DATA CENTER DESIGN. White Paper

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1 DATA CENTER DESIGN White Paper JAN KREMER CONSULTING SERVICES Data Center Design White Paper Page 1

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION DOCUMENT OUTLINE GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION GREEN DATACENTERS VIRTUALIZED DATA CENTERS MANAGED SERVICES SECURITY ITIL BASED MANAGEMENT AND SERVICES SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE (SOA) BUSINESS CONTINUITY AND DISASTER RECOVERY DATA CENTER DESIGN EXAMPLE INTRODUCTION CCTV AND ACCESS CONTROL Introduction Physical Access Restrictions details Door Control Systems Server Area Protection Closed-Circuit Television Coverage Access Policies and Procedures ISO CCTV Access Control CABLING Introduction How to Label: Verification Network Cabling Infrastructure Implementation of Pods Top of Rack (ToR) Model End of Row (EoR) Model Point of Distribution (POD) FIRE DETECTION AND SUPPRESSION Introduction Detailed Information HVAC Introduction Details LIGHTING Introduction Occupancy Sensor Application Lighting Capacity MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT Introduction Details POWER Data Center Design White Paper Page 2

3 3.8.1 Introduction Power Design Includes: Details RACKS Introduction Details RAISED FLOOR Introduction Summary RF SHIELDING Introduction Details WATER DETECTION Introduction Details Tracetek from Tyco Thermal Controls LABELING Introduction Features Benefits Provides Data Center Design White Paper Page 3

4 1. INTRODUCTION This white paper provides an overview of Data Center Design principles and sample Data Center Design 1.1. Document Outline Chapter 1 provides an introduction and outline of this document. Chapter 2 provides an overview of general data center design principles. Chapter 3 provides a sample data center design; it does include sample diagrams for some of the provided components Data Center Design White Paper Page 4

5 2. General Design Principles Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) 2.1. Introduction Knowing what the client needs are the essentials of good data center design, and the general infrastructure that a data center includes are the basic starting principles. Now we need to concentrate on its exact scope. How many layers of infrastructure should the data center include, will it be only server environment for one or many managed services capabilities, how does the main data center purpose relate to the disaster recovery data center capabilities as to scope, capabilities and service levels and what kind of tier level is required etc. Tier levels summary. Tier I: Basic Site Infrastructure A Tier I basic data center has nonredundant capacity components and single non-redundant path distribution paths serving the site s computer equipment Tier II: Redundant Capacity Components Site Infrastructure A Tier II data center has redundant capacity components and single non-redundant distribution paths serving the site s computer equipment Tier III: Concurrently Maintainable Site Infrastructure A concurrently maintainable data center has redundant capacity components and multiple distribution paths serving the site s computer equipment. Generally, only one distribution path serves the computer equipment at any time. Tier IV: Fault Tolerant Site Infrastructure A fault tolerant data center has redundant capacity systems and multiple distribution paths simultaneously serving the site s computer equipment Data Center Design White Paper Page 5

6 2.2. Green Datacenters Data center cooling is where the greatest energy-efficiency improvements can be made. And cooling a data center efficiently is impossible without proper floor plan and air-conditioning design. The fundamental rule in energy- efficient cooling is to keep hot air and cold air separate. The hot-aisle/cold aisle, raised-floor design has been the cooling standard for many years, yet surprisingly few data centers implement this principle fully or correctly. Hot aisle/cold aisle is a data center floor plan in which rows of cabinets are configured with air intakes facing the middle of the cold aisle. The cold aisles have perforated tiles that blow cold air from the computer room air-conditioning (CRAC) units up through the floor. The servers hot air returns blow heat exhaust out the back of cabinets into hot aisles. The hot air is then sucked into the CRAC unit to be cooled and redistributed through cold aisles. As computing demands skyrocket, servers in data centers proliferate. And now, the equation is rapidly spinning out of control as environmental concerns and costefficiency are overwhelmed by server sprawl. excessive energy consumption from servers running hot leads to high cooling costs, overuse of fossil fuels, pollution, Data Center Design White Paper Page 6

7 depletion of natural resources and release of harmful co2 as waste. For every kilowatt of energy consumed by a server, roughly another kilowatt must be expended to cool that machine. By the end of 2008, the power costs of a server have exceeded the cost of the server itself. Reduction of the number of servers can be achieved by implementing a Virtualized Data Center. Using less equipment to do more goes to the heart of being LEAN & GREEN. Consolidating and virtualizing storage and using efficient computing practices and power-saving tactics are the route to achieving environmental efficiency and reduction of cost Virtualized Data Centers Today s IT organizations are dealing with the consequences of exploding IT infrastructure growth and complexity. While computing resources continue to increase in power, organizations are unable to fully utilize them in single application deployments and cannot change computing resource assignments easily when application or business requirements change. At the root of the problem is uncontrolled server sprawl, servers provisioned to support a single application. Organizations that implemented hardware virtualization have unwittingly created a new problem: OS sprawl. While hardware remains a considerable cost component, software and management continue to be the largest cost considerations. The daily management and operations functions are daunting, and adding in business continuity requirements, the costs and complexity are overwhelming. Moreover, few tools provide the management and automation to ease the burden on IT departments. In order to address these critical challenges, IT organizations have to find ways to accomplish the following: Improve the flexibility of computing resource assignment Decrease complexity to improve manageability of systems Automate routine tasks Reduce overall management costs through efficiency Provide cost-effective data availability and recovery Increase the return from their infrastructure investment by better utilizing resources Data Center Design White Paper Page 7

8 Server virtualization, which enables several applications to run independently on a single physical server, is an important first step toward achieving a virtualized environment. But it is only by combining server virtualization with storage virtualization when enterprises can realize the full benefits of virtualization. Consolidating resources through data center virtualization techniques can improve the return on IT investments, boost IT productivity, increase system reliability and availability, and ultimately enhance the ability of IT to meet the needs of the business. Microsoft offers server virtualization technology within their new MS Server 2008 Operating System platform. Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V is a built-in operating system technology that hosts virtual machines on the Windows Server 2008 platform, using server hardware virtualization. It provides a scalable and secure platform for supporting enterprise server virtualization infrastructures. Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V uses Type 1 hypervisor-based virtualization, which runs directly on hardware, thereby enabling direct access to difficult-to-virtualize processor calls. Data Center Design White Paper Page 8

9 2.4. Managed Services Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) Managed Services is a proven and successful business model around the world and market dynamics are driving companies to it. Managed Services refers to the outsourcing of IT computing and/or network infrastructure, operating systems, and/or applications to a third party. The Managed Services provider assumes responsibility of the entire set of IT processes and computing/communication capabilities provided to the customer. The architecting, deployment, 24x7x365 monitoring, and proactive management of these IT environments, which typically must be always available and always secure. Services can include the applications, hardware, software, network, etc. Companies find it advantageous to outsource services that provide key functions such as security, business continuity, disaster recovery, data integrity, and high availability, so they can instead focus internal IT resources on core activities and processes. Data Center Design White Paper Page 9

10 Companies are facing the fundamental challenge of dealing with increasing IT complexity and cost, and the need to deliver value from their technology investments. IT departments are struggling with administrative, operational and maintenance aspects of day to day IT management, rather than on IT activities that impact revenue generation and competitive advantage. The issues they face are: Downtime business need for always on reliability. Security expensive and constantly changing security threats. Keeping pace too much focus on administrative problems vs. business problems. Compliance and business regulations increasing governance regulations and storage requirements. Data Center Design White Paper Page 10

11 2.5. Security Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) The increasing multiplicity of data centre locations and often the geographical dispersion of IT administrators increases the importance of a sound security strategy. To work effectively, the strategy should establish guidelines and responsibilities to protect the information assets of a company. Physical security Public: areas that all employees can access Controlled: areas that can and must be locked when unattended Very controlled: areas where access is restricted to registered or authorized users The question for many IT managers is how to supplement physical security strategy. The answer is to give secure, remote access and control of data centre servers and devices to authorized personnel no matter where they or the devices are located. Data Center physical security includes components such as: CCTV System with central control room monitors and video recording units\ Data Center Access Control System with role based access control for the different zones and rooms within the Data Center including biometrics fingerprint scanners (employees only) Visitor temporary card issuance system for Data Center access for visitors Employee Access Card Issuance system with Digital Camera (capturing digital photo for card surface) and Biometrics Fingerprint Scanner (Fingerprint minutiae on card contactless chip for 1-1 verification at access points). Additional Biometrics systems such as Iris and facial recognition are also supported Outside CCTV cameras for Data Center perimeter security management The security systems can utilize the existing IP network for functionality for both access control requests and CCTV. This reduces the cost and complexity of adding separate physical lines. Additionally, it will allow for remote monitoring and management from any Facility. Logical security Logical security strategy requires the IT manager to identify and authenticate users. User IDs need to be established to identify the person connecting to the system. Logical security includes defining and protecting resources. What resources can users access when they have been authenticated? Data Center Design White Paper Page 11

12 Physical and Logical Security Convergence Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) "CEOs and boards don't really think about security; they think about risk. With too many security discussions, they kind of glaze over the issue, but when you're talking with executive management and explaining things to them in terms of risk to the business, that really gets the business leaders thinking about integration and convergence of physical security and IT security in the right way." Practice Leader, Global IT Services Provider Convergence of logical and physical security brings significant benefits, specifically identifying areas where the two can interconnect to the greatest positive effect. In order to make this convergence happen, security management must be integrated with existing business processes for managing facilities, personnel and IT Systems. This requires clear organizational ownership on critical management processes such as: Enterprise Security Policy User provisioning and asset management Security monitoring and auditing Incident response Business Continuity Planning One simple example of this convergence is the usage of a smartcard based Identity Card which is used for Physical Access Control as well as for authentication of the cardholder to computers and data. This Smartcard based ID card is based on a combichip, meaning the card has one chip which supports contact (Logical Security for Computer Authentication with biometrics based identity verification) and a contactless proximity chip (Physical Security used for access control using the same biometrics as provided by the contact portion of the chip) Data Center Design White Paper Page 12

13 2.6. ITIL based Management and Services The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL), a set of best practices addressing the delivery of high-quality, cost-effective IT services, includes best practice guidelines for multiple IT Operations activities. Release Management and Change Management are two activities within ITIL s IT Service Management (ITSM) disciplines that offer guidance for deploying changes to IT services. Both Release and Change Management recommend pre-deployment testing, and best practice guidance suggests that improving these processes also benefits ITSM Incident, Problem, and Availability Management. Benefits of ITIL deployment The key benefits of implementing ITIL: Improving IT and business alignment Improved productivity Ensuring best practice Implementation of ITIL can be costly, so where can an organization expect to recover those costs? Data Center Design White Paper Page 13

14 Here is a list of some of the benefits: ITIL has become the de facto best practice for running IT. The wide spread adoption of ITIL within an industry will provide guides to what works and what doesn t. ITIL brings with it a common dictionary, an item that has been lacking in the present IT world. Improved financial management of IT and a better matching of the services of IT to the needs of the overall organization. Improved relationship between IT and the organization for which it provide services. Improved utilization of the IT infrastructure. Improved utilization of IT personnel. Improved reputation of IT within the organization that IT services Data Center Design White Paper Page 14

15 2.7. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) There are many definitions for Service-Oriented Architecture in current use. The most widely accepted definition is that SOA is a set of architectural principles that help build modular systems based on services or units of IT functionality. These services, either at the business or technical level, are offered by one party, the service provider, or consumed by another. This idea of a well- defined contract that is fulfilled by a provider and used by another consuming party is central to SOA principles. Providers and consumers can reside in the same organization or in separate ones even in separate companies. Much like the Internet before it, SOA is sweeping through companies and industries, upending the competitive order. Thanks to SOA, companies are fast commissioning new products and services, at lower cost and with less labor, often with the technology assets they have right in hand. Most important, SOA is helping to put IT squarely where it belongs: in the hands of the business executive, under whose direction it can create the most value. Data Center Design White Paper Page 15

16 2.8. Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery IT managers today must be ready for the unexpected, especially in consideration of new industry and government rules concerning data protection and disaster recovery. Disaster recovery initiatives, of course, have been around for some time; however, it is only recently that several new technologies have emerged that are changing the way we think about disaster recovery and business continuity planning. These technologies focus on WAN optimization, traffic redirection, data replication, and secure remote access. Together, they represent a new methodology for organizations seeking to consolidate cost and equipment, reduce management time, and ensure applications are always available when disaster strikes. The recovery time objective (RTO) is the maximum allowable downtime after an outage for recovering systems, applications, and functions (see Figure below). RTO Data Center Design White Paper Page 16

17 provides the basis for developing cost-effective recovery strategies and for determining when and how to implement these recovery strategies during a disaster situation Business Continuity Planning The results from both a 2004 IDC study and a current study highlight a continuing trend among companies looking to reduce overall downtime and increase overall availability. Through business continuity planning, the change in downtime over a four-year period has dropped more than 53% from 20.4 hours in 2003 to an expected 9.5 hours in This converts to a shift in availability from 97.2% to 98.7% over the same period. When these results are viewed with regard to business impact, adding nearly 11 hours of monthly uptime converts to 132 hours annually, or hour days. This additional amount of time could translate to a significant amount of potential revenue loss were your company not able to meet these higher availability requirements. Additionally, as you look to increase the availability of your IT environments and business processes, you will need to integrate more advanced Data Center Design White Paper Page 17

18 means of achieving these results. The impact of reaching these high-availability goals will likely require greater levels of expertise, automation, and, ultimately, capital investment. Disaster Recovery Planning A Disaster Recovery Plan covers the data, hardware and software critical for a business to restart operations in the event of a natural or human-caused disaster. It should also include plans for coping with the unexpected or sudden loss of key personnel. The analysis phase in the development of a BCP (Business Continuity Plan) manual consists of an impact analysis, threat analysis, and impact scenarios with the resulting BCP plan requirement documentation. Data Center Design White Paper Page 18

19 3. Data Center Design Example Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) 3.1. Introduction This section provides Data Center Design examples for the following components This document represents the second deliverable for this project which is a Low Level design for the main components of the Data Center such as: General Design o Floor Plan o Final layout for the Communications Room and Power Distribution Room o Labeling and Mapping o Shielding Power System Design o Final Design for the Generator Sets o Final Floor Plans for the Generator Sets room o Final Design for the UPS systems o Overhead power cabling since water piping is under raised floor Cooling/AC high level design o Basic design for using water chillers o Models of chillers recommended o Water piping under raised floor Detailed Cabling Design based on TIA 942 and TIA 568-A and B Detailed design for a Data Center Monitoring System Detailed design for Fire Protection and Detection based on FM200 Detailed design for Water Leakage detection and monitoring whole room Overall Design Summary Knowing what the client needs are the essentials of good data center design, and the general infrastructure that a datacenter includes are the basic starting principles now we need to concentrate on its exact scope. The TIA-942 standard provides several requirements and recommendations for cabling management. The data center must be designed with separate racks and pathways for each media type, and power and communications cables must be placed in separate ducts. Data Center Design White Paper Page 19

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21 The design must where possible meet Tier 4 requirements based on the Tier 4 standards defined by the Uptime institute. Where physical existing building restrictions do not allow for certain components being Tier 4 they must be Tier 3. See a quick overview summary of Tier 3 and Tier 4 below. Tier III: Concurrently Maintainable Site Infrastructure - A concurrently maintainable datacenter has redundant capacity components and multiple distribution paths serving the site s computer equipment. Generally, only one distribution path serves the computer equipment at any time. - Each and every capacity component and element of the distribution paths can be removed from service on a planned basis without causing any of the computer equipment to be shut down - Annual Site Caused IT Downtime (actual field data) 1.6 hours Data Center Design White Paper Page 21

22 - Representative Site Availability 99.98% Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) Tier IV: Fault Tolerant Site Infrastructure - A fault tolerant datacenter has redundant capacity systems and multiple distribution paths simultaneously serving the site s computer equipment - A single worst-case failure of any capacity system, capacity component or distribution element will not impact the computer equipment. - Annual Site Caused IT Downtime (actual field data) 0.8 hours - Representative Site Availability 99.99% Data Center Design White Paper Page 22

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24 3.2. CCTV and Access Control Introduction Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) All elements of the Data Center physical security deliverables must be installed and tested including: CCTV System within Data Center (Computer Room) with central control room monitors and video recording units. Datacenter Access Control System with role based access control for the different zones and rooms within the Datacenter including biometrics fingerprint scanners (employees only). Visitor temporary card issuance system for Data Center access for visitors. (Optional) Employee Access Card issuance system with Digital Camera (capturing digital photo for card surface) and Biometrics Fingerprint Scanner (Fingerprint minutiae on card contactless chip for 1-1 verification at access points). Outside CCTV (around the inside building entrance door(s) to the Computer Room) and cameras for Datacenter perimeter (outside Generator Set/UPS building for security management. The security systems will utilize the existing IP network for functionality for both access control requests and CCTV. This reduces the cost and complexity of adding separate physical lines. Additionally, it will allow for remote monitoring and management Physical Access Restrictions details The most fundamental way of physically protecting the items housed in a Datacenter is control over who can enter and who can enter in which location(s) of the Data Center. Door Locks, Access Control Systems, fencing and lockable server cabinets each prohibit someone from entering, that is unauthorized personnel seeing obtaining sensitive information. The most fundamental way of physically protecting the items housed in a Datacenter is control over who can enter and ensure that the who is really the authorized person to enter the Datacenter and its sub locations. Smartcard access control systems with biometrics will not only ensure that controlled access is ensured but also at all times a central control monitions system will always know who is where at all times. Data Center Design White Paper Page 24

25 3.2.3 Door Control Systems Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) A Datacenter related to manager services has several levels of access control security such as: Level 1: Main Access to Datacenter Facility o This includes all personnel allowed access to the Datacenter which includes Operators, Engineers, Management and Administration Level 2: Access to the different Computer Rooms (Computer Room areas such as Communications Room and Power Distribution Room), each Computer Room area which serves different functionality should have their own access control Level 3: Access to Rack/Cabinets and rooms that contain secure hardware and software such as: o Systems containing Certification Authority hardware and software o Smartcard Key Management Authority (KMA) hardware and software o Key Generation and Key Distribution hardware and software including HSM s Access control should be established using contactless smartcards which store on the chip (suggest 16-32Kb) the information of the cardholder for access control to the different Datacenter security levels: Name, Phone, Position, and Company organization group Security Access level Biometrics including digital photo and two fingerprint minutiae Access control doors must have a contactless smartcard reader with fingerprint scanner. Each card reader for each location will perform the required check. When the person holding the card requires to access the Datacenter, and any higher level security rooms he holds his card close to the reader, the system logs: Date and Time accessing (and leaving) Name etc Then validates the Fingerprint scanned from the reader against the minutiae in the card, when OK validates the security level allowed and opens the door or rejects access. All secure area s including leaving the data center will force also the employee (or visitor when given temporary pass) to use the card on a reader in the exit area in order to open the door for leaving. This system now can also be utilized for: Security audits Time Management for employees for maintaining a log when employees were present (automated time sheets) Data Center Design White Paper Page 25

26 3.2.4 Server Area Protection Cages Although most Datacenters have hard-walled rooms, sometimes it has been chosen to surround a specific server area with wire mesh fencing. This called a cage, such fencing is most commonly used to sub divide a large computer room area (with raised floors) to add additional physical security to certain select servers and networking devices. You could go as far as creating these cages in a direct one to one relationship as to your server zoning such as zones for: Web Servers protected by a DMZ including firewall(s) and Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) Separate zones for Application and Database Servers Separate zones for security sensitive servers such as for: o Certification Authority o Key Management Authority o Key Generation Systems for Security Cards and other PKI functions Network and Systems Management servers such as HP OpenView and CiscoWorks etc. Cages can then have their own access control with the related security level related to the server group and functions Locking Cabinets Another additional physical security level is to ensure that all server, network devices, HSM devices, network management systems racks (Cabinets) are lockable and that these cabinets are locked with proper management control over the keys for these cabinets. This means the access control to these keys must be clearly defined and their usage tested in practice especially for exceptional emergency conditions Closed-Circuit Television Coverage Card Reader logs can track who enters and leaves the Datacenter, bur for real time surveillance of who enters your server environment, installation of closed-circuit television is strongly recommended. Cameras should be placed at strategic locations outside and inside the Datacenter and should be monitored by security personnel as well as recorded on an Audio/Video recording system. All these physical access control systems should be integrated with each other and complement each other. Data Center Design White Paper Page 26

27 3.2.6 Access Policies and Procedures Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) Each Datacenter needs a proper access policy that defines who is allowed to enter each of security levels defined, and also under what circumstances. This is usually done by Job Classification. This classification must be done for all persons who possible may have to be in these secure areas. A visitor systems access policy must also be defined which could be for example that no visitor (even having a temporary entry batch) can never be entering, leaving or walking around the premised without the presence of an authorized employee ISO We recommend the implementation of an overall security policy based on ISO Information Security is a business requirement in all organizations in today s world. These requirements are driven either by business need or by regulations. Many organizations find it difficult to derive a framework for defining the requirements. ISO 27001, the Information Security Management System works as a framework from where the organization can start the information security management initiative. There are several reasons why an organization should implement ISO standard and the primary one is the business demand. The ISO certification confirms that certain levels of protection are in place so as to protect the information / data handled. ISO presents the requirements to implement and operate an Information Security Management System (ISMS). Below is an interpretation of the major requirements and deliverables of each phase of the ISMS implementation method established by using ISO Our methodology for assessing and managing information risks, as well as for the development of information security policy and procedures will be based on ISO27001:2005 international standard and best practices. Data Center Design White Paper Page 27

28 Phases involved in implementing ISO There are different ways of implementing ISO and exact phases that apply to one organization may not be able applicable for another one. The following phases are from a high-level overview perspective and will be covered throughout the project phases. A unique method of implementation might be produced for each organization depending on the organizations structure and goals. 1. Define the scope and boundaries the ISMS. 2. Identify the organization Information Security policies and procedures. 3. Define the risk assessment methodology and criteria for accepting risks. 4. Identify Information assets and assess the business impact upon the loss of confidentiality, integrity or availability of the assets. 5. Identify and evaluate the risks: Identify threat and vulnerabilities related to the assets. Evaluate the impact and likelihood for these threats and vulnerabilities, and the controls currently in place. Estimate the level of risks based on the risk assessment methodology. Determine whether risks are acceptable or need treatment based on the risk acceptance criteria. 6. Identify the options for treating the risks, whether accept, avoid, transfer or reduce the risks by Appling additional controls. 7. Select the ISO controls which are applicable for mitigating the risks identified. 8. Define how to measure the effectiveness of the selected controls or group of controls and how to calculate the residual risks. 9. Document the statement of applicability. 10. Prepare risk treatment plan. 11. Implement the risk treatment plan and document it. Perform Security Awareness training for the ISMS users. 12. Conduct Internal Audit for the implemented ISMS to measure the effectiveness of the ISMS and perform if needed any corrective and preventive actions. Data Center Design White Paper Page 28

29 3.2.8 CCTV The CCTV implementation should be based on IP CCTV solutions making use of existing or new network cabling using the CCTV camera s as standard IP configures network devices. In addition Power over Ethernet could also be used to power the cameras For the computer room the CCTV cameras should be installed as a minimum at: Each corner of the main computer room Monitoring the entrance of the Communications Room Monitoring the door between the UPS room and the computer room Monitoring the entrance door to the computer room Monitoring the hallway to the computer room In the middle of the computer room on each side Data Center Design White Paper Page 29

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31 3.2.9 Access Control System Overview Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) Fingerprint based access control readers for entering and leaving the Computer Room as a minimum Manual access desk in corridor as to moving to the Computer Room entrance door with sign-in sign-out register Manual check in and out using register should be performed Visitor process: o Visitors should NEVER be given access to the computer room without authorized employee guidance throughout the visitor presence in the computer room o Sign out must be performed when visitor leaves Maintenance Engineer process: o Engineer must sign in at entrance desk o Engineer will be given temporary maintenance and support access card o Engineer uses card to enter computer room His presence in room is now logged in room presence system Security at all times knows who is in the computer room in case of fire emergency etc. o Uses same card to exit the computer room which clears the record him being in the room in cases of emergencies o Special engineering card maybe required for accessing the communications room with higher access control authority Access Control Levels Only limited personnel that have a need for presence in the Computer Room or High Level Management should have access card with the proper authority to access the computer room. The Computer Room must be identified as a high access control zone indication so normal personnel can never use their existing ID card to enter the Computer Room. Data Center Design White Paper Page 31

32 3.3. Cabling Introduction Basic principles of a network cabling infrastructure include: Creating a network cabling infrastructure Points of Distribution Avoiding Spaghetti Labeling and Color Coding Verification Creating the Infrastructure The connectivity requirements are based on device connection requirements which are obviously defined. The most important element of the cabling infrastructure is VERY SIMPLE, labeling and documenting that data in detail based on the TIA 606- A Standard. Cabling must be based on the TIA-942 and TIA -568A and 568B standards as well as the TIA-606-A Labeling and Documenting Standards Points of Distribution A Point of Distribution (POD) is a rack of devices that manage a number of RLU s. See next page(s) to explain how this relates to the TIA-942 standards Avoiding Spaghetti Cabling installations must always consider: Calculate proper cabling lengths Perform standard labeling and document this in the TIA 606_A database Router Cables using the design documented Avoid messy cabling routing Labelling and Colour Coding Every component of the Data Center infrastructure is to be labeled in an independent manner consistent with the overall scheme. For purposes of tracking the fiber, the most important things to keep in mind with the labeling system are buildings, telecommunication rooms, fiber panels, port numbers, pedestal labels, and of course the fiber itself. Data Center Design White Paper Page 32

33 These individual identifiers can be combined to create an overall and accurate picture of a cabling plant. Test reports will use a combination of these pieces to completely identify any piece of the cabling plant, where it is connected and the pathway that it follows. This requires that every piece of equipment should be labeled. Fiber cable should be labeled on the outside jacket of the cable. Fiber panels should be labeled on the outside of the box. Individual modules or ports inside a fiber panel should be clearly labeled. Documentation should be located inside the fiber panel that clearly identifies what fiber strands are connected to which bulkhead. Under no circumstances should a technician need to open the installer's side of an LIU in order to determine the identifier for a bulkhead or what fiber is attached to that bulkhead Reading a Name A name is constructed combining the pertinent labels from the appropriate infrastructure elements. These names will be used in documentation to track each component of the infrastructure. Below is an example of a single mode fiber label. For composite fiber cables, the identifier would be shown as below. Data Center Design White Paper Page 33

34 Order of the termination points in the label is decided alphanumerically, not based on physical location itself. Numeric identifiers for cables and cable strands are used solely to differentiate themselves from other cables sharing their same characteristics. A cable should only be identified with a A/0193-1A, FMM2 if there is already a A/0193-1A, FMM1 in existence Examples Fiber examples: A/0193-1A, FMM1 Cable terminates in Building 047, Telecommunications Room 1A Cable terminates in Building 193, Telecommunications Room 1A This is the first multimode cable connecting these rooms in these buildings A/0193-1A, FSM1.1 Cable terminates in Building 047, Telecommunications Room 1A Cable terminates in Building 193, Telecommunications Room 1A This is the first strand in the first single mode cable connecting these rooms in these buildings A/0193-1A, FCM1 Cable terminates in Building 047, Telecommunications Room 1A Data Center Design White Paper Page 34

35 Cable terminates in Building 193, Telecommunications Room 1A This is the first fiber composite cable connecting these rooms in these buildings A/0193-1A, FCM1.SM1 Cable terminates in Building 047, Telecommunications Room 1A Cable terminates in Building 193, Telecommunications Room 1A This is the first strand of single mode fiber in the first composite cable connecting these rooms in these buildings Hardware examples: A-1FPL1 Fiber panel is located in Building 047, Telecommunications Room 1A Fiber panel is mounted in rack number 1. This is the first fiber panel, in the first rack, in Telco Room 1A A-WFPL1.1/1 Fiber panel is located in Building 047, Telecommunications Room 1A Fiber panel is mounted on the wall. This is the first bulkhead position in the first module of this fiber panel PCB001-WFPL1.2/4 Fiber panel is located in Pathway Cabinet #1 Fiber panel is mounted on the wall. This is the fourth bulkhead position in the second module in this fiber panel The Standard in Implementation Implementing a new labeling scheme is going to be a long multi-step process. The first and most important step of which is to make sure that any new installations are labeled in accordance with the new scheme. New installations should follow the scheme as laid out above. Data Center Design White Paper Page 35

36 3.3.2 How to Label: Fiber Optic cable 1) The fiber optic cable should be labeled on the outside jacket of the cable within 8 inches of the breakout point for the individual strands. This label will follow the conventions outlined above with a typical label being A/0147-3A, FSM1. 2) When deciding which end of the fiber to denote first in the label, use the lower alpha numeric characters first. For example, A/0347-1A, FSM1 would be proper and A/0147-1A, FSM1 would not. 3) Individual fiber strands should be inserted into any fiber panel following the standard color code for fiber with Blue being first and so on. This color code should be followed so it can be read from left to right and from up to down for each module as viewed from the front of the fiber panel. In the documentation, strand numbers will begin at 1 and ascend in keeping with the color code. i.e. blue=1, orange=2, green=3, and so on. Blue-Orange-Green-Brown-Slate-White-Red-Black-Yellow-Violet-Rose-Aqua A Fiber Panel Outside 1) A fiber panel should be assigned an independent identifier and be labeled with it in the upper right hand corner of the front of the LIU. Appropriate identifiers include FPL1, FPL2, and so on. 2) A fiber panel should have a list of all fiber cables that are held in the box itself. Often times, this will just be one fiber cable but could be much more. This list should be preceded with an introduction of 'This FPL holds:' or the like to prevent confusion between the fiber name and the recorded name of the fiber panel. This list should be in the upper left hand corner of the fiber panel. 3) In the event that both ends of a particular fiber cable terminate in the same room, the name of that cable on the front of the fiber panel should be followed by an additional label that specifies the rack and fiber panel numbers on both ends of that cable. For example, A/0019-2A, FMM1 followed by WFPL6/1FPL1 would communicate that one end of the cable terminates in a wall mounted fiber panel labeled fpl6 and a rack mounted fiber panel labeled fpl1 in rack 1. This additional Data Center Design White Paper Page 36

37 label does not add to the cable name for record purposes but exists solely to assist technicians in the field Inside 1) Fibers should be installed in each module of a fiber panel from left to right and up to down in accordance as you look at the face of the bulkheads with the standard color code for fiber installation. 2) Each fiber termination should be labeled on the boot by a number that corresponds to its placement in the color-code of the cable Numbers should begin at 1 and ascend from there with duplicate numbers used for different types of fiber strands in one cable. For example, a composite fiber cable will have multiple strands designated with a 1 to correspond to the first MM fiber cable and the first SM fiber cable. Numbers will not refresh for different binder groups, only for different classifications of fiber. 3) Each bulkhead will have an independent identifier. In a fiber panel that has been subdivided in to modules, label the modules with numbers beginning with 1 and ascending. The individual bulkheads need not be labeled and they will be identified with numbers that begin with 1 and will be read from left to right or up to down in accordance with the orientation of the module. In fiber panels that have not been subdivided, the individual bulkheads will need to be identified with a number. If the fiber panel does not come preprinted, the installer will be responsible for labeling the bulkheads. Data Center Design White Paper Page 37

38 4) A documentation page will be supplied inside the panel and should be marked with which fiber strand matches up to which bulkhead. The installer may create a simple spreadsheet similar to that pictured below. In this case, labeling should make clear the identity of each bulkhead and the fiber strand that is connected to it. At this time, copies of this spreadsheet should be sent to Network Services. <Fiber Panel # A-WFPL1 Module / Port Fiber Identifier 1/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.1 1/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.2 1/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.3 1/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.4 1/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.5 1/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.6 2/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.7 2/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.8 2/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.9 2/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.10 2/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.11 2/ A/0149-3A, FMM1.12 This is the first fiber panel mounted on the wall in Telco Room 1A in Building #0047. Bulkhead #1 holds the first strand of the first fiber cable between Telco Room 1A of Building #0047 and Telco Room 3A of Building # ) At no time should the labeling inside a fiber panel require a technician or engineer to open the installer's side of the fiber panel to retrieve labeling information. Bulkhead or module position labels should be apparent from a grid work sheet or labeled explicitly by the installer A Communications Cabinet Communications Cabinets are to be labeled with their standard label being in the form of PCB###. For example, cabinet #4 would be PCB004. Cabinets should be labeled outside on the most visible side. Cabinets should be labeled inside as well. The inside label will be applied to the interior of the fiber side door with the locking assembly. Data Center Design White Paper Page 38

39 A Telecommunications Room Telecommunications rooms should be labeled with the floor they are on and a letter designation to prevent their confusion with other Telco rooms on the same floor. 1A would designate the first floor telecommunications closet and have a designation of A. Unless previously labeled, Telco Rooms should be labeled on the interior of the doorjamb near the property decal. Final labeling should consist of a plastic sign on the outside door of the Telecommunications Room. This sign should designate the use of the room as a Telecommunications Room and display the appropriate identifier for that specific room; Telecommunications Room 1A, for example A Telecommunications Rack Telecommunications rooms should be labeled numerically beginning with 1 and ascending as more racks are added to the room. The rack should be clearly labeled along the top crossbar of the rack. For purposes of this labeling standard, a telecommunications rack is considered to be any structure capable of holding telecommunications terminations and electronic hardware. This includes but is not limited to 7ft free standing racks, free standing enclosures, 3-4ft wall mounted fixed racks, and wall mounted enclosures and so on Conduit An installed conduit should be labeled with the point of origin, point of termination and a unique identifier to differentiate it from other conduit sharing the same pathway. This label follows the same guidelines as discussed above A/0347-1A, PCO1 would designate the first conduit running between building 147 telecommunications room 1A and building 347 telecommunications room 1A. Labels should be affixed to both ends of the conduit. Labels are to be applied within 6 inches of the termination of each end of the conduit Verification During implementation each and every patch panel port MUST be verified and certified by the installer as part of that contract. Obviously cable testing equipment and additional tools must be utilized to ensure proper cabling installations Network Cabling Infrastructure The recommended network cabling structure will be based on overhead cable trays which reduce cabling spaghetti under the raised floor. This also prevents unnecessary obstructions to the cold air flow under the raised floors and prevents complications with the Water Detection Cable. We also recommend that the Power Cabling will also be in separate overhead trays considering the placement of chilled water piping under the raised floor. Data Center Design White Paper Page 39

40 Data Center Design White Paper Page 40

41 When deploying large volumes of servers inside the data center it is extremely important that the design footprint is scalable. However, access models vary between each network, and can often be extremely complex to design. The integrated network topologies discussed in this guide take a modular, platform-based approach in order to scale up or down as required within a cabinet or room. It is assumed that all compute resources incorporate resilient network, power, and storage resources. This assumption translates to multiple LAN, SAN, and power connections within the physical layer infrastructure. One way to simplify the design and simultaneously incorporate a scalable layout is to divide the raised floor space into modular, easily duplicated sub-areas. The logical architecture is divided into three discrete layers, and the physical infrastructure is designed and divided into manageable sub-areas called Pods. This divides a typical data center with multiple zones and Pods distributed throughout the room; core and aggregation layer switches are located in each zone for redundancy, and access layer switches are located in each Pod to support the computer resources within the Pod Implementation of Pods Data Center Design White Paper Page 41

42 3.3.6 Top of Rack (ToR) Model Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) The design characteristic of a ToR model is the inclusion of an access layer switch in each server cabinet, so the physical layer solution must be designed to support the switching hardware and access-layer connections. One cabling benefit of deploying access layer switches in each server cabinet is the ability to link to the aggregation layer using long-reach small form factor fiber connectivity. The use of fiber eliminates any reach or pathway challenges presented by copper connectivity to allow greater flexibility in selecting the physical location of network equipment. Figure below shows a typical logical ToR network topology, illustrating the various redundant links and distribution of connectivity between access and aggregation switches. This example utilizes the Cisco Nexus 7010 for the aggregation layer and a Cisco Catalyst 4948 for the access layer. The Cisco Catalyst 4948 provides 10GbE links routed out of the cabinet back to the aggregation layer and 1GbE links for server access connections within the cabinet. Once the logical topology has been defined, the next step is to map a physical layer solution directly to that topology. With a ToR model it is important to understand the number of network connections needed for each server resource. The basic rule governing the number of ToR connections is that any server deployment requiring more than 48 links requires an additional access layer switch in each cabinet to support the higher link volume. For example, if thirty (30) 1 RU servers that each require three copper and two fiber connections are deployed within a 45 RU cabinet, an additional access layer switch is needed for each cabinet. Figure below shows the typical rear view ToR design including cabinet connectivity requirements at aggregation and access layers. Data Center Design White Paper Page 42

43 Data Center Design White Paper Page 43

44 3.3.7 End of Row (EoR) Model In an EoR model, server cabinets contain patch fields but not access switches. In this model, the total number of servers per cabinet and I/Os per server determines the number of switches used in each Pod, which then drives the physical layer design decisions. The typical EoR Pod contains two Cisco Nexus or Cisco Catalyst switches for redundancy. The length of each row within the Pod is determined by the density of the network switching equipment as well as the distance from the server to the switch. For example, if each server cabinet in the row utilizes 48 connections and the switch has a capacity for 336 connections, the row would have the capacity to support up to seven server cabinets with complete network redundancy, as long as the seven cabinets are within the maximum cable length to the switching equipment. Top View of EoR Cabinet Data Center Design White Paper Page 44

45 3.3.8 Point of Distribution (POD) One way to simplify the design and simultaneously incorporate a scalable layout is to divide the raised floor space into modular, easily duplicated sub-areas. Figure below illustrates the modular building blocks used in order to design scalability into the network architecture at both OSI Layers 1 and 2. The logical architecture is divided into three discrete layers, and the physical infrastructure is designed and divided into manageable sub-areas called Pods. This example shows a typical data center with two zones and 20 Pods distributed throughout the room; core and aggregation layer switches are located in each zone for redundancy, and access layer switches are located in each Pod to support the computer resources within the Pod. Data Center Design White Paper Page 45

46 3.4. Fire detection and suppression Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) Introduction Several steps must be taken to avoid fires such as: No Smoking No combustible materials Always check HVAC reheat coils Check the sprinkler/fm200 fire suppression system frequently Preserve the data center Cocoon. Maintain the secure data center perimeter Ensure you have a disaster response plan in place in case worst case happens Provide easy access to fire extinguishers The first line of fire defense and containment is the actual building structure. The rooms and storage rooms of the data center must be isolated by fire resistant walls. The floor and ceiling must be constructed of noncombustible or limited combustible material. Also the HVAC system must be dedicated to the data center only Fire Detection Systems The early warning fire detection system must have the following features: Must be a heat detection type system Installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 72E (NFPA 2001) Each installation should be engineered for the specific area it must protect Some detection must be provided under the raised floor Considering the noise in a data center, visual alerts must be provided Fire Suppression Systems The FM200 solution is the recommended suppression system currently available. The FM200 uses the gas hepta-fluoropropane which is quickly dispersed around the equipment. It works literally by removing heat energy from the fire to the extent that the combustion reaction cannot be sustained. It works quickly, is safe for people, does not damage the hardware or electrical circuits and does not require a post-discharge cleanup effort. With FM200 a data center can be back in business almost immediately after a fire. The Datacenter will consist of a gaseous fire suppression system using FM200. FM200 works by physically cooling the fire at a molecular level, and is safe for use Data Center Design White Paper Page 46

47 around operating electronic devices and in human occupied areas. Fire detection in the Data Center will use cross zoned photo-electric and ionization spot detectors. Additionally, High Sensitivity Smoke Detection (HSSD) will be used for the earlier possible detection of combustion. The Fire detection system will be integrated into the IP network. This will allow the use of existing infrastructure instead of running dedicated lines, and allow for remote monitoring and control. The remainder of the Datacenter will be protected to local code standards utilizing hand held fire extinguishers as applicable Manual Fire Suppression Manual means of fire suppression must always be available on hand in the event the automatic systems fail. The following backup systems must be available: Portable Fire Extinguishers o Portable extinguishers must be placed at strategic locations throughout the data center location. They should be placed unobstructed and clearly marked. Also Tile Lifters must be placed in all locations so that manual fire extinguishers can be used under the raised floor when needed. Manual Pull Stations o Manual pull stations must be installed at strategic points in the data center room. In areas where gas suppression systems are used, there must be a means of manual abort. Data Center Design White Paper Page 47

48 3.4.2 Detailed Information The Chemetron Fire Systems Gamma Series Systems are automatic suppression systems using the FM-200 chemical agent and consisting of four basic components and their associated accessories. FM-200 Components Control Panels Detection and Alarm Devices Completer Kits Features The FM-200 components consist of agent containers, container supports (racks), and discharge nozzles. The control panel is the brains of the system and is used to monitor the detection and accessories. The detection, alarm devices, and accessories are the external devices that act as the eyes and voice of the system as they give audible or visual signals. The completer kits consist of warning signs, hoses, connection fittings, pressure gauges or solenoid valves, and the actuator required to operate the cylinder valve. The system and its components are agency tested for total flooding applications and should be used in accordance with the guidelines contained in National Fire Protection Association A total flooding application can be defined as injecting FM-200 into an enclosure or volume having the structural integrity to retain the agent during and after discharge. The design of such a system requires that the FM-200 chemical agent be discharged from its container within 10 seconds and be thoroughly mixed throughout the protected volume, reaching a minimum concentration level of 6.25%, but not exceeding 9% in normally occupied spaces. FM 200 is a halocarbon agent accepted as an alternative to Halon for total flooding fire suppression systems. After receiving the fire signal, FM 200 is discharged totally from the cylinders within 10 seconds to fill up the space uniformly at the design concentration to extinguish the fire. The agent is retained at its design concentration in the space for a period-called 'Hold Time'-to extinguish the fire. Data Center Design White Paper Page 48

49 After Hold time, when the fire is extinguished, the agent is exhausted from the space by exhaust fans before any inspection is performed. For the design of the system, NFPA Code 2001, "Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems" is followed. FM 200 design includes determination of the agent quantity, piping layout, pressure drop through the piping and accessories, as well as fixing the location and quantities of discharge nozzles for uniform distribution of the agent throughout the space. This also includes determining the filling density in the agent cylinders to take care of the pressure drop through the system, for determining the number of cylinders. From above, the agent quantity required for total flooding of the space is determined independently based on the design concentration of the agent necessary for the type of fire to be extinguished, Hold Time for extinguishing the fire, additional quantity required to take care of the leakage, etc. Tentative pipe sizing and pipe routing with nozzle location are done by the owner or the engineer in harmony with the other facilities in the space. This is, however, finalized by the agent supplier's authorized system designer based on the pressure drop software program for two-phase flow of the agent. To take care of the system pressure drop and to establish the required pressure at the nozzles, the authorized agent determines the agent fill density in the cylinder. They also finalize the number of cylinders based on the fill density and their standard cylinder size. The areas to be protected are identified from the fire risk analysis of the plant and the various codes (like NFPA, etc). The requirements are guided by the functional criticality of the system protected, amount of loss involved, fire insurance premium, etc A typical case of protecting a power station using the FM 200 total suppression system is the basis for the following design information. Design Code: NFPA 2001, "Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing System," is the governing code for designing the system, and NFPA 72, "National Fire Alarm Code," is followed for fixing the fire alarm system, an important part of the clean agent total suppression system. Data Center Design White Paper Page 49

50 Agent Concentration: Since FM 200 is the most expensive item of the total system, a careful analysis is required before fixing the required concentration and the total quantity of the agent. Regarding design concentration of the agent, there are various guidelines available, such as: 120% of cup burner value verified by listing/approval tests, minimum design concentration (%V/V) of FM 200 is 7%, (refer to Table Weight and Storage Volume Equivalent data for New Technology Halocarbon Gaseous alternatives' SFPE Handbook on Fire Protection Engineering). The same agent concentration of 7% is accepted by Factory Mutual (FM) as the design agent concentration. Underwriters' Laboratories (UL), however, recommends the agent design concentration as 7.44%. To satisfy both FM and UL, it seems prudent to consider the design concentration as 7.44% by volume. The FM 200 supplier's authorized agent normally recommends 7% as the design concentration, based on their experience with the type of fire anticipated in the areas protected. Increase of the agent concentration from 7% to 7.44% has the repercussion on the cost of the agent. If possible, the recommendation of the AHJ (Authority of Jurisdiction) should be solicited before fixing the agent design concentration. The maximum limit of the FM 200 concentration is restricted by NFPA 2001 due to the safety considerations of the toxicological and physical effects on human life. The recommended FM-200 installation will include 2 large Gas containers placed on the right wall next to one of the main pillars and include app. 300 nozzles distributed over the Computer Room floor space as well as the Communications Room HP OpenView integration is established through the Chemetron detection and alarm devices which are viewed and monitored under HP OpenView as SNMP devices. Data Center Design White Paper Page 50

51 3.5. HVAC Introduction HVAC and other environmental controls are essential for a data center. Computer Hardware requires a balanced and appropriate environment for continuous system operation. Temperatures and relative humidity levels outside of the specified operating ranges or extreme swings in conditions can lead to unreliable components or system failures. Control of these environmental factors also has an effect on the control of electrostatic discharge and corrosion of system components. This introduction section includes: Reasons for control Temperature Requirements Relative Humidity Electrostatic Discharge Reasons for control Computer rooms require precise and adaptable temperature control because: Need for cooling o Data Centers have a dense heat load Cooling is needed where required o Heat load varies across an area of equipment placement Precise cooling is needed o Data Center cooling require higher sensible heat ratio than office areas and precision systems require 85 to 100% cooling while normal comfort systems require much less Controls much be adaptable o Heat load will change with additional equipment configurations and also outside temperature changes will affect integral cooling requirements as is the case in Saudi Arabia. Data Centers need frequent air exchange o Precision cooling systems must support cooling at an adequate range. Precision Air Conditioners pass more than 500 cubic feet per minute per ton while comfort systems pass only an average of 350 CFM. Data Center Design White Paper Page 51

52 Temperature Requirements General temperature requirements for a data center are in the range of 70 to 74 F which is 21 to 23 Celsius. Most Computer Equipment works best in a 22 Celsius environment. Critical conditions apply such as: Component failure AC failure Installations and de-installations and reconfigurations Removal of floor tiles and changes in cabling Doors left open Relative Humidity Relative Humidity (RH) is the amount of moisture in a given sample of air at a given temperature in relation to the maximum amount of moisture that the sample could contain at the same temperature. If the air is holding all the moisture it can hold for a specific set for conditions then it is said to be saturated (100% RH). Since air is a gas, it expands as it is heated, and as it gets warmer the amount of moisture it can hold increases. Ambient Levels between 45 and 50% RH are optimal for system reliability. Most Data Processing Equipment works between 20 to 80 % RH although 45-50% is preferred. High Relative Humidity conditions can create damage from condensation, while low Relative Humidity conditions can lead to an increased chance of Electrostatic Discharge Electrostatic Discharge Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) is the rapid discharge of static electricity between bodies of different electrical potentials and can damage electronic components. ESD can change the electrical characteristics of a semiconductor device, degrading or destroying it. Data Center Design White Paper Page 52

53 3.5.2 Details We recommend a Tier 4 Chiller (Chilled Water Supply for all Rack cooling units as well as the chilled water CRAC units (HP Superdomes, a TANDEM Base24 system and HP SAN as well as overall room AC). The design incorporates two (2) Chiller units will be configured in a redundant/failover configuration to provide maximum availability of the HVAC system. Both units will be installed on the roof of the UPS room. Weight requirements etc are included in the design document for the Generator Set and UPS construction requirements Chilled Liquid Systems The basic premise of a chilled liquid system is that air goes through its intake and is passed through a set of filters which are electrically charged. Once filtered the air passes through a series of coils that contain fluid at much lower temperature than the air. The cooled air is then passed out of the HVAC at a higher speed. HVAC units also include humidifiers to change the RH of the air to keep it at the appropriate level. Data Center Design White Paper Page 53

54 Planning Circulation Air flow circulation is critical because it affects the placement of all components. Racks have two foot prints, being physical and cooling. The most important foot print for now is the cooling. Alternating hot and cold air aisles are therefore critical. Critical design considerations: Air flow from the sub floor Air from the room Is heated air exhausted from back or top or inside the rack Flow through the equipment side-to-side Do units in a rack have the same air flow patterns It is clear that looking at the above listed statements that planning rack equipment location is critical. This avoids situations of relocating equipment after the problem has already occurred in a random attempt to fix things. This is an element of Implementation planning where we can provide serious assistance and support Downward Air Flow The downward air flow air conditioning system used in data centers is normally incorporated using raised floor designs. We strongly recommend a downward air flow system using a raised floor design ONLY utilized for water piping and cooling support. All cabling should be supported using overhead cabling systems. This will maximize the cooling support using the raised floor system as well as making maximum use of the limited space between the floor and ceiling in the existing data center space set aside for the new data center. Data Center Design White Paper Page 54

55 APC In Row Rack Cooling Units InfraStruXure architecture features modular cooling solutions as well as scalable solutions for chilled water distribution. Coupling these in-row cooling units with the IT heat load improves operational efficiency, agility, and availability for small and large data centers including high density applications. Data Center Design White Paper Page 55

56 Data Center Design White Paper Page 56

57 Chillers Data Center Design White Paper Page 57

58 3.6. Lighting Introduction Use Occupancy Sensors o Occupancy sensors can be a good option for datacenters that are infrequently occupied. Thorough area coverage with occupancy sensors or an override should be used to insure the lights stay on during installation procedures when a worker may be 'hidden' behind a rack for an extended period. Provide Bi-Level Lighting o Provide two levels of clearly marked, easily actuated switching so the lighting level can be easily changed between normal, circulation space lighting and a higher power detail work lighting level. The higher power lighting can be normally left off but still be available for installation and other detail tasks. Provide Task Lighting o Provide dedicated task lighting specifically for installation detail work to allow for the use of lower, circulation space and halls level lighting through the datacenter area Occupancy Sensor Application Occupancy sensors are "application-sensitive" devices, meaning that most problems in the field are the result of misapplication. Here are some general guidelines that can help with occupancy sensor application: Calibrate the sensor. The sensor will be provided with manufacturer-default settings for sensitivity to magnitude of motion and time delay before switching the lights off. The default time delay may be from 30 seconds to 15 minutes. Be sure to calibrate the sensor to specific conditions in the space for best performance. Understand local occupancy patterns. Occupancy sensors generate the greatest savings in spaces where occupancy is unpredictable and/or intermittent. Line of sight must be maintained between the sensor and the occupant except in the case of an enclosed space with hard surfaces covered by an ultrasonic sensor. Be sure to view sensor specifications to determine the amount of coverage that will be provided to the space by the sensor; this will aid with choosing the number of sensors required to cover an area properly and where to place them. Data Center Design White Paper Page 58

59 The amount of motion required to keep the lights on is based on distance between the sensor and the occupant. Ultrasonic sensors are more sensitive at greater distances than PIR sensors. Avoid conditions that may result in false triggering. Conditions to generally avoid include using an ultrasonic sensor for restricted-coverage areas and high-bay and outdoor applications; setting the ultrasonic sensor to maximum sensitivity so that it picks up small non-human movements in the space; and setting the sensor so that it turns off too quickly or cannot see the occupant, such as bathrooms/stalls. Avoid placing an ultrasonic sensor where it can pick up vibrations and air currents, and placing a PIR sensor where it is exposed to direct sunlight that can trigger it. If a PIR sensor has a line of sight into an adjacent hallway, resulting in false triggers, then simply put a masking label on the section of the lens that can "see" into the hallway to restrict its coverage. Consider the direction of motion. Ultrasonic sensors are most sensitive to occupants moving towards and away from the sensor, while PIR sensors are most sensitive to lateral motion. Check the load limits for the sensor selected. Ensure that the load handled by the sensor is within the minimum and maximum limits specified by the manufacturer. Check with the manufacturer to determine if there is a limitation in compatibility with any other lighting equipment, such as electronic ballasts. Determine switching s effect on lamp life. Frequent switching can shorten lamp life, particularly if the lamps are instant start lamps. However, also calculate into the total impact of occupancy sensors the effect of reduced operating hours. Trial installation. Consider a trial installation to learn more about actual occupancy sensor performance in a given space before full installation. Note that most occupancy sensors include an LED to indicate that the sensor is detecting occupancy/motion. Commission the system. After installation, set the desired time delay and sensitivity, and then calibrate performance by testing the sensors. We also recommend that the lighting rows are above the cold aisles so that any heat generation is controlled by the Hot/Cold Aisle cooling implementation. Using motion sensors with occupancy sensors will switch off lighting when not needed and considerably reduce power usage as well as heat dissipation into the computer room. Data Center Design White Paper Page 59

60 3.6.3 Lighting Capacity Adequate lighting and utility outlets in a computer room reduce the possibility of accidents during equipment servicing. Safer servicing is also more efficient and, therefore, less costly. For example, it is difficult to see cable connection points on the hardware if there is not enough light. Adequate lighting reduces the chances of connector damage when cables are installed or removed. The minimum recommended illumination level is 70 foot-candles (756 lumens per square meter) when the light level is measured at 30 inches (76.2 cm) above the floor. Sample diagram 21.3m. Main Room 530 sq m sq ft. 22.8m. Est Tiles 202 Lighting Panels 25.2m. Data Center Design White Paper Page 60

61 3.7. Monitoring and Management Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) Introduction A comprehensive monitoring system is important for the design and maintenance of a data center facility. It also provides an invaluable tool for diagnosing and correcting problems, collecting historical data for systems evaluations and for day to day verifications and corrections. The following data is critical for monitoring systems designs: Room conditioning feedback should not be based on one sensor in one part of the Data Center room since it could provide confusing and incorrect data. Multiple sensors are required with multiple data gathering capabilities Historical trend capabilities must be provided Critical alarms must be provided Must be integrated with centralized data center tracking system, including Building Management and Security Must include HVAC and AC monitoring Must include standard IP and SNMP protocols Monitoring System Status, Health and load is a useful tool for understanding how each system is working, by itself and in relationship with other connected systems. It is important to understand that systems monitoring should conform to industry standards such as SNMP. All systems including HVAC, UPS etc., should be connected through the network complying with the SNMP basic standard. The most critical monitoring components in the Data Center: UPS and Generator Sets CRAC (Chillers) and Rack Cooling Units Fire Protection and Detection (FM200) Water Leakage Details The Monitoring System recommended is a combination of an integrated Data Center Infrastructure monitoring system provided by APC/Schneider. Main Power Monitoring is based on the PMS system provided by Schneider (See Below) Data Center Design White Paper Page 61

62 Schneider Power Monitoring System (PMS) Schneider Electric PMS system is a full- featured, product family that organizes data gathered from your electrical network and presents meaningful information via an easy-to-use graphical interface. Key features include: Real-time electrical readings allow the maintenance have a full view on the electrical network. Monitoring of UPS status and Generators load. Receive early warning of impending problems Simultaneous browser connections from any pc on your network Standard, pre-defined data views including, tables, meters and bar charts, and waveform displays Historical logging & trending Alarm & event recording, Remote alarm notification to . Simple setup & flexible security Open Ethernet architecture that supports industry standard protocols and a wide range of Schneider Electric and third party devices Prolong asset life by balancing loading, and measuring and reducing harmonics and other factors that cause heating and shorten equipment life Maximize the use of existing capacity and avoid unnecessary capital purchases by understanding loading and identifying spare capacity on existing equipment Data Center Design White Paper Page 62

63 APC Data Center Management Software Efficient management of the physical infrastructure is now an imperative. To enable the IT hardware to meet the needs of your business, you want to keep your infrastructure operating smoothly while delivering the ability to meet ever changing requirements. Power, racks and cooling have all become the building blocks of a fully integrated system to address the needs of today s complex computing environments. APC provides a wide array of management solutions specifically tailored to your IT environment and its supporting physical infrastructure. APC/Schneider UPS Management solutions are designed to control and monitor UPSs from desktop to data center and in the event of an extended power outage to enable automated server shutdown. Physical Security and Environmental solutions ensure not only environmental monitoring, but also access control and video Data Center Design White Paper Page 63

64 surveillance of your computing environment for operations of all sizes. Physical Infrastructure Management solutions enable you to efficiently operate and monitor a diverse range of APC and third party devices and include intelligent ITIL-based software applications to maximize the use of your existing data center capacity. Data Center Design White Paper Page 64

65 3.8. Power Introduction A well designed electrical system for the data center ensures adequate and consistent power to the computer hardware and reduces the risk of failures at every point in the system. The system should include dedicated electrical distribution panels and enough redundancy to guarantee consistent uptime Power Design Includes: Power Distribution Grounding and Bonding Signal reference Input Power Quality Wiring and Cabling Data Center Design White Paper Page 65

66 Power Distribution Power distribution should support adequate and consistent power supply with dedicated power distribution units (PDU) and sufficient redundancy to guarantee constant uptime supporting Tier 4 class infrastructure. Two (2) Power Backup Generator Sets (N+1) will be designed each providing the required backup power supply needed. Accommodations will be made to allow the installation of a third generator when the second power input is delivered. Backup Power Generators must be able to carry the load of the data center load. Although it is sometimes necessary, sharing breakers is not recommended. Maintenance Bypass The Power Design System must provide the means for bypassing and isolating any point of the system to allow for maintenance, repair, or modifications without disrupting operations Grounding and Bonding Grounding is the creation of a path to an electronically conductive body, such as earth which maintains a zero potential (not positively or negatively charged) for connecting to an electrical circuit. This is done by connecting the data center equipment at the power source to an earth grounding electrode subsystem which is a network of interconnected rods, plates, mats, or grids installed to establish a low resistance contact with earth. A final reason for proper grounding is noise control which is an important aspect of power quality. Bonding is the means by which two or more grounding rods are connected. Proper bonding techniques are critical to proper grounding. A solid and well bonded grounding system will allow circuit breakers and power sequencers connected to grounded outlets and have a safe path to ground if an over current situation occurs. Equipment Grounding Conductor Impedance The Data Center must have its own grounding plan which will tie into the earth ground for the building. The System must have sufficient low resistance to allow circuit breakers, surge protectors and power sequencers to respond to this over current state very quickly. Data Center Design White Paper Page 66

67 Signal Reference Grid A Signal Reference Grid (SRG) is a means to reduce high frequency impedance (noise) so that a device or outlet has the lowest impedance path to earth ground. The SRG should be designed for the data center Input Power Quality Harmonic Content Harmonics problems can be caused by an interaction of data center equipment with the power loads or by switching power supplies. Harmonic distortion, load, imbalance, high neutral current and low power factor can result in decreases in equipment efficiency and reliability Data Center Design White Paper Page 67

68 Voltage Spikes Voltage spikes are rises in the voltage caused within the power distribution units. This is why a proper UPS system is required. Lightning Protection The potential damaging effects of lightning on computer systems can be direct or indirect. It might be on the utility power feed, directly on the equipments, or through highfrequency electromagnetic interference or sure currents. The design includes paths for surge entry and surge arrestors Power Distribution Units A Power Distribution Unit (PDU) is a way to integrate circuit breakers, wire band outlets into a single central location on the floor that can serve multiple Rack Location Units (RLU). This gives a lot of flexibility to the electrical system design. Properly designed PDU s offer a great deal of flexibility to your electrical design Details New power infrastructure for new Data Center This section provides an overview of the overall power design which includes: Main Power Input Transformers Generator Sets Uninterruptable Power Supply Power Distribution Units Transformers We recommend transformers of 1.5MW capacity. These transformers are normally provided by SCECO although they, as well as the Cummins Generator Sets can be provided by APC/Schneider. Also the UPS systems can be provided by APC/Schneider. In summary the whole Power Solution can be provided by a single organization (Schneider) making warranty, maintenance and support much more cost effective. Data Center Design White Paper Page 68

69 Generator Set Introduction The Generator Set(s) will be configured as per the Tier 3-4 requirements and there will be one active set and a standby (switchable) set. Each Generator must be able to handle as a minimum the total SCECO provide power input which is 1500 kva. The generator set must provide as a minimum 1500 kva in prime mode and not standby mode. Standby Mode power supply is usually 15-20% more than Prime Mode. Prime Mode Prime Mode is the output available with varying load for an unlimited time. Average power output is 70% of the prime power rating. Typical peak demand of 100% of prime-rated ekw with 10% of overload capability for emergency use for a maximum of 1 hour in 12 Overload operation cannot exceed 25 hours per year. Prime power in accordance with ISO8528 Fuel stop power in accordance with ISO3046 Standby Mode Standby Mode is the output available with varying load for the duration of the interruption of the normal source power. Average power output is 70% of the standby power rating. Typical operation is 200 hours per year, with maximum expected usage of 500 hours per year. Fuel stop power in accordance with ISO UPS System The design for the UPS system is based on a Tier 3/4 configuration. One active UPS system is switchable with a redundant second fully configured UPS system. Each UPS configuration will initially be configured for 600 KW which is 750 KVA and expandable to 1600 KW which is 2000 KVA. Data Center Design White Paper Page 69

70 Data Center Design White Paper Page 70

71 3.9. Racks Introduction Historically, Data Center managers didn't invest much thought in their deployment of server racks beyond basic functionality, air flow, and the initial cost of the rack itself. Today, the widespread deployment of high-density configurations is causing major hot spot concerns and capacity issues. These factors, along with the high cost of power, require a sound understanding of how your server rack deployment plan relates to your overall efficiency strategy. We recommend the NetShelter SX rack enclosure from APC for the datacenter. The APC NetShelter SX is the next generation rack enclosure solution and addresses current IT market trends for high-density server and networking applications. With a strong focus on cooling, power distribution, cable management and environmental monitoring, the NetShelter SX provides a reliable rack-mounting environment for mission-critical equipment Details Rack Cooling Unit InfraStruXure architecture features modular cooling solutions as well as scalable solutions for chilled water distribution. Coupling these in-row cooling units with the IT heat load improves operational efficiency, agility, and availability for small and large data centers including high density applications. InfraStruXure In-Row RP Air Conditioner Up to 70 kw Capacity in chilled water Up to 37 kw Capacity in air-cooled DX Proactive Controls Variable Speed Fans In Row Architecture Horizontal Air Distribution Rack Inlet Control Data Center Design White Paper Page 71

72 3.10. Raised Floor Introduction Currently there are three (3) main raised floor tiles available: 1. Compressed Wood with wood based cover 2. Steel Cover with hard core based on cement 3. Fully steel Tiles 4. Aluminum Tiles Data Center Design White Paper Page 72

73 Data Center Design White Paper Page 73

74 Data Center Design White Paper Page 74

75 Summary The whole computer room space will have a raised floor (except the storage and main power distribution rooms). The raised floor will be based on the standard size tiles which are 2 feet by 2 feet. The raised floor height recommended is 45 cm. In summary, the Tate recommended solution for Computer Rooms and Data Centers is the ConCore model starting at 1250 (Lbs Designed Load). We recommend the model 1500 for the communications room and rack area and the model 2500 for the Superdome area. Data Center Design White Paper Page 75

76 3.11. RF Shielding Introduction Shielding is a way of preventing electronic emissions that are generated from a computer or network from being used by unauthorized users for gathering information. It minimizes the chances of eavesdropping within a network. Shielding can be provided by surrounding a computer room with a Faraday cage Details We suggest a product called SM-10 Flexible Metallic Fabrics. SM-10 Metalized Fabrics provide: EMI/RF shielding up to 60 db Exceptional resilience and comfortably attaches to a variety of surfaces Superior RF leak prevention SM-10 is available in copper or nickel/copper fabrics In Computer Room applications SM-10 is applied to walls, ceilings and floors. We have marked the walls that are outside walls of the building. They are clearly the vulnerable areas for RF and EMI. We suggest applying SM-10 to these walls to avoid exposure of wireless RF signals to the outside world as well as blocking any external interference sources. Data Center Design White Paper Page 76

77 3.12. Water Detection Introduction Like fire, flooding can be caused by either equipment failure or by natural causes. While the design should attempt to prohibit water pipes from passing through the data center, sometimes this cannot be avoided. Moisture below the floor can damage wiring or equipment and cause costly downtime. An under floor water detection system can give you an immediate warning. One with a LCD display will show you the exact location of the leak reducing the chance of costly damage. The location of the leak is displayed on the control panel so you can use your time to resolve the leak rather than looking for it. The design requires a proper water detection system design which is described in more detail in the next section Details RLE Technologies The Water Leakage High level Design is based on a Distance Detection cabling system under the raised floor. The two components required are the control unit and the leakage detection cable which must support the 660 square meter floor space of the Computer Room. The distance-read system pinpoints the location of a water leak. Distance-read systems are particularly useful in facilities with large raised-floor areas. This technology features a water leak detection cable, up to 5000 feet in length. The cable is placed in a serpentine pattern on the sub-floor, around all possible leak sources. If a leak occurs, the control head annunciates this information. The control head then provides a distance measurement. This distance measurement is cross referenced with the water leak detection reference map, and the location of the leak is pinpointed within a few feet. Following is a summary of the two main components of the water leakage detection system. The option presented here from RLE Technologies a US based technology supplier with distribution in the Middle East. Data Center Design White Paper Page 77

78 Data Center Design White Paper Page 78

79 Leak Detection Panel The LD2000 is the market s first web-accessible distance read leak detection panel. When integrated with SeaHawk Water Leak Detection Cable (SC) and/or zone spot detectors (SD-Z), the LD2000 detects the presence of any conductive fluid and reports the distance to the leak. Within seconds, the distance to the leak is shown on the LED display. The physical location of the leak can then be determined by cross referencing the distance displayed on the LED display with a cable reference map (FM1114) or by linking to a saved image through the HTML (webpage) interface. The LD2000 can easily integrate into existing Building Management Systems (BMS) and Network Management Systems (NMS) or be configured for direct alarm notification via . The LD2000 can accommodate a continuous run of up to 2000 feet (609m) of SC and is ideal for leak detection in areas where the SC may not be visible. Common applications of this system include data centers (under raised floors), clean rooms, telecommunication centers and other critical areas. The LD2000 offers a reliable leak detection solution that mitigates potential water damage, costly business outages, and downtime. Data Center Design White Paper Page 79

80 Leak Detection Cable RLE patented SeaHawk Water Leak Detection Cable (SC) is used to reliably sense the presence of water or any conductive liquid. SC is durable, easy to clean, fast drying, and able to resist damage from most contaminants. The cable s abrasionresistant polymer core increases its strength and durability. The cable is constructed from non-conductive polymers which help eliminate false alarms commonly associated with leak detection cable. When connected to a SeaHawk single or multizone control panel, SC senses the presence of water in each zone and the panel indicates which zone is in alarm. When connected to a SeaHawk distance read panel, SC not only determines the presence of a fluid, but also pinpoints the exact location of the fluid along the cable route. Each SC connection to a SeaHawk panel requires a Leader Cable Kit (LC- KIT). SC is available in standard and custom lengths. The cable s ends terminate with mating connectors which make installation and expansion of existing leak detection systems quick and easy. SC offers a reliable leak detection solution that mitigates potential water damage, costly business outages, and downtime. Data Center Design White Paper Page 80

81 We anticipate a total of 300 meter detection cable for the main Data Center Room and 60 meters for the Communications Room with the LD2000 rack mountable detection monitoring system. This unit only shows the possible location units with the detection protected room, however the additional offered FM1114 hardware and software provides a detailed map of the computer room and will identify the exact room spot location in case of a water leakage. See next page for more details Data Center Design White Paper Page 81

82 Leak Detection Locator FM1114 Map Leakage Detection Locator An 11" x 14" reference map of your facility is used in conjunction with the SeaHawk Distance Read panels - LD5100 and LD2000. Once the panel displays the distance to a leak, that distance is cross-referenced with the map to determine the location of the leak, conductive fluid, or problem within your facility. Data Center Design White Paper Page 82

83 Tracetek from Tyco Thermal Controls Another good solution is Tracetek from Tyco Thermal Controls Data Center Design White Paper Page 83

84 Unique sensing cable Distributed sensing: by sensing liquid along its entire length, TraceTek cable makes it possible to detect leaks at their source Durable construction: small but rugged cable is extremely resistant to corrosion and abrasion o Dries and clears quickly: cable construction leaves virtually no place to trap moisture Simple and sure detection circuit that can also locate Continual check of system integrity: TraceTek cable uses a four-wire construction. Monitoring the two circuit loops provides a continual and positive verification of system integrity. Simple and sure detection: liquid creates a circuit between the sensing wires to trigger an alarm no moving parts, no calibration. o Accurate location: a TraceTek locating system pinpoints (0.1% precision) where liquid contacts the sensing cable. The locating module measures the current and the voltage drop in the second sensing loop and simply applies Ohm s law (R=V/I) o Clear indication: LEDs clearly indicate system status monitoring, leak, or fault. Modular for ease of design and installation Standard lengths of TraceTek cable quickly plug together so you don t need special tools to install the system. The modular design also means that you can easily add to the system in the future. Flexible with a choice of systems and interfaces to meet your needs There s a TraceTek system to meet your needs, whether you re looking for a simple detection system (for a small, isolated area) or for a complex, multi-branched locating system. All TraceTek modules have relays to signal detection of an alarm condition (for example, to a building management system). Our locating system also displays the distance to the leak. Our microprocessor-based alarm and locating module continues to monitor after a leak and alarms if any major change occurs. It keeps a log of events and has built-in system wide diagnostic functions. In addition to alarm relays, its interfaces include a 4 20 ma current transmitter and an RS-232/RS-485 communications port. Data Center Design White Paper Page 84

85 HP OpenView integration is established through the RLE Monitoring System which integrates with BMS Systems and NMS Systems such as HP OpenView. Data Center Design White Paper Page 85

86 3.13. Labeling Introduction We propose the standard TIA 606-A for labeling all data center elements such as: Cabling Patch Panels PDU units Racks and Contents Cooling Units Monitoring Panels Etc. All data is collected using a TIA-606-A compliant software/hardware system that stores all collected and labeled data into a Database. See below for a short summary Features Web-enabled Solution Log-in Security Full ANSI/TIA/EIA 606A Compliance Documentation Wizards Seamless Link With LabelMark Software Spreadsheet import tool Multi-view and multi-task capability Import data from testers User and Date Stamping on all Notes Customizable Fields Attachment Capabilities Track Horizontal and Backbone Cabling, Termination Hardware, Assets, Contacts, Fire Stopping, Pathways, Cable Splices, and much more! Data Center Design White Paper Page 86

87 Benefits Jan Kremer Consulting Services (JKCS) Proper documentation allows you to quickly locate, review and correct network issues. Quickly export all your ID's for anything being tracked to Brady's Label Mark label design software with little effort and time. Minimal resources are needed to implement NetDoc. Brady experts are available to help with expert training, support, and consulting work as needed. All of your documentation, test results, drawings, and any other attachments you need are at your fingertips in one secure location. Staff members will be better able to manage all areas of your network by knowing where equipment is located and what it is connected to, which will save time and expenses Provides Cable Management Network Documentation Asset Management ANSI/EIA/TIA-606-A Complaint Application(s): ANSI/EIA/TIA-606-A Compliant, Asset Management, Cable Management, Network Documentation Operating System: Windows 2000, XPWindows 2000 Server, Windows 2003 Server Printer Compatibility: 1244/1344 Series, InkJet/Laser Printers, MVP Series, Tagus, TLS 2200, TLS PC Link, Wraptor, X-Plus Series Data Center Design White Paper Page 87

88 Sample screen Data Center Design White Paper Page 88

89 TIA 606-A Each end of a horizontal cable shall be labeled with the horizontal link identifier within 300mm (12 in) of the end of the cable jacket and be visible on the exposed part of the cable Jacket Data Center Design White Paper Page 89

90 Each individual telecommunications outlet & connector shall be labeled with the horizontal link identifier. Labeling to appear on the faceplate, connector, or Mutoa (multi-user telecommunications outlet assembly) Data Center Design White Paper Page 90

91 Data Center Design White Paper Page 91

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