1 Big Data in Automotive Applications: Cloud Computing Based Velocity Profile Generation for Minimum Fuel Consumption Giorgio Rizzoni, Ümit Özgüner, Simona Onori, Jim Wollaeger, Adarsh Kumar, Pardis Khayyer, Engin Ozatay The Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
3 Big Data applica+ons in our vehicles 1. Data Communication for Driver Convenience (Consumer information, Parking Availability, Geographical Data) 2. Energy management and optimization 3. High Priority Safety Data (Emergency situations, Hazards) 4. Real-time, time critical (collision avoidance) 5. Traffic Management Data (Traffic Congestion and Road Closures) 6. Auto Industry Customer Service Data (Warranty Data, Diagnosis and Parts Failure) 7.
4 1. Data Communica+on for Driver Convenience Consumer information Data Parking Availability Data Geographical Data h9p://ebiquity.umbc.edu/blogger/2010/07/09/google- open- spot- android- app- finds- parking/
5 2. Fuel consumption optimization
6 3. Data Communication for Safety and Collaborative Driving Tes+ng autonomous and semi- autonomous cars sharing informa+on in Columbus. Driving 3 autonomous trucks in Japan. A collabora+ve driving exercise in Holland.
7 4. Time critical data collision avoidance Py
8 Our vision of the connected vehicle traffic of the future where many layers of informa+on is transmi9ed on demand and extensive measured data about the environment is shared.
9 Hierarchy of data transmission and sharing
10 Cloud Computing Based Velocity Profile Generation for Minimum Fuel Consumption Giorgio Rizzoni, Ümit Özgüner, Simona Onori, Jim Wollaeger, Adarsh Kumar, Pardis Khayyer, Engin Ozatay The Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dimitar Filev, John Michelini Ford Motor Company Research and Advanced Engineering
11 Fuel consumption optimization background and methodology
12 Cloud Compu+ng Problem Statement: Remote Servers (Off- line Op+miza+on) Objec)ve: Move the vehicle from posi+on A to B minimizing fuel consump+on over the trip. Posi+on/Velocity A B Process: Build a velocity profile based upon the geometry and speed limits of the road stored in large databases. To find the op)mal solu)on to move the vehicle from posi)on A to B, a vehicle simulator is used to solve a dynamic programming problem Time
13 Dynamic Programming Optimization Minimize energy consumption over a known route, by prescribing the instantaneous velocity of the vehicle.!
14 Siulated Driving Scenario A Highway-Urban Driving profile composed of 2 highway segments followed by urban and highway segments (6km, 1.25km, 4km and 7.35km, respectively) with non-zero road grade. Case Study Addi+onal Fuel Consumed (rela+ve to op+mal) Road Elevation data used to simulate non-zero grade for Scenario 2 Slow Poke % Average Profile % Lead Foot % 14
15 Simulated Driving Scenario B Actual driving profile with r e a l g r a d e d a t a. I t i s composed of an 18.8km highway segment followed by 8.6km urban segment with multiple stops events and road elevation.! Case Study Addi+onal Fuel Consumed Trip Dura+on (seconds) Op+mal Profile Slow Poke % 2026 Average Profile % 1428 Lead Foot % 1132 Actual Driving % 1462!
16 Vehicle Implementation
17 Remote Servers (Off- line Op+miza+on) Wireless Internet Provider
18 OSU GIS Server OSU Op+miza+on Server Google Maps Vehicle equipped with: Laptop Small Display GPS Receiver CAN- to- USB Dongle Wireless Internet Provider
19 OSU ArcGIS Server GIS: Geographic Informa+on Systems ArcGIS sohware is licensed and set up on a CAR Geographic informa+on from: USGS (United States Geological Survey)- Provided DEM data of the en+re US 3 meter resolu+on of Ohio 10 meter resolu+on of Con+nental US Total database size of eleva+on data: 700 GB
20 ArcGIS Eleva+on Database Sample Elevation Data loaded and published on OSU Servers
21 Driver Interface Colors Change Based on Driver behavior: RED: Going too fast- SLOW down WHITE: Within Target Range GREEN: Going too slow- SPEED up
22 Trial Calibra+on Loop around CAR 1. System was given the waypoints A, B, and C 2. Google Rou+ng algorithm decides upon a route and transmits coordinates to OSU servers over the internet. 3. Communicate with OSU GIS server and get eleva+ons. 4. Run Op+miza+on Total Trip Distance 2.2 Miles This route will be used for
23 Op+mal Profile Profile was op+mized using new Vehicle Model with a velocity Resolu+on = 2 MPH Predicted MPG: 24.5
24 Conclusion Velocity planning: Through the solution of an optimization problem, we have generated an optimal velocity profile to minimize vehicle fuel consumption through cloudbased optimization. Future work includes implementing real-time road traffic information with the cloud-based optimization to recalculate the optimal velocity profile in real-time in response to external traffic disturbances. One of the key questions that will be addressed in future research is the scalability of this concept to large numbers of vehicles, and the implications with regard to wireless communications, computing and real-time requirements.
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