ¾ oz Rice

3 Page 3 Rolls: 1 oz Stuffing Soup: 1 to 2 cups (depending on ingredients) Taco shells: 5 inches across = ½ serving Spaghetti Unsweetened cereals Starchy Vegetables (½ cup cooked = 1 serving): Dried beans Lima beans Corn Mixed vegetables Peas Refried beans Potatoes, white or sweet Squash Baked beans: 1/3 cup Vegetables: Include 3 to 5 servings a day. Low calorie vegetables can be eaten as desired. Limit starchy vegetables as indicated in "Bread and Starches" section. Add raw or cooked low calorie vegetables to lunch, dinner or snacks. Green beans Broccoli Carrots Tomatoes Celery Lettuce Spinach Mushrooms Onions Asparagus Artichokes Cucumbers Fruits: Include to 2 to 4 servings a day. A serving size is ½ cup of fruit or juice, ¼ cup of dried fruit or one small fresh fruit. Limit fruit juice to ½ cup per day. Dried fruit Fresh fruit Unsweetened fruit juice Unsweetened frozen fruit Canned fruit, if canned in natural juice or drained if in light syrup

4 Page 4 Milk: Try to have 2 to 3 servings a day. A serving size is 1 cup (8 oz) of skim, fat free milk or yogurt flavored with artificial sweetener ( lite yogurt). Include a serving with meals where meat or meat substitutes are not included. Milk (1%, skim) Buttermilk (low fat) Plain or lite yogurt Diet instant cocoa mixes Diet instant breakfast mixes Fats: Limit your intake of fat if you are reducing calories for weight control. As part of a healthy diet, use vegetable fats, especially canola, olive or peanut oils in place of animal fats. Nuts also have good fat in them. Use reduced fat products, if desired. A serving size is 1 teaspoon mayonnaise, margarine or oil, or 1 tablespoon salad dressing. Margarine, trans fat free Mayonnaise Nuts: 1 oz Olives Salad dressing Canola, corn or olive oil Free foods allowed as desired: The following foods should not raise your blood sugar. A serving of a free food contains less than 20 calories. Bouillon or broth Catsup Club soda Cocoa powder Coffee or tea without sugar or creamer added Diet cocoa mix Diet gelatin Diet jelly or jam (limit to 2 teaspoons a day) Diet syrup (limit to 2 tablespoons a day) Diet pop Dill pickles Herbs and spices, sugar-free seasonings Mustard

5 Page 5 Non-stick pan spray Raw or cooked non-starch vegetables Salad greens Sugar-free popsicles Sugar-free gums and mints Tomato juice, V-8 Juice Unsweetened carbonated water Vinegar Sugar substitutes such as Aspartame (Equal ), Saccharin (Sweet n Low, Sugar Twin ), Acesulfame potassium (Sweet One ), Sucralose (Splenda ), Stevia Foods to limit because of sugar or fat content: Alcoholic beverages* (unless allowed by your doctor) Cake Candy Chocolate milk Cookies Doughnuts Drink mixes made with sugar Fried foods Frosting Frozen yogurt Granola Products Granola Gravies Honey Ice milk Ice cream Instant breakfast mix Instant cocoa mix Jams Jellies Marshmallows Milkshakes Molasses Pastries Pie Popsicles Preserves Pudding Regular gelatin Sherbet Regular soda-pop Sugar coated cereal Sugar-sweetened yogurt Syrup

6 Page 6 *Alcohol: Some people should not drink alcohol. This includes alcoholics, children, pregnant women, people on certain medicines and people with some medical conditions. Talk to your doctor about whether it is safe for you to drink alcohol. If allowed, drink in moderation and always with food. Do not drink on an empty stomach. Moderate drinking is: For men, no more than two drinks per day For women, no more than one drink per day For people over 65, no more than one drink per day A standard drink is one 12-ounce beer, one 5-ounce glass of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor. Talk to your doctor or others on your health care team if you have questions. You may request more written information from the Library for Health Information at (614) or

7 Page 7 Sample Menu (1800 Calories) Breakfast 1 cup Cheerios or ½ cup cooked unsweetened cooked cereal such as oatmeal 1 teaspoon margarine or 2 tablespoons nuts 1 cup skim or 1% milk 1 small fresh fruit or ½ cup unsweetened fruit juice Coffee or tea Lunch Sandwich made with 2 slices whole grain bread (1 oz. per slice) and 2 to 3 oz. lean sliced meat or cheese (2 carbs) 1 tablespoon mayonnaise, mustard as desired Fresh vegetables or salad with 1 tablespoon low sugar salad dressing Small fresh fruit 1-6 oz. container of lite yogurt or 4 oz. regular yogurt Coffee, tea, water or diet soda Dinner 3 oz. roasted, baked or broiled meat, fish or chicken 1 cup potatoes or 1 medium baked potato or 2/3 cup cooked rice or noodles (2 carbs) 1 slice bread or small dinner roll 2 teaspoons margarine or olive oil Cooked non-starchy vegetables and / or salad ½ cup unsweetened canned fruit Coffee, tea, water or diet soda Snack Ideas ½ sandwich 1-6 oz. container lite yogurt 3 graham crackers and 1 tablespoon peanut butter 3 graham crackers and 1 cup skim or 1% milk (2 carbs) 1 cup non-starchy vegetables (carrots, celery, broccoli, etc.) and ¼ cup hummus 6 saltine crackers and 1 oz. reduced fat cheese or 1 tablespoon peanut butter 6 cups popcorn (2 carbs) ¾ cup unsweetened cereal and ½ cup skim or 1% milk (1 ½ carbs) Sugar-Free Snack Ideas Non-starchy vegetables Sugar-free gelatin, popsicles and soda

8 Page 8 Mexican Sample Menu (1800 Calories) Breakfast 1 cup Cheerios or ½ cup cooked unsweetened cooked cereal such as oatmeal 1 teaspoon margarine or 2 tablespoons nuts 1 cup skim or 1% milk ½ small fresh mango or ½ cup unsweetened fruit juice Coffee or tea Lunch 2/3 cup rice (2 carbs) ½ cup red, black or refried beans 3 oz. chorizo (sausage) or other meat Cooked peppers, onions, tomatoes (no limit) 1 small banana Coffee, tea, water or diet soda Dinner 1 small corn tortilla 2 oz. beef, chicken or chorizo 1 oz. jack cheese ½ cup refried beans 1 cup Pozole soup ¼ cup salsa ½ cup fresh or unsweetened canned fruit Coffee, tea, water or diet soda Snack Ideas 1 small tortilla and 1 oz. cheese 1 small tortilla, 1 oz. cheese, and ½ cup beans (2 carbs) 1-6oz. container lite yogurt 3 graham crackers and 1 tablespoon peanut butter 3 graham crackers and 1 cup skim or 1% milk (2 carbs) 6 saltine crackers and 1 oz. reduced fat cheese or 1 tablespoon peanut butter 6 cups popcorn (2 carbs) ¾ cup unsweetened cereal and ½ cup skim or 1% milk (1 ½ carbs) Sugar-Free Snack Ideas Non-starchy vegetables Sugar-free gelatin, popsicles and soda

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