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5 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page Hot and Cold Water Supply Table. Equivalent pipe lengths (copper, stainless steel and plastics) Bore of pipe Equivalent pipe length Elbow Tee Stopvalve Check valve mm m m m m Notes: () For tees consider change of direction only. For gate valves losses are insignificant. () For fittings not shown, consult manufacturers if significant head losses are expected. () For galvanized steel pipes in a small installation, pipe sizing calculations may be based on the data in this table for equivalent nominal sizes of smooth bore pipes. For larger installations, data relating specifically to galvanized steel should be used. BS 700 refers to suitable data in the Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide published by the Institute of Plumbing. (e, f) Find the equivalent pipe lengths for fittings and draw-offs. For convenience the frictional resistances to flow through fittings are expressed in terms of pipe lengths having the same resistance to flow as the fitting. Hence the term equivalent pipe length (see table.). For example, a mm elbow offers the same resistance to flow as a mm pipe 0.8 m long. Figure. shows the equivalent pipe lengths for the fittings in the example in figure.4. (g) Effective pipe length. The effective pipe length is the sum of the measured pipe length (d) and the equivalent pipe lengths for fittings (e) and draw-offs (f). Therefore, for the example shown in figure.4 the effective pipe length would be: Measured pipe length 4.7 m Equivalent pipe lengths elbows 0.8 =. m tee.0 =.0 m stopvalve 7.0 = 7.0 m taps.7 = 7.4 m check valves 4. = 8. m Effective pipe length = 0. m Permissible loss of head (pressure) (4) Pressure can be expressed in the following ways. (i) In pascals, the pascal (Pa) being the SI unit for pressure. (ii) As force per unit area, N/m. N/m = pascal (Pa).

7 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page Hot and Cold Water Supply Table. Typical head losses and equivalent pipe lengths for taps Nominal size of tap Flow rate Head loss Equivalent pipe length l/s m m G DN G DN G 4 DN G DN / Head loss in metres (wall friction gradient) Flow in litres per second /4 /4 / Nominal size of stopvalve Note Gate valves and spherical plug valves offer little or no resistance to flow provided they are fully open. Figure. Head loss through stopvalves

8 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page 8 Pipe Sizing Millimetres 0 Inches /4 / / Head of water in metres (pressure) Diameter of orifice /8 / /8 /4 / / Flow through orifice in litres per second Based on Q = AV 0.7 V = gh where Q is flow (l/s) A is cross sectional area of pipe (m ) V is velocity (m/s) g is acceleration due to gravity (m/s ) H is head of water (m) Figure.7 Head loss through float-operated valves

10 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page 8 Pipe Sizing Head loss in metres per metre run Velocity in metres per second Formula applied between these limits only Lamont s smooth pipe formula S: V = 0.4 d 0.9 i 0.4 Where V is velocity (m/s) d is diameter (mm) i is hydraulic gradient Flow in litres per second Outside diameter of copper pipe in millimetres 7. Notes Figures shown are for cold water at C. Hot water will show slightly more favourable head loss results Actual bore of pipe in millimetres BS 700 gives head loss in kpa. m head = 9.8 kpa. Figure.9 Determination of pipe diameter

12 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page 8 Pipe Sizing 8 Work through the calculation sheet See figure., using the data shown in figures.0 and.. CWSC loading units litres per second.8 m.4 m m servicing valves double check valve assembly m wc wb b 0. m m m = = 0.8 l/s m sink = = 0.7 l/s.4 m Assume draw-offs on each branch all to be at the same level. Size for largest draw-off at each branch, i.e. bath..4 m m 4 tap 7 m wc wb b 0. m m m = = 0. l/s 0. l/s 0. m Bib tap at 0. l/s in frequent use. Note Figure is not to scale for convenience, water level in cistern taken to be at base of cistern. Servicing valves assumed to be full-flow gate valves having no head losses. Refer also to figure.. Figure.0 Pipe sizing diagram

14 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page 87 Pipe Sizing 87 Calculation sheet Estimated maximum demand =.4 l/s Probable demand = 0.8 l/s Percentage demand = probable demand 00 estimated maximum demand = =0%.4 Therefore only 0% of the installation need be considered. For example, if we were designing for a multi-storey building storeys high, only the first storeys need to be calculated. However, in the example followed here, the whole system has been sized because the last fitting on the run has a high flow rate in continuous use. For branches only the pipes to the largest draw-off, i.e. the bath tap, need be sized. () Pipe reference () Loading units () Flow rate (l/s) (4) Pipe size (mm diameter) () Loss of head (m/m run) () Flow velocity (m/s) (7) Measured pipe run (m) (8) Equivalent pipe length (m) (9) Effective pipe length (m) (0) Head consumed (m) () Progressive head (m) () Available head (m) () Final pipe size (mm) (4) Remarks Refer also to figure.0. Figure. Calculation sheet example of use

15 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page Hot and Cold Water Supply. Sizing cold water storage In Britain, cold water has traditionally been stored in both domestic and non-domestic buildings, to provide a reserve of water in case of mains failure. However, in recent years we have seen an increase in the use of direct pressure systems, particularly for hot water services where many combination boilers and unvented hot water storage vessels are now being installed. BS 700 no longer gives storage capacities for houses. The following figures are based on the 997 edition. Smaller houses cistern supplying cold water only 00 l to 0 l cistern supplying hot and cold outlets 0 l to 00 l Larger houses per person where cistern fills only 80 l at night per person 0 l However, in clause..9.4 it recommends a minimum storage capacity of 0 l where the cistern supplies both cold water outlets and hot water apparatus, which was a requirement of byelaws in the past. The author still favours the old byelaw requirements, which are more specific and which still seem to be the normal capacity installed. Cold water storage cistern Feed cistern Combined feed and storage cistern l minimum No minimum but should be equal to the capacity of the hot store vessel supplied 0 l minimum For larger buildings the capacity of the cold water storage cistern depends on: type and use of buildings; number of occupants; type and number of fittings; frequency and pattern of use; likelihood and frequency of breakdown of supply. These factors have been taken into account in table., which sets out minimum storage capacities in various types of building to provide a 4-hour reserve capacity in case of mains failure. Calculation of minimum cold water storage capacity Determine the amount of cold water storage required to cover 4 hours interruption of supply in a combined hotel and restaurant. Number of hotel guests 7, number of restaurant guests 0. Storage capacity = number of guests storage per person from table. Hotel storage capacity = 7 0 = 000 l Restaurant storage capacity = 0 7 = 40 l Therefore total storage capacity required is 000 l + 40 l = 7 40 l

16 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page 89 Pipe Sizing 89 Assuming -hour fill time, the design flow rate to the cistern would be: Design flow rate = 7 40 l cistern capacity hours = 7 40 ( 00 seconds) = 0.4 l/s Table. Recommended minimum storage of hot and cold water for domestic purposes Type of building Minimum cold Minimum hot water storage water storage litres (l) litres (l) Hostel 90 per bed space per bed space Hotel 0 per bed space 4 per bed space Office premises: with canteen facilities 4 per employee 4. per employee without canteen facilities 40 per employee 4.0 per employee Restaurant 7 per meal. per meal Day school: nursery # primary \$ per pupil 4. per pupil secondary # technical \$ per pupil.0 per pupil Boarding school 90 per pupil per pupil Children s home or residential nursery per bed space per bed space Nurses home per bed space 4 per bed space Nursing or convalescent home per bed space 4 per bed space Note Minimum cold water storage shown includes that used to supply hot water outlets..4 Sizing hot water storage Minimum hot water storage capacities for dwellings, from BS 700, are: l to 4 l per occupant, unless the heat source provides a quick recovery rate; 00 l for systems heated by solid fuel boilers; 0 l for systems heated by off-peak electricity. The feed cistern should have a capacity at least equal to that of the hot storage vessel. Information on storage capacities for larger buildings is given in table. using data based on the Institute of Plumbing s Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide. The calculations are similar to those in section. for the minimum cold water storage capacity in larger buildings, and require the number of people to be multiplied by the storage per person, shown in table.. BS 700 takes a different approach to the sizing of hot water storage and suggests that when sizing hot water storage for any installation, account must be taken of the following: pattern of use; rate of heat input to the stored water (see table.);

17 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page Hot and Cold Water Supply recovery period for the hot store vessel; any stratification of the stored water. Table. Typical heat input values Appliance Heat input kw Electric immersion heater Gas-fired circulator Small boiler and direct cylinder Medium boiler and indirect cylinder 0 Directly gas-fired storage hot water heater (domestic type) 0 Large domestic boiler and indirect cylinder Stratification (see figure.4) means that the hot water in the storage vessel floats on a layer of cold feed water. This enables hot water to be drawn from the storage vessel without the incoming cold feed water mixing appreciably with the remaining hot water. In turn, this allows a later draw-off of water at a temperature close to the design storage temperature, with less frequent reheating of the contents of the storage vessel and savings in heating costs and energy. Stratification is most effective when cylinders and tanks are installed vertically rather than horizontally, with a ratio of height to width or diameter of at least :. The cold feed inlet should be arranged to minimize agitation and hence mixing, by being of ample size and, if necessary, fitted with a baffle to spread the incoming water. Stratification is used to good effect in off-peak electric water heaters (see figure.). In this case no heat is normally added to the water during the daytime use and consequently very little mixing of hot and cold water takes place. In other arrangements the heating of the water will induce some mixing. Calculation of hot water storage capacity As noted above, the storage capacity required in any situation depends on the rate of heat input to the stored hot water and on the pattern of use. For calculating the required storage capacity BS 700 provides a formula for the time M (in min) taken to heat a quantity of water through a specified temperature rise: M = VT/(4.P) where V is the volume of water heated (in l); T is the temperature rise (in C); P is the rate of heat input to the water (in kw). This formula can be applied to any pattern of use and whether stratification of the stored water takes place or not. It ignores heat losses from the hot water storage vessel, since over the relatively short times involved in reheating water after a draw-off has taken place, their effect is usually small.

18 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page 9 Pipe Sizing 9 (a) Bottom entry heater more even temperature throughout cylinder With a bottom entry immersion heater mixing will occur when the water is being heated. hot at top warm (b) Top entry heater With top entry immersion heater stratification will prevent mixing. cold at bottom hot warm cold (c) Twin entry immersion heater With a twin entry immersion heater the top entry element can provide economical energy consumption for normal use with the bottom entry element operating when large quantities of water are needed, for example, for bathing and washing. With off-peak heaters the top element can be brought into use during on-peak periods when needed to top up hot water, and stratification will ensure that on-peak electricity is not used to excess. Figure. Effects of stratification The application of this formula to the sizing of hot water cylinders is best illustrated by the following examples, in which figures have been rounded. In these examples a small dwelling with one bath installed has been assumed. Maximum requirement: bath (0 l at 0 C plus 40 l cold water) plus 0 l hot water at 0 C for kitchen use, followed by a second bath fill after min. Thus a draw-off of 70 l at 0 C is required, followed after min by 00 l at 40 C, which may be achieved by mixing hot at 0 C with cold at 0 C. Example Assuming good stratification Good stratification could be obtained, for example, by heating with a top entry immersion heater. With a rate of heat input of kw, the time to heat the 0 l for the second bath from 0 C to 0 C is: M = VT/(4.P) M = (0 0)/(4. ) M = 70 min

19 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page 9 9 Hot and Cold Water Supply Since the second bath is required after min, it has to be provided from storage. But in the min the volume of water heated to 0 C is: V = M (4.)/T V = ( 4. )/0 V = l Therefore the minimum required storage capacity is: 70 + = 09 l Example Assuming good mixing of the stored water Good mixing of the stored water would occur, for example, with heating by a primary coil in an indirect cylinder. Immediately after drawing off 70 l at 0 C for the first bath and kitchen use, the heat energy in the remaining water plus the heat energy in the 70 l replacement at 0 C equals the heat energy of the water in the full cylinder. The heat energy of a quantity of water is the product of its volume and temperature. Then, if V is the minimum size of the storage cylinder and T is the water temperature in the cylinder after refilling with 70 l at 0 C: (V 70) 0 + (70 0) = VT T = (0V )/V T = (0V 00)/V T = 0 00/V The second bath is required after min. Hence, with a rate of heat input of kw: and the temperature rise and = VT/(4. ) T = ( 4. )/V T = 07./V A temperature of at least 40 C is required to run the second bath. Therefore the water temperature of the refilled cylinder after the first draw-off of 70 l, plus the temperature rise after min, must be at least 40 C, or: (0 00/V) + (07.V) = 40 (or more) 0 47./V = 40 = 47./V V = l These calculations, which may be carried out for any situation, show the value of promoting stratification wherever possible. They also show the savings in storage capacity that can be made, without affecting the quality of service to the user, by increasing the rate of heat input to the water. Results of similar calculations are shown in table.7 and are taken from BS 700.

20 HAC_C0.qxd 7/4/08 9: Page 9 Pipe Sizing 9 Table.7 Hot water storage vessels minimum capacities Heat input Dwelling with bath Dwelling with baths* to water With With With With stratification mixing stratification mixing kw litres (l) litres (l) litres (l) litres (l) Note * Maximum requirement of 0 l drawn off at 0 C ( baths plus 0 l for kitchen use) followed by a further bath (00 l at 40 C) after 0 min.. Legionella implications in sizing storage It has been common practice in the past for water suppliers to recommend cold water storage capacities to provide for 4 hours of interruption in supply. Table. in this book and Table of BS 700 reflect this practice. Recent investigations into the cause and prevention of Legionella contamination suggest that hot and cold water storage should be sized to cope with peak demand only, and that in the past, storage vessels have often been over-sized. Reduced storage capacities would mean quicker turnover of water and less opportunity for Legionella and other organisms to flourish. Stratification in hot water can lead to ideal conditions for bacteria to multiply, as the base of some cylinders often remains within the C temperature range. The base of the cylinder may also contain sediment and hard water scale which provide an ideal breeding ground for bacteria. Where, however, good mixing occurs, higher temperatures can be obtained at the cylinder base during heating up periods. This is helpful because Legionella will not thrive for more than minutes at 0 C and are killed instantly at temperatures of 70 C or more.

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