EUROPEAN FORUM FOR NEW IDEAS REPORT

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1 EUROPEAN FORUM FOR NEW IDEAS REPORT DATE OF PANEL: September 26, 2012, time: PANEL THEME: What does business expect from the university of the future? PARTNER: TESCO MODERATOR: Paweł Rabiej, THINKTANK, Poland PANELISTS: 1. Attilio Celant, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy 2. Katarzyna Chałasińska-Macukow, University of Warsaw, Poland 3. Leszek Czarnecki, Getin Holding SA, Poland 4. Arjun Gupta, TeleSoft Partners, USA 5. Czesław Grzesiak, TESCO, Poland 6. Tadeusz Kulik, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland AUTHOR OF THE BRIEF: Paweł Dudek 1

2 This paper introduces key aspects that will be discussed during the What business expects from the universities of tomorrow?" panel. The material has been divided into two parts: first one identifies main problems relating to the mission and goals of a university in the XXI century, ways of financing higher education institutions and gives a brief overview of what modern business expects. The second part of this paper contains a few examples of cooperation between universities and business in such countries as: United States, Great Britain, Germany, Sweden and Poland. Each part contains open and provocative questions, which we will try to answer during the debate. Main discussions points and questions: 1. What are the objectives for modern schools today? Should the university remain universitas magistrorum et scholarum or should it be churning out staff for business? Is there a sense in choosing "non-business" majors? Does education give a profession? 2. Current models of cooperation between schools and business How to reconcile differing concepts and mutual expectations of schools and business? What, besides donations, can business give to schools? How to develop entrepreneurship among students? 3. How to improve relations between schools and business? Why can t the large and diverse group of qualified science and engineering specialists from the EU find employment in business? How to overcome barriers connected with intellectual property? 4. What changes need to occur in order to meet the challenges of the economy and market? What is the best model of financing universities? How to adapt laws and tax incentives to stimulate investments in R&D? What should be done to make commercialization of inventions easier and quicker? In a world of perpetual changes to the business model and development of e-commerce how can the future be foreseen and university education adapted to it? What should be done to make European universities climb to the top of world rankings? 2

3 Aims and mission of the university in the XXI century Asking the fundamental question about the role of the university in the world today, one must consider if universities are to shape minds just as they have done for centuries or are they to be just a source of human resources for business? Is the university to continue teaching critical thinking and how to seek and explore knowledge just for it itself, or has the paradigm of the university changed so much that in the world of new technologies there simply is not enough time for it and there is only the need for qualified personnel with a university diploma. Going further, one might ask what is the actual sense of studying non-business majors. Should the student choose a school or a major based on his passions and interests or rather to consider the business criteria and weigh the chances of future employment, abandoning majors that give no such chance? Are some of the majors at universities destined to become extinct just like the dinosaurs? Who in the XXI century will have the time and finances to discover the intricacies of philosophy or study literature and language of other countries? What also must be considered is if education actually gives a profession? Does a graduate of chemistry or physics have chances of employment outside the laboratory, for example working on developing solutions to extraordinary problems at a consulting firm? How important is a diploma from this or that school and are we not turning education into a fetish, where a London School of Economics diploma opens every door and a graduate of underwater archeology can only a dream of a job in his profession and is it really a profession in the first place? Debating the mission of a university it is difficult to avoid the question if it should be open for the eager learning masses or to maintain standards of education and close relations between master and apprentice, the university must remain elite? Is Stanford the ideal example with only students or rather the University of Warsaw where over are being educated, of them being on full-time studies. In summary, the question is what are the traits of a good university? In a presentation at the General Assembly of the Polish Academy of Science, Prof. Jerzy Wilkin responding to this question indicated 4 main traits: ensure above average quality of education be a "research university" by conducting frontier research fulfill civilizational and role-developing missions gain strong position domestically and internationally 1. 1 See.: Jerzy Wilkin, Ile kosztuje dobry uniwersytet w: Nauka 4/2010, page. 138, cited: https://portalwiedzy.pan.pl/images/stories/pliki/publikacje/nauka/2010/04/n wilkin.pdf 3

4 Terms of financing institutions of higher education In terms of financing institutions of higher education, the question should be asked if it is possible in the long run to keep education free, subsidized by the government. Or is a co-financing model preferred, with partial costs borne by the students (student loans) as well as business? Is the system of awarding financing to universities based on the number of students optimal? Can and should the Minister authoritatively decide on the minimum number of faculty members to be employed at universities? What is the best way to "utilize the great number of university staff in business? What tax incentive system should be in place to encourage financing of research projects at universities? Finally, should investments into university laboratories be continued? Or, should the focus shift to labs operated by companies and institutes that guarantee better use of the potential and capacity of various research tools? In the earlier mentioned presentation Prof. Wilkin, citing the Higher Education in the World 2006 report, shows public spending on higher education per student. In Denmark expenditures are triple and in Switzerland double than those of the United States but this does not translate into better positions of these countries in international rankings" 2. Expectations of business Can and should business be a benefactor of universities or should it rather be an investor, expecting tangible results and quick returns on its investments? Do only the departments and schools that produce inventions and innovations (quickly, cheaply and protected by patents) have the right to be? Can business support universities and majors, which are strictly focused on humanities? If so, for what purpose? Should a student of classic philology be obliged to take classes on entrepreneurship and basics of running a business? Should universities place greater focus on independent work of students under supervision of professors as well as develop communication and team working skills instead of just lecturing? Will this be a remedy for the biggest needs of business? European Commission 2 Ibid., pg

5 In the Innovation Union Competitiveness Report , the European Commission presents a rather pessimistic picture of current relations between science and business. Low expenditures on research and development in business throughout Europe cause the Union to trail behind other global competitors. In comparison with the US, the EU has a lower share of manufacturing sectors in the economy, which utilize the latest technologies. What more, in the past fifteen years, the EU s economy has become more focused on services and share of production sectors is declining. Each year, there are almost twice as many doctorate titles awarded in the Union that in the United States. In effect, quality is being sacrificed for quantity, which in turn creates the risk that expectations of business will not be met. More than half of the EU member countries do not produce patents for new technologies at all. One of the main reasons is high cost of patent registration and maintenance. In all 27 EU countries, a company from the SME sector must spend EUR on legal fees, while in the States the same period of protection costs just 4000 EUR. In 2007, expenditures of small and medium enterprises on research and development in the US reached 0.30% of GDP while in the EU 0.25%. The amount of work needed to be done and the challenges that the Union is facing in this matter are represented by the significant differences in conditions for carrying out innovative R&D projects between EU countries. Countries in Northern Europe are leading the way while new member states are trailing much behind. United States of America The American university model is often presented as an example of relations between science and business. In the article titled Harvard would be illegal in Poland by Paweł Dobrowolski, President of the Civil Development Forum founded by Leszek Balcerowicz, describes the freedoms of university funding, simplicity of employing faculty members and developing study programs. He highlights the role of the institution s President, elected by the Board of Trustees, which is comprised of alumni that are not professionally connected with the University nor are they even scientists. The President of an American university has much greater power than a Polish Chancellor. He personally appoints the management board and together they manage the administration and finances of the school. If he manages well, he may keep his job for decades 4. 3 See: 4 Paweł Dobrowolski, Harvard w Polsce nielegalny, Rzeczpospolita, 18 May 2012, pg. A16 or: 5

6 Greg Mankiw, Professor of Economics at Harvard University, notes on his blog that in the recruitment process of new faculty members, teaching skills make up only 10% of the assessment with the remaining 90% focusing on conducted and planned research 5. Research is carried out in the real world of economics with real companies as examples. The professor goes beyond the borders of an academic teacher and becomes in a way a consultant, a practitioner of business. To give a better picture of the situation at American universities, it is worthy to once again bring up the text cited by Prof. Jerzy Wikin, who highlights that a very important and in many cases most important element of financing top American universities" is endowment capital - made up of donations and returns on earlier investments. It is an option that is hardly used in Poland and plays a minor role at European universities. Harvard s endowment capital accounted for 37% of total revenues of the school in 2009, while revenues from tuition accounted for just 18%. To give a comparison, at Cambridge University, Europe s top school, revenues from endowment accounted for 6.2% of total incomes, with tuition brought in 12.3% 6. Some critics point to two serious risks for American universities: profligacy and unhealthy rivalry. Mark C. Taylor, a publicist at Bloomberg, refers to a report by Richard Kneedler of Marshall College, who forecasted already in 2009 that out of the 700 American universities, which were reviewed two thirds were at a brink of financial disaster ( ). The construction arms race on campus is the most visible example of competition run amok. To become more attractive to potential consumers, many colleges and universities undertake overly ambitious expansions 7. Great Britain Sir Richard Lambert, Chancellor of the University of Warwick and former Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry, claims that cooperation between schools and businesses will become deeper and broader 8. As an example he uses a six-year program undertaken by Universities in Durham and Exeter with KPMG. Upon completion, students gain a chartered accountancy qualification. Another example is a strategic partnership program developed by Warwick University and Jaguar Land Rover. We are moving into a world where public funding for teaching will mainly go to support loans for students rather than being channeled directly to individual universities states Sir Lambert. On the other hand, he sees that choosing a major solely on the employability after graduation may be useless and wrong the fact that a particular cohort of students got good jobs does not 5 6 See: Jerzy Wilkin, Ile kosztuje dobry uniwersytet w: Nauka 4/2010, pg. 141, cited: https://portalwiedzy.pan.pl/images/stories/pliki/publikacje/nauka/2010/04/n wilkin.pdf 7 See: 8 See: 6

7 guarantee that subsequent cohorts will have the same. Finding a job will become an ever more difficult challenge, requiring a number of competencies besides good grades (volunteering, initial experience, interesting summer internships, additional diplomas and certificates in softer skills, not to mention networking and pro-activity). With such challenges, business will have to clearly accentuate its needs and indicate possibilities for employment. It will have to work closer with student who are still within the walls of their school and build relations with potential employees at a much earlier stage. However, Sir Richard Lambert does stress the need to carefully introduce market forces to the education system, so that in the drive to support the study of science and technology, the importance of social sciences in a healthy economy is not forgotten. Another example of relations between school and business in Great Britain may be the development of a network of new type of specialized vocational schools UTC University Technical College. Two schools are already operating and further 17 will soon be opened. Politicians hope that in the coming three years, the network will grow to one hundred schools all over England. Jessica Shepard from "The Guardian" in an article dated May 31 st, , writes that further to an engineering profile, some of these schools will prepare students to work in construction, digital media as well as in all fields, which require practical skills and knowledge of specialized equipment. The school year at the UTC is divided into five eight-week modules during which students work on a specific task. The final effect is presented before employees of firms cooperating with the school, who will advise what should be improved and share their experience, provide coaching and mentoring to the young engineers. However, it must be noted that in the past 30 years, England has already tried a few times at the cost of millions of pounds to introduce a system of vocational training while a number of Minister pondered how to educate employees ready for work. An interesting example of developing cooperation between school and business is the Welsh program KESS - Knowledge Economy Skills Scholarships, which in is to facilitate 400 research projects at Masters and PhD levels. Amongst projects that Bangor University can proudly show off is the development of a new material for use in extreme winter conditions together with Blizzard Survival Ltd. Swansea University together with Pure Wafer International Limited is conducting research on a new photovoltaic system and Cardiff University and Cultech Ltd. are conducting research in health and biotechnology 10. UCAS, a British government agency, has observed declining interest in such majors as fine art, architecture or media studies, which itself is an interesting signal when analyzing the British model. 9 See: Jessica Shepherd, Inzynierowie i brytyjski snobizm, tłum: Ludwika Włodek w: Europa. Duży Format, Gazeta Wyborcza, nr 23/979 z 31 May 2012, pg See: Connecting Universities to Regional Growth: A Practical Guide, European Union Regional Policy, September 2011, pg. 22 cited: oraz 7

8 Rising tuition fees cannot be ignored either. According to Jeevan Vasagar who writes in his article Expensive knowledge on the Isles that tuition of about 3000 back in 2003 at some universities will increase even trifold in 2012, which will drive the total costs of a Bachelors Degree to abou pounds. Twenty of the most prestigious universities part of the so-called Russell Group would like for a total dissolution of tuition limits because by providing each student with an education advisor, their average annual cost exceeds pounds per student and they must cover the difference with money from subsidies and donations 11. Germany The dual education system in Germany allows gaining knowledge and practical skills all at the same time. The most developed segment of the higher education system in the country is Vocational Colleges and Universities. (..) Practical focus of schools is also visible when looking at the faculty members many lecturers have experience working in industry or business. As a result, students receive education, which meets the expectations of businesses. Such skills are additionally honed during mandatory internships that last an entire semester or even two. Final assignments and projects are developed together with companies which means the result is strictly focused on practical aspects" - writes Artur Grabek in his article Practical and close to business - education in the world" 12. An interesting example of solutions common in Germany is the Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development. All of its majors have an ecological profile - from renewable sources of energy, renewable raw materials, green farming to protection of forests and development of regional tourism. Ecology is even part of the school s charter, listing such things as controlling of temperature and lighting or using solar panels to produce electricity. This is one example of about 160 small schools (40 teachers and less than two thousand students), which were formed from old state engineering schools. After the reforms in 1970s and 1980s, these schools received statuses equal to universities. Interestingly, as Johann Osel of Suddeutsche Zeitung notes, universities are weary of the smaller and more flexible competitors. They fear about their exclusive privilege of education doctoral students 13. In these small schools, the curriculum is developed in strict cooperation with local companies; thus, giving them access to just the type of graduates that they need. This model is also attractive for students, who study closer to home and with much more practical experience have better chances for getting a job. Benefiting from this arrangement are 11 See: Jeevan Vasagar, Droga wiedza na wyspach, tłum: Ludwika Włodek w: Europa. Duży Format, Gazeta Wyborcza, nr 23/979, 31 May 2012, pg See: 13 See: Johann Ossel, Bliżej domu i pracy, tłum: Krystyna Kądziela w: Europa. Duży Format, Gazeta Wyborcza, nr 23/ May 2012, pg

9 also local governments formation of such a school in a rural area has positive influence on its development. However, there are critical voices that indicate the possibility of disrupting the proportions between basic and specialized knowledge. A graduate of a school that works closely with a car parts manufacturer will be specialized in only that part of the car and will not be familiar with construction of the whole car. Sweden In the Swedish model, higher education is entirely public and studies are free for everyone. The model is quite characteristic as it gives students independence in organization of their studies. Advisors and individual tutors are ready to assist and give advice so that choices of students are effective and consistent with expectations of employers. Classes at Swedish schools are focused on developing practical skills, working in groups and managing projects. These skills are assessed in exams, during which a project is assigned, often requiring group work. Requirements are shaped in such a way so that they force students to make practical use of all knowledge and materials learned throughout the course 14. Interesting examples from Sweden are listed in the EU report: Connecting Universities to Regional Growth. First one is Universum, supported by Chalmers University of Technology, University of Gothenburg and West Sweden Chamber of Commerce. By organizing meetings and conducting studies, the Center has ambitions to improve the dialog between students and companies wanting to employ them. So far it has analyzed the needs of more than students as well as provided services and undertaken business projects for over 1200 companies. Together with its partners, Universum develops school programs, organizes seminars and trainings that are to help understand the needs of the school, business and students 15. Second example is the cooperation of Karlstad University with the Varmland region. The effect is the SLIM (Systematic Leadership and Innovative Management) program launched in 2009 at a cost of 3 million EUR. It facilities regular cooperation of students with the research community and sector of small and medium sized companies that otherwise would not have cooperated with the university. 420 students, 260 researchers and 220 companies attended over one thousand meetings. These companies saw a 15% increase in employment, 30% rise in sales, 35% growth of cooperation with other companies. In total, 70% of participating businesses stated that participating in the program led to introduction of new products and services See: 15 See: Connecting Universities to Regional Growth, dz. cyt. pg. 31, and 16 See: Connecting Universities to Regional Growth, attachment, pg.1 and 9

10 Poland Poland, since 2004 as a member of the European Union, is affected by most of the above listed troubles, further fueled by 20 years of reforms and changes to the system, including to education program. For years, business by European standards sense did not exist in Poland. Therefore, a dialog between business communities and schools was also inexistent. These were two different worlds, without a common language, deeper relations or developed communication channels. Only just now the slow process of breaking old habits and encouraging scientists to join forces with business is budding. First of all, to foster contacts as well as make use of theoretical knowledge and research to develop and market innovative products. Not helping are still minimal R&D expenditures, underdevelopment in sectors dependent on specialized knowledge and marginal number of patents in new technologies. However, there are first signs of changes. The already mentioned report, Connecting Universities to Regional Growth, lists initiatives at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan and the Kraków Technology Park as prime examples. The former has been promoting entrepreneurship since 2000 and as a result of various competitions, 28 winners began their own businesses. The Kraków Technology Park not only offers office space and meeting facilities, but also provides broad consulting support, access to databases, support in contacting potential partners or even help in finding financing for start-ups 17. Universities from other academic centers are also opening up for cooperation with companies, while these, with access to educated personnel, open new research and development centers; Google and IBM in Kraków, Microsoft and 3M in Wrocław or General Electric in Warsaw, which employs over 1300 specialists of industrial design 18. AGH University of Science and Technology is also worthy to mention. It generates 50 million PLN from various types of business ventures and has signed over 250 cooperation agreements with a number of companies. 19 Chancellors associated in the Conference of Rectors of Academic Schools in Poland admit that the Polish education system is in a poor state and in need of swift changes. Adjusting to future challenges is hindered by limited number of research projects, lack of motivation for further selfdevelopment, multi-jobbing of faculty and their low mobility and most of all excessive bureaucracy. Furthermore, chancellors of private universities jointly state, that financing universities from the budget solely based on the number of students, without criteria of quality, only causes the number 17 See: Connecting Universities to Regional Growth, dz. cyt. page. 18 and See: O krok dalej: Polsko-Amerykańska współpraca gospodarcza. Stan obecny i perspektywy. American Chamber of Commerce in Poland, PKPP Lewiatan, US-Poland Business Council, Warszawa, April 2012, pgs. 31, See: Agata Nowakowska, Dominika Wielowieyska, Nauka pod rękę z biznesem za 1 proc, Gazeta Wyborcza, May, pg. 6, and: Małgorzata Grzegorczyk, Biznes atakuje, nauka się broni, Puls Biznesu, May 2012, pg

11 of students to climb and does not motivate to further activities in terms of research projects or cooperation with business 20. Andrzej Klesyk, President of PZU, the biggest insurance company in CEE, accused universities of being unemployment factories : "The World is leaving us behind because we do not participate in the race for access to knowledge it is freely accessible, but we do participate in the race for talents, who know how to use it ( ) 21. Mr. Klesyk observes that companies are looking for employees "capable of holistic and nonstandard thinking, able to sort through information and work in teams or in a network, able to plan and perform their work on time, understanding of others, willing to set ambitious goals for themselves and capable of achieving them without infringing on anyone s dignity. Professor Łukasz Turski from the Center for Theoretical Physics at the Polish Academy of Sciences said: unemployment factories, diploma manufacturers is there a difference in what we call them? The whole Polish educational experiment turned out to be a disaster, this has been known for ten years. The academic community failed. I will be burning in hell for fighting for private universities because they are the cause of the disaster ( ) Everything needs to be changed, from preschool to doctorate studies" 22. Dr. Izabela Wagner, sociologist from the University of Warsaw, noticed that most companies in Poland are small or medium sized enterprises, often family owned, which do not require too many specialists with tertiary education. The conviction that it is possible to adapt the education profile to the needs of the job market in Poland is an illusion. The world is changing very rapidly. Even in Germany, where they forecast what specialist will be needed in 20 years, they are wrong for the most part. No one is able to foresee market fluctuations including the job market 23. Members of the American Chamber of Commerce propose that in order to fill a void, which exists between industry and universities, the government should: improve and promote tax concessions for research and development, which would encourage giving of funding to schools, build awareness about cooperation between school and business, measure the effects of financing R&D projects, 20 See: Artur Grabek, Studenci płacą za słabe uczelnie, Rzeczpospolita, 15 May 2012, pg. A8. 21 See. Andrzej Klesyk, Diamenty z miękkimi kompetencjami, Gazeta Wyborcza, 23 April, 2012, pg See. Aleksandra Pezda, Piotr Cieśliński rozmawiają z prof. Łukaszem Turskim, Nie uczymy fizyki, uczymy dzieci, Gazeta Wyborcza, 2-3 June 2012, pg Adam Leszczyński, dr Izabela Wagner, Uniwersytety to nie produkcja wykfalifikowanych robotników, Gazeta Wyborcza, April, pgs

12 create an interministerial committee for countering administrative barriers that impede cooperation of the two sides, On the other hand, they encourage the academic community to: open its doors to the industry, establish forms of exchanging experience and knowledge between companies and universities, include representatives of business in decision making bodies of the school, wider inclusion of courses meeting needs of the industry into education programs, also in terms of soft skills (i.e. working in groups) 24. DATA FOR DISCUSSION: Number of schools and students in Poland and in the world In the 2010/2011 academic year, 470 universities operated in Poland, With 132 being public and 338 private. Over 2 million students attended universities, which gives Poland one of the highest gross enrolment ratios and largest number of higher education institutions in Europe 25. In 2010 in 27 EU countries at over 4000 universities studied almost 20 million students. Same number as in the whole of US in almost 6 thousand universities (on average more than 100 per each state). In 24 See: O krok dalej: Polsko-Amerykańska współpraca gospodarcza, dz. cyt., pg See: 12

13 the EU, only Poland, Germany, France and Great Britain had more than 2 million students, and Japan could boast 4 million students 26. University revenues comparison: Harvard University s revenues in 2009 reached million PLN. According to GUS Statistical Yearbook in 2007, public spending on higher education in Poland amounted to million. In 2009 Harvard University dedicated million PLN for student scholarships and grants (excluding student loans), which is nearly the same amount how much Poland s state budget earmarked for financial aid to students in 2007 for the entire country (1 578 million PLN) In 2009, Harvard University dedicated million PLN to research (where 78% came from the federal budget), which is half what the national budget spent on R&D in 2008 (4.3bn PLN) in Poland. 27 Expenditures on higher education per student 28 : Country Expenditures Denmark Switzerland Germany U.S.A Hungary China India Poland See: Jerzy Wilkin, Ile kosztuje dobry uniwersytet w: Nauka 4/2010, s. 141, cyt. cite: https://portalwiedzy.pan.pl/images/stories/pliki/publikacje/nauka/2010/04/n wilkin.pdf 28 See.: Ibid, page

14 Europe (average) Expenditures on research projects 29 : Between 1995 and 2008 the real level of expenditures on research projects in the EU rose by 50%, while in the same period expenditures in the US increased by 60% and in Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan by 75%, in BRIS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, South Africa) 145% and in China 855%. In relation to GDP, businesses in Japan and South Korea invest in research and development two times more than companies in Europe. Employing scientists: More than half of scientists in the EU (54%) are employed in the public sector and 46% work in the business industry. Number of scientists employed in the private sector in China reaches 69%, Japan 73% and in the US 80%. Knowledge transfer and public-private cooperation: Number of joint publications by private and public entities per population in the EU is roughly half that of the US and a third less than in Japan. Number of patent applications: Analyzing the number applications for patents regulated by the Treaty for patent cooperation, it can be observed that the rise in Japan and South Korea was almost double than in the EU. if this trend is maintained, in 2020 the situation may be as follows: EU 18%, US 15% and five leading Asian countries 55%. 29 Following data cited from: 14

15 Following graphs based on: Growth indicators of 27 EU countries: (area marked grey is EU s average for all indicators) 15

16 Innovation index for 27 EU countries and biggest competitors: 16

17 BIBLIOGRAPHY: 17

18 Studies and reports: Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Szkoły wyższe i ich finanse w 2010, Warszawa 2011: European Commission, Innovation Union Scoreboard 2011, European Union 2012: European Commission, Research & Innovation, Innovation Union Competitiveness Report 2011, streszczenie, European Union 2012: European Commission, Research & Innovation, Innovation Union Competitiveness Report 2011: European Union, Regional Policy, Connecting Universities to Regional Growth: A Practical Guide, September 2011: n.pdf OECD, Higher Education to 2030, OECD, Jobs for Youth, Poland: American Chamber of Commerce in Poland, PKPP Lewiatan, US-Poland Business Council, O krok dalej: Polsko-Amerykańska współpraca gospodarcza. Stan obecny i perspektywy. Warszawa, kwiecień 2012: Newspaper and internet articles: 18

19 https://portalwiedzy.pan.pl/images/stories/pliki/publikacje/nauka/2010/04/n wilkin.pdf Jessica Shepard, Inżynierowie i brytyjski snobizm, tłum: Ludwika Włodek w: Europa. Duży Format, Gazeta Wyborcza, nr 23/979, 31 May 2012, pg. 10. Jeevan Vasagar, Droga wiedza na wyspach, tłum: Ludwika Włodek w: Europa. Duży Format, Gazeta Wyborcza, nr 23/979, 31 May 2012, pg. 12. Johann Ossel, Bliżej domu i pracy, tłum: Krystyna Kądziela w: Europa. Duży Format, Gazeta Wyborcza, nr 23/979, 31 May 2012, pg. 12. Roland Preuss, Biedny zostaje głupi, tłum: Krystyna Kądziela w: Europa. Duży Format, Gazeta Wyborcza, nr 23/979, 31 May 2012, page. 12. Agata Nowakowska, Dominika Wielowieyska, Nauka pod rękę z biznesem za 1 proc, Gazeta Wyborcza, May, pg. 6 Małgorzata Grzegorczyk, Biznes atakuje, nauka się broni, Puls Biznesu, May 2012, pg. 10. Artur Grabek, Studenci płacą za słabe uczelnie, Rzeczpospolita, 15 May 2012, pg. A8. Andrzej Klesyk, Diamenty z miękkimi kompetencjami, Gazeta Wyborcza, 23 April 2012, pg. 8. Aleksandra Pezda, Piotr Cieśliński rozmawiają z prof. Łukaszem Turskim, Nie uczymy fizyki, uczymy dzieci, Gazeta Wyborcza, 2-3 June 2012, pgs Adam Leszczyński, dr Izabela Wagner, Uniwersytety to nie produkcja wykwalifikowanych robotników, Gazeta Wyborcza, April, pgs

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