# CHAPTER 2: The Plumbing System

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1 CHAPTER 2: The Plumbing System SECTION I: SIZING REQUIREMENTS Establish building dimensions Building height can be determined either by architectural drawings or # of floors times height/floor. (ex: 1 floors x 1 feet/floor = Tall) Convert feet of water column to by using the following formula: H x.433 = where H = Static Head;.433 is the mathematical reciprocal of 2.31, therefore, you will arrive at the same condition by dividing TDH by 2.31) A. STATIC HEAD - BUILDING HEIGHT B. FRICTION HEAD - FRICTION LOSS C. RESIDUAL PRESSURE REQUIRED TOP) D. SYSTEM REQUIRED PRESSURE (A + B + C) E. MINIMUM SUCTION PRESSURE (SUBTRACT) F. SYSTEM BOOST PRESSURE (D - E) G. PRV LOSSES (5-1 ) H. PUMP HEAD REQUIRED (F + G) TDH The table to the left indicates the various requirements in establishing system pressure rating. Typically, all figures are expressed in using the Feet/ conversion formula and are then converted back to TDH to select the pumps. Establish building flow capacity (see fig. #3 & 4) Count the number of fixtures which use domestic water. Bear in mind that different fixtures use water differently. (ex: 1.6 GPF Water Closet, 3.5 GPF Water Closet, Flush Valve, etc.) Determine the type of building from the flow chart which will indicate maximum required GPM. Be careful when selecting systems with a constant load, these systems will not benefit from a drawdown tank and system shutdown. (ex: Cooling tower, commercial laundry facilities, restaurants, night clubs, hydronic water make-up, etc.) Page 3

2 WATER SUPPLY FITURE UNITS - WSFU Heavy Use Assembly Other than Dwelling Units Serving Three or more Dwelling Units Individual Dwelling Units TYPE OF FITURES Bathroom Group, 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank Water Closet Bathroom Group, 1.6 GPF Pressure-Tank Water Closet Bathroom Group, 3.5 GPF Gravity Tank Water Closet Bathroom Group, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve Bathroom Group, 3.5 GPF Flushometer Valve Kitchen Group (Sink and Dishwasher) Laundry Group (Sink and Clothes Washer) INDIVIDUAL FITURES Bathtub or Combination Bath/Shower Bidet 1..5 Clothes Washer, domestic Dishwasher, domestic Drinking Fountain or Watercooler.5.75 Hose Bibb (1/2" Supply Pipe) Hose Bibb, each additional (1/2" Supply Pipe) Kitchen Sink, domestic Laundry Sink Lavatory Service Sink or Mop Basin 3. Shower Shower, continous use 5. Urinal, 1. GPF Urinal, greater than 1. GPF Water Closet 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank Water Closet 1.6 GPF Pressure Tank Water Closet 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve Water Closet 3.5 GPF Gravity Tank Water Closet 3.5 GPF Flushometer Valve Whirlpool Bath or Combination Bath/Shower Change to the National Standard Plumbing Code adopted at NSPC Public Hearing - August 1994 Typical Fixture Unit Chart showing various types of fixtures and their relational fixture unit assignment. This is typically used by consultants to determine a fixture unit load which is interpreted on the building profile curves (fig. #4). This chart is taken from the National Plumbing Code, August Page 4

4 SECTION II: SYSTEM CONDITIONS Establish current water system conditions Minimum suction pressure; this can typically be found on the Fire Flow Test, which is done on all buildings which require a fire system. Use the maximum design flow based on the flow condition calculated from fixture unit count. DO NOT ASSUME A MINIMUM SUCTION PRESSURE! Get this information from consultant or contractor. On cistern systems, be careful when you have a low NPSH. Suction lift is not recommended for a pressure booster system. Figure #5 through #7 explains the potential problems which can arise when an accurate suction pressure is not used to size the booster package. TIP: In some cases, an incorrect suction pressure can contribute to potential problems. For example: If a system is designed using a minimum suction pressure of 2 and a potential pump shutoff pressure of 14 GPM Flow), the capacity of the system could exceed minimum ratings if the suction pressure exceeds 4! In this case, the system will now ECEED the 175 working pressure, thereby, requiring a HIGH PRESSURE system design. Shut-off Pressure Design Condition Shut-off Pressure Shut-off Condition Design Flow Pump Boost 14 6 Total Pump Pressure System Working Pressure 2 Design Suction Pressure 2 2 Design Suction Pressure GPM Pump design head is based on the minimum available (worst case) suction pressure plus the pump boost GPM Additional head is achievable when pump moves to shut-off. Although the PRV s will regulate downstream, upstream pressures can rise Shut-off Pressure Design Condition Additional Pressures Dangerously High! W.P. #2 W.P. #1 In a worst case scenario as shown in the graphic to the left, when suction pressures are underestimated, there is a potential that the pressure could exceed the system rated working pressure. 6 2 Actual Suction Pressure Design Suction Pressure GPM Page 6

5 SECTION III: FLOW SPLIT Select the best capacity split for the GPM capacity. In some cases, it is best to use an un-equal split rather than an equal capacity split. Much of this can be determined by either flow analysis (flow recorder mounted on system for a period of time in order to develop a usage pattern) or by some other less technical means. (i.e.: Typical load does not exceed 2% of system capacity for 7% of the day) Select a system manifold suited for the conditions and maximum flow Armstrong offers a number of different manifold materials to suit nearly every domestic water need. They are as follows: Cast Iron Flanged on either end. (includes (2) blind flange caps) Type K Copper Manifolds on Series 65 (due to pump weight) Type L Copper Manifolds available on all other models Type 34 Schedule 1 Stainless Steel fabricated Schedule 4 Galvanized Steel fabricated Size manifolds according to the total system flow rate. See Figure #7 below for maximum recommended flows for system headers: Manifold Size Maximum Flow (GPM) Fig. 7: The above chart represents the maximum recommended flow rates through the Pressure Booster System headers for various manifold sizes. Rule of Thumb: Duplex Systems - Un-equal split (33%/67%) becomes more cost effective at 2 GPM or higher. Triplex Systems - Un-equal split (2%/4%/4%) is more cost effective at 3 GPM or higher. Page 7

6 PROBLEM 1: 1. Apartment building: 15 stories, 1 /story =.433 = 2. Minimum suction pressure available is System is a retro-fit constructed in 1975 utilizing 3.5 GPF Water Closets. 4. There are 2.5 Baths/Unit, 5 Units per floor, each with a laundry room & kitchen. 5. Total # of Flow units = Based on High Density Apartment Profile = GPM. 6. There is a cooling tower on the roof which has a constant make-up demand of 3 GPM. 7. Available voltage is 28/3/6. 8. There is sufficient area at the top floor to mount a drawdown tank if required. 9. There are no special services on site. System Flow Capacity = GPM System Output Pressure = System Header Size is Page 8

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