INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY

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1 ANNUAL REPORT 2011 INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY

2 EDITORS Prof. Jacek Michalik, Ph.D., D.Sc. Wiktor Smułek, Ph.D. Ewa Godlewska-Para, M.Sc. PRINTING Sylwester Wojtas Copyright by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warszawa 2012 All rights reserved

3 CONTENTS GENERAL INFORMATION 7 MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE 9 MANAGING STAFF OF THE INSTITUTE 9 HEADS OF THE INCT DEPARTMENTS 9 SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL ( ) 9 SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL ( ) 11 ORGANIZATION SCHEME 13 SCIENTIFIC STAFF 14 PROFESSORS 14 SENIOR SCIENTISTS (Ph.D.) 14 CENTRE FOR RADIATION RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 17 OXIDIZING RADICALS AND THEIR REACTIVITY IN IONIC LIQUIDS BASED ON NTf 2 ANION J. Grodkowski, R. Kocia, J. Mirkowski, M. Nyga, A. Sulich, T. Szreder 19 FREE RADICAL REACTIONS OF NICOTINE K. Kosno, M. Celuch, J. Mirkowski, I. Janik, D. Pogocki 20 PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON RADIATION DEGRADATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF LINURON M. Celuch, A. Bojanowska-Czajka, K. Kulisa, J. Kisała, K. Kosno, D. Pogocki 23 REACTIVITY OF C-CENTRED RADICALS STABILIZED IN ZSM-5 ZEOLITE M. Sterniczuk, J. Sadło, G. Strzelczak, J. Michalik 25 MULTIFREQUENCY EPR STUDY ON γ-irradiated BONE SUBSTITUTING BIOMATERIALS J. Sadło, G. Strzelczak, M. Lewandowska-Szumieł, M. Sterniczuk, J. Michalik 26 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF POLY(ESTERURETHANE) BY RADIATION-INDUCED GRAFTING OF N-ISOPROPYLACRYLAMIDE M. Walo, G. Przybytniak, M. Barsbay, P.A. Kavaklı, O. Guven 28 RADIATION-INDUCED REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE AS POSSIBLE EXPLANATION OF ABIOTIC FORMATION OF METHANE E.M. Kornacka, Z.P. Zagórski 30 STUDIES OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GELS BASED ON IRRADIATED WHEAT STARCH K. Cieśla, W. Głuszewski 31 CENTRE FOR RADIOCHEMISTRY AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 37 ION EXCHANGE EVIDENCE FOR CHEMICAL ISOTOPE EFFECTS OF GALLIUM AND INDIUM IN AQUEOUS HCl SOLUTIONS I. Herdzik-Koniecko, S. Siekierski, J. Narbutt 39 NEW METHOD FOR DISSOLUTION OF THORIUM OXIDE K. Łyczko, M. Łyczko, I. Herdzik-Koniecko, B. Zielińska 41 LABELLING OF DOTATATE WITH CYCLOTRON PRODUCED 44 Sc S. Krajewski, I. Cydzik, K. Abbas, A. Bulgheroni, A. Bilewicz, A. Majkowska-Pilip, F. Simonell 42 99m Tc-LABELLED VASOPRESSIN ANALOGUE d(ch 2 ) 5 [D-Tyr(Et 2 ),Ile 4,Eda 9 ]AVP AS A POTENTIAL RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL FOR SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER (SCLC) IMAGING E. Gniazdowska, P. Koźmiński, K. Bańkowski 43 THE CONCEPT OF A HYBRID SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF LIQUID LOW- AND MEDIUM-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE G. Zakrzewska-Trznadel, A. Miśkiewicz, A. Jaworska-Sobczak, M. Harasimowicz 45 STUDIES ON THE LEACHING OF URANIUM FROM LOWER TRIASSIC PERIBALTIC SANDSTONES G. Zakrzewska-Trznadel, K. Kiegiel, K. Frąckiewicz, D. Gajda, E. Chajduk, I. Bartosiewicz, J. Chwastowska, S. Wołkowicz, J.B. Miecznik, R. Strzelecki 47

4 SYNTHESIS OF URANIUM DIOXIDE MICROSPHERES BY WATER AND NITRATE EXTRACTION FROM URANYL-ASCORBATE SOLS M. Brykała, A. Deptuła, W. Łada, T. Olczak, D. Wawszczak, T. Smoliński 48 SYNTHESIS OF PEROVSKITE BY COMPLEX SOL-GEL PROCESS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE IMMOBILIZATION T. Smoliński, A. Deptuła, T. Olczak, W. Łada, D. Wawszczak, M. Brykała, F. Zaza, A.G. Chmielewski 51 CENTRE FOR RADIOBIOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL DOSIMETRY 55 OPTIMIZATION OF A FINGER-PRICK BLOOD COLLECTION METHOD FOR THE γ-h2ax ASSAY: POTENTIAL APPLICATION IN POPULATION TRIAGE M. Wojewódzka, A. Lankoff, M. Kruszewski 57 CLONOGENIC ABILITY DOES NOT CORRESPOND TO DNA DAMAGE INDUCED IN HUMAN CELLS TREATED IN VITRO WITH SILVER AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES I. Grądzka, T. Bartłomiejczyk, T. Iwaneńko, M. Wojewódzka, A. Lankoff, M. Dusinska, G. Brunborg, I. Szumiel, M. Kruszewski 58 COMPARISON OF FREQUENCIES OF DICENTRIC CHROMOSOMES AND HISTONE γ-h2ax FOCI IN HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES X-IRRADIATED AT 4, 20 AND 37 o C A. Lankoff, S. Sommer, I. Buraczewska, T. Bartłomiejczyk, T. Iwaneńko, H. Lisowska, A. Węgierek-Ciuk, I. Szumiel, I. Wewiór, A. Banasik-Nowak 59 THE EFFECT OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA) SUPPLEMENTATION ON LIPID RAFT PROPERTIES AND RADIOSENSITIVITY OF HUMAN COLON CANCER HT-29 CELLS I. Grądzka, B. Sochanowicz, K. Brzóska, G. Wójciuk, Ch. Degen, G. Jahreis, I. Szumiel 60 LABORATORY OF NUCLEAR ANALYTICAL METHODS 63 RADIOLYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF DICLOFENAC ANALYTICAL, TOXICOLOGICAL AND PULSE RADIOLYSIS STUDIES A. Bojanowska-Czajka, G. Kciuk, M. Gumiela, G. Nałęcz-Jawecki, K. Bobrowski, M. Trojanowicz 64 ELABORATION OF OPTIMAL CONDITIONS OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS ANALYSIS FOR URANIUM DETERMINATION I. Bartosiewicz, E. Chajduk, M. Pyszynska, J. Chwastowska, H. Polkowska-Motrenko 68 LABORATORY OF MATERIAL RESEARCH 71 STRUCTURAL STUDIES IN Li(I) ION COORDINATION CHEMISTRY W. Starosta, J. Leciejewicz 73 NANOPORES WITH CONTROLLED PROFILES IN TRACK-ETCHED MEMBRANES B. Sartowska, O. Orelovitch, A. Presz, I. Blonskaya, P. Apel 77 IMPROVEMENT OF TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL BY ALLOYING ITS SURFACE LAYER WITH RARE EARTH ELEMENTS USING HIGH INTENSITY PULSED PLASMA BEAMS B. Sartowska, J. Piekoszewski, L. Waliś, J. Senatorski, M. Barlak, W. Starosta, C. Pochrybniak, I. Pokorska 79 INAA AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THE PROVENANCE OF ALABASTER SCULPTURES T. Śliwa, E. Pańczyk 80 POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES LABORATORY 85 MODELLING STUDY OF NO x REMOVAL IN FLUE GAS IN THE PRESENCE OF C 2 H 6 UNDER ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION Y. Sun, V. Morgunov, A.G. Chmielewski 86 EMISSION PROCESSES IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION PLASMA TECHNOLOGIES IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (PlasTEP) S. Witman, A. Pawelec, A.G. Chmielewski 87 STABLE ISOTOPE LABORATORY 89 STABLE ISOTOPES METHODS FOR JUICE AUTHENTICITY CONTROL R. Wierzchnicki 91 STABLE ISOTOPE RATIO ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERIZE CHOSEN SAMPLES OF POLISH HONEY K. Malec-Czechowska, R. Wierzchnicki 92

5 LABORATORY FOR MEASUREMENTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DOSES 95 A STUDY OF FILMS: CTA, B3 AND PVC AS POTENTIAL DOSIMETERS FOR DOSIMETRY AT LOW TEMPERATURES A. Korzeniowska-Sobczuk, K. Doner, M. Karlińska 96 LABORATORY FOR DETECTION OF IRRADIATED FOOD 99 INCT PARTICIPATES IN THE INTERCOMPARATIVE EXERCISE FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE ON TL, PSL AND EPR IRRADIATED FOOD DETECTION METHODS W. Stachowicz, M. Sadowska, G. Liśkiewicz, G.P. Guzik 100 EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT PROCEDURES OF MINERAL ISOLATION FROM IRRADIATED SPICES SUITABLE FOR THERMOLUMINESCENCE DETECTION METHOD M. Sadowska, W. Stachowicz 102 LABORATORY OF NUCLEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS AND METHODS 107 THE RADIOMETRIC PROBES FOR INDUSTRIAL MEASURING SYSTEMS A. Jakowiuk, E. Kowalska, J. Pieńkos, P. Filipiak, Ł. Modzelewski, J. Palige, J. Kraś 108 MOBILE DOSIMETRIC GATE A. Jakowiuk, E. Kowalska, J. Pieńkos, P. Filipiak, Ł. Modzelewski 109 PUBLICATIONS IN ARTICLES 113 BOOKS 119 CHAPTERS IN BOOKS 119 THE INCT PUBLICATIONS 121 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 121 CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS 124 SUPPLEMENT LIST OF THE PUBLICATIONS IN NUKLEONIKA 139 INTERVIEWS IN THE INCT PATENTS AND PATENT APPLICATIONS IN PATENTS 144 PATENT APPLICATIONS 144 CONFERENCES ORGANIZED AND CO-ORGANIZED BY THE INCT IN Ph.D./D.Sc. THESES IN Ph.D. THESES 148 D.Sc. THESES 148 EDUCATION 149 Ph.D. PROGRAMME IN CHEMISTRY 149 TRAINING OF STUDENTS 149 RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CONTRACTS 151 RESEARCH PROJECTS GRANTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE CENTRE IN

6 DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS GRANTED BY THE NATIONAL CENTRE FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS CO-FUNDED BY THE MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN STRATEGIC PROJECT NEW TECHNOLOGIES SUPPORTING DEVELOPMENT OF SAFE NUCLEAR ENERGY 153 STRATEGIC PROJECT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR GAINING ENERGY 153 IAEA RESEARCH CONTRACTS IN IAEA TECHNICAL AND REGIONAL CONTRACTS IN PROJECTS WITHIN THE FRAME OF EUROPEAN UNION FRAME PROGRAMMES IN EUROPEAN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FUND: BALTIC SEA REGION PROGRAMME 154 INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAMMES IN STRUCTURAL FUND: OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME INNOVATIVE ECONOMY 155 LIST OF VISITORS TO THE INCT IN THE INCT SEMINARS IN LECTURES AND SEMINARS DELIVERED OUT OF THE INCT IN LECTURES 159 SEMINARS 163 AWARDS IN INDEX OF THE AUTHORS 166

7 GENERAL INFORMATION 7 GENERAL INFORMATION Poland decided to start a national nuclear energy programme 55 years ago and the Institute of Nuclear Research (IBJ) was established. Research in nuclear and analytical chemistry, nuclear chemical engineering and technology (including fuel cycle), radiochemistry and radiation chemistry, and radiobiology were carried out mainly in the Chemistry Division, located in Warsaw Żerań, which became the interdisciplinary Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) in The INCT is Poland s most advanced institution in the fields of radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, nuclear chemical engineering and technology, application of nuclear methods in material engineering and process engineering, radioanalytical techniques, design and production of instruments based on nuclear techniques, environmental research, cellular radiobiology, etc. The results of work at the INCT have been implemented in various branches of the national economy, particularly in industry, medicine, environmental protection and agriculture. Basic research is focused on: radiochemistry, chemistry of isotopes, physical chemistry of separation processes, cellular radiobiology, and radiation chemistry, particularly that based on pulse radiolysis method. With its nine electron accelerators in operation and with staff experienced in the field of electron beam application, the Institute is one of the most advanced centres of science and technology in this domain. The Institute has four pilot plants equipped in six electron accelerators: for radiation sterilization of medical devices and transplantation grafts; for radiation modification of polymers; for removal of SO 2 and NO x from flue gases; for food hygiene. The electron beam flue gas treatment in EPS Pomorzany with the accelerators power over 1 MW is a biggest radiation processing facility ever built. The Institute trains many of IAEA s Fellows and plays a leading role in agency regional projects. Because of its achievements, the INCT has been nominated the IAEA s Collaborating Centre in Radiation Technology and Industrial Dosimetry (www-naweb.iaea.org/ na/collaborating-centres.html). The INCT has started implementing several projects in the programme Innovative Economy POIG, granted on the basis of high evaluation of the Institute s achievements: Centre of Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry meeting the needs of nuclear power and nuclear medicine; Analysis of thorium usage effects in a power nuclear reactor (coordinated by the Institute of Atomic Energy); Analysis of the possibilities of uranium extraction from indigenous resources (in cooperation with the Polish Geological Institute NRI); New generation of intelligent radiometric tools with wireless data transmission; Development of a multi-parametric triage approach for an assessment of radiation exposure in a large -scale radiological emergency; New generation of electrical wires modified by radiation. The INCT is a leading institute in Poland regarding the implementation of nuclear energy related EU projects. Its expertise and infrastructure was the basis for participation in EURATOM and FP7 grants: ACSEPT: Actinide Recycling by Separation and Transmutation; ADVANCE: Ageing Diagnostics and Prognostics of Low-voltage I&C Cables; IPPA: Implementing Public Participation Approaches in Radioactive Wastes Disposal; MULTIBIODOSE: Multidisciplinary Biodosimetric Tools to Manage High Scale Radiological Casualties; NEWLANCER: New MS Linking for an Advanced Cohesion in Euratom Research. The mission of the INCT is the implementation of nuclear energy for social development, health and environmental protection. The Institute represents the Polish Government in Euroatom Fuel Supply Agency, in Fuel Supply Working Group of Global Nuclear Energy Partnership and in Radioactive

8 8 GENERAL INFORMATION Waste Management Committee of the Nuclear Energy Agency (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). The Institute is listed in the cathegory I of scientific institutions based on the evaluation of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The INCT Scientific Council has rights to grant D.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in the field of chemistry. The Institute carries out third level studies (doctorate) in the field of nuclear and radiation chemistry and in 2011 one D.Sc. and four Ph.D. theses were defended. In 2011, the INCT scientists published 67 papers in scientific journals registered in the Philadelphia list, among them 39 papers in journals with an impact factor (IF) higher than 1.0. Five scientific books and 17 chapters in the books were written by the INCT research workers. The INCT had actively participated in the numerous events associated with the International Year of Chemistry (IYC 2011) and the 100th Anniversary of Maria Skłodowska- -Curie Nobel prize in chemistry. We took part, among others, in exhibition in Brussels Maria Skłodowska-Curie in science, yesterday and today, in education project Following Maria Skłodowska-Curie questioning, in main IYC 2011 event scientific picnic in the Institute of Physical Chemistry and in the lectures and exhibitions in Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań under the name Life and work of Maria Skłodowska-Curie women in science. Annual awards of the INCT Director-General for the best publications in 2011 were granted: first degree award to Krzysztof Bobrowski for the chapter Chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals in the book Recent trends in radiation chemistry ; second degree award to Andrzej Pawlukojć for five publications on the structure and dynamics of charge transfer (CT) complexes published in international journals with high IF; third degree award to Janusz Leciejewicz and Wojciech Starosta for five publications on the properties of new complexes of uranium, lead, zinc and lithium with a pyridazine- -carboxylic ligand published in Acta Crystallographica. The research teams in the INCT were involved in organization of 11 scientific meetings: Polish National Group Meeting in the frame of IPPA FP7 EU Project (5 April 2011, Warszawa, Poland); Seminar on the Exchange of Information on Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection with participation of government delegations of Austria and Poland (25-26 May 2011, Warszawa, Poland); Polish National Group Meeting in the frame of IPPA FP7 EU Project (1 July 2011, Warszawa, Poland); PlasTEP Summer School and Training Course in Warsaw/Szczecin (25 July-5 August 2011, Warszawa/Szczecin, Poland); Workshop Current trends in radiation chemistry research (26 August 2011, Warszawa, Poland); International Conference on Development and Applications of Nuclear Technologies NUTECH-2011 (11-14 September 2011, Kraków, Poland); Polish Reference Group Meeting in the frame of IPPA FP7 EU Project (20 September 2011, Warszawa, Poland); XI Training Course on Radiation Sterilization and Hygenization (20-21 October 2011, Warszawa, Poland); Coordination Meeting on Radiation Engineered Nanostructures Supporting Radiation Synthesis and the Characterization of Nanomaterials for Health Care, Environmental Protection and Clean Energy Applications, RER/8/014 (16-18 November 2011, Warszawa, Poland); 1st Workshop in the frame of IPPA FP7 EU Project (24 November 2011, Warszawa, Poland); IX Conference For the city and environment problems of waste disposal (28 November 2011, Warszawa, Poland). The INCT also is editor of the scientific journal Nukleonika (www.nukleonika.pl).

9 MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE 9 MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE MANAGING STAFF OF THE INSTITUTE Director Prof. Andrzej G. Chmielewski, Ph.D., D.Sc. Deputy Director for Research and Development Prof. Jacek Michalik, Ph.D., D.Sc. Deputy Director of Finances Wojciech Maciąg, M.Sc. Deputy Director of Maintenance and Marketing Roman Janusz, M.Sc. Accountant General Maria Małkiewicz, M.Sc. HEADS OF THE INCT DEPARTMENTS Centre for Radiation Research and Technology Zbigniew Zimek, Ph.D. Centre for Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry Prof. Jerzy Ostyk-Narbutt, Ph.D., D.Sc. Centre for Radiobiology and Biological Dosimetry Prof. Marcin Kruszewski, Ph.D., D.Sc. Laboratory of Nuclear Control Systems and Methods Jacek Palige, Ph.D. Laboratory of Material Research Wojciech Starosta, Ph.D. Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Methods Halina Polkowska-Motrenko, Ph.D., D.Sc, professor in INCT Stable Isotope Laboratory Ryszard Wierzchnicki, Ph.D. Pollution Control Technologies Laboratory Andrzej Pawelec, Ph.D. Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Food Wacław Stachowicz, Ph.D. Laboratory for Measurements of Technological Doses Anna Korzeniowska-Sobczuk, M.Sc. SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL ( ) 1. Prof. Grzegorz Bartosz, Ph.D., D.Sc. University of Łódź 2. Prof. Aleksander Bilewicz, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 3. Prof. Krzysztof Bobrowski, Ph.D., D.Sc. (Vice-chairman) Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 4. Prof. Stanisław Chibowski, Ph.D., D.Sc. Maria Curie-Skłodowska University 5. Prof. Rajmund Dybczyński, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology Prof. 6. Zbigniew Florjańczyk, Ph.D., D.Sc. (Chairman) Warsaw University of Technology

10 10 MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE 7. Prof. Zbigniew Galus, Ph.D., D.Sc. University of Warsaw 8. Prof. Henryk Górecki, Ph.D., D.Sc. Wrocław University of Technology 9. Prof. Leon Gradoń, Ph.D., D.Sc. Warsaw University of Technology 10. Jan Grodkowski, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 11. Edward Iller, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in NCBJ National Centre for Nuclear Research 12. Tomasz Jackowski, M.Sc. Ministry of Economy 13. Iwona Kałuska, M.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 14. Prof. Marcin Kruszewski, Ph.D., D.Sc. (Vice-chairman) Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 15. Prof. Marek Wojciech Lankosz, Ph.D., D.Sc. AGH University of Science and Technology 16. Prof. Janusz Lipkowski, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences 17. Zygmunt Łuczyński, Ph.D. Institute of Electronic Materials Technology 18. Prof. Andrzej Marcinek, Ph.D., D.Sc. Technical University of Łódź 19. Prof. Bronisław Marciniak, Ph.D., D.Sc. Adam Mickiewicz University 20. Wojciech Migdał, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 21. Prof. Jerzy Ostyk-Narbutt, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 22. Jan Paweł Pieńkos, Eng. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 23. Dariusz Pogocki, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 24. Halina Polkowska-Motrenko, Ph.D. D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 25. Grażyna Przybytniak, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 26. Prof. Leon Pszonicki, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 27. Jarosław Sadło, Ph.D. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 28. Ryszard Siemion, M.Sc. PKN ORLEN 29. Prof. Irena Szumiel, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 30. Prof. Marek Trojanowicz, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 31. Hanna Ewa Trojanowska, M.Sc. Undersecretary of State in the Ministry of Economy 32. Andrzej Tyrała, M.Sc. Warszawskie Zakłady Farmaceutyczne POLFA S.A. 33. Piotr Urbański, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT (Vice-chairman) Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 34. Lech Waliś, Ph.D. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 35. Maria Wojewódzka, Ph.D. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 36. Prof. Zbigniew Zagórski, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 37. Grażyna Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT (Vice-chairman) Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 38. Zbigniew Zimek, Ph.D. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology HONORARY MEMBERS OF THE INCT SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL ( ) 1. Prof. Antoni Dancewicz, Ph.D., D.Sc. 2. Prof. Sławomir Siekierski, Ph.D.

11 MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL ( ) Prof. Grzegorz Bartosz, Ph.D., D.Sc. University of Łódź 2. Prof. Aleksander Bilewicz, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 3. Prof. Krzysztof Bobrowski, Ph.D., D.Sc. (Vice-chairman) Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 4. Marcin Brykała, M.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 5. Prof. Andrzej G. Chmielewski, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 6. Andrzej Chwas, M.Sc. Ministry of Economy 7. Jadwiga Chwastowska, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 8. Krystyna Cieśla, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 9. Jakub Dudek, Ph.D. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 10. Prof. Rajmund Dybczyński, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 11. Prof. Zbigniew Florjańczyk, Ph.D., D.Sc. (Chairman) Warsaw University of Technology 12. Prof. Zbigniew Galus, Ph.D., D.Sc. University of Warsaw 13. Prof. Henryk Górecki, Ph.D., D.Sc. Wrocław University of Technology 14. Prof. Leon Gradoń, Ph.D., D.Sc. Warsaw University of Technology 15. Jan Grodkowski, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 16. Edward Iller, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in NCBJ National Centre for Nuclear Research 17. Adrian Jakowiuk, M.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 18. Prof. Marcin Kruszewski, Ph.D., D.Sc. (Vice-chairman) Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 19. Anna Lankoff, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 20. Prof. Marek Wojciech Lankosz, Ph.D., D.Sc. AGH University of Science and Technology 21. Prof. Janusz Lipkowski, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences 22. Zygmunt Łuczyński, Ph.D. Institute of Electronic Materials Technology 23. Prof. Jacek Michalik, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 24. Wojciech Migdał, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 25. Prof. Jarosław Mizera, Ph.D., D.Sc. Warsaw University of Technology 26. Prof. Jerzy Ostyk-Narbutt, Ph.D., D.Sc. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 27. Andrzej Pawlukojć, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 28. Dariusz Pogocki, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 29. Halina Polkowska-Motrenko, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 30. Grażyna Przybytniak, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 31. Prof. Janusz Rosiak, Ph.D., D.Sc. Technical University of Łódź 32. Lech Waliś, Ph.D. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 33. Maria Wojewódzka, Ph.D. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 34. Grażyna Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor in INCT (Vice-chairman) Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 35. Zbigniew Zimek, Ph.D. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology

12 12 MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE HONORARY MEMBERS OF THE INCT SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL ( ) 1. Prof. Sławomir Siekierski, Ph.D. 2. Prof. Irena Szumiel, Ph.D., D.Sc. 3. Prof. Zbigniew Paweł Zagórski, Ph.D., D.Sc.

13 MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE 13 ORGANIZATION SCHEME DIRECTOR Scientific Council Accountant General Deputy Director of Finances Deputy Director of Maintenance and Marketing Deputy Director for Research and Development Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Methods Centre for Radiation Research and Technology Stable Isotope Laboratory Centre for Radiobiology and Biological Dosimetry Pollution Control Technologies Laboratory Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Food Centre for Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry Laboratory for Measurements of Technological Doses Laboratory of Material Research Laboratory of Nuclear Control Systems and Methods

14 14 SCIENTIFIC STAFF SCIENTIFIC STAFF PROFESSORS 1. Bilewicz Aleksander radiochemistry, inorganic chemistry 2. Bobrowski Krzysztof radiation chemistry, photochemistry, biophysics 3. Chmielewski Andrzej G. chemical and process engineering, nuclear chemical engineering, isotope chemistry 4. Chwastowska Jadwiga, professor in INCT analytical chemistry 5. Cieśla Krystyna, professor in INCT physical chemistry 6. Dybczyński Rajmund analytical chemistry 7. Grigoriew Helena, professor in INCT solid state physics, diffraction research of non- -crystalline matter 8. Grodkowski Jan, professor in INCT radiation chemistry 9. Kruszewski Marcin radiobiology 10. Lankoff Anna, professor in INCT biology 11. Leciejewicz Janusz Tadeusz crystallography, solid state physics, material science 12. Michalik Jacek radiation chemistry, surface chemistry, radical chemistry 13. Migdał Wojciech, professor in INCT chemistry, science of commodies 14. Ostyk-Narbutt Jerzy radiochemistry, coordination chemistry 15. Pawlukojć Andrzej, professor in INCT chemistry 16. Pogocki Dariusz, professor in INCT radiation chemistry, pulse radiolysis 17. Polkowska-Motrenko Halina, professor in INCT analytical chemistry 18. Przybytniak Grażyna, professor in INCT radiation chemistry 19. Siekierski Sławomir physical chemistry, inorganic chemistry 20. Szumiel Irena cellular radiobiology 21. Trojanowicz Marek analytical chemistry 22. Zagórski Zbigniew physical chemistry, radiation chemistry, electrochemistry 23. Zakrzewska-Trznadel Grażyna, professor in INCT process and chemical engineering SENIOR SCIENTISTS (Ph.D.) 1. Barlak Marek chemistry 5. Buczkowski Marek physics 2. Bartłomiejczyk Teresa biology 6. Chajduk Ewelina chemistry 3. Bojanowska-Czajka Anna chemistry 7. Danilczuk Marek chemistry 4. Brzóska Kamil biochemistry 8. Deptuła Andrzej chemistry

15 SCIENTIFIC STAFF Dobrowolski Andrzej chemistry 31. Ostapczuk Anna chemistry 10. Dudek Jakub chemistry 32. Ozimiński Wojciech chemistry 11. Frąckiewicz Kinga chemistry 33. Palige Jacek metallurgy 12. Fuks Leon chemistry 34. Pawelec Andrzej chemical engineering 13. Głuszewski Wojciech chemistry 35. Pruszyński Marek chemistry 14. Gniazdowska Ewa chemistry 36. Ptaszek Sylwia chemical engineering 15. Grądzka Iwona biology 37. Rafalski Andrzej radiation chemistry Harasimowicz Marian technical nuclear physics, theory of elementary particles Herdzik-Koniecko Irena chemistry Kciuk Gabriel chemistry Kiegiel Katarzyna chemistry Kierzek Joachim physics Kornacka Ewa chemistry Kunicki-Goldfinger Jerzy conservator/restorer of art Lewandowska-Siwkiewicz Hanna chemistry Łyczko Krzysztof chemistry Łyczko Monika chemistry Machaj Bronisław radiometry Majkowska-Pilip Agnieszka chemistry Męczyńska-Wielgosz Sylwia chemistry Mirkowski Jacek nuclear and medical electronics Nowicki Andrzej organic chemistry and technology, high-temperature technology Roubinek Otton chemistry Sadło Jarosław chemistry Samczyński Zbigniew analytical chemistry Sartowska Bożena material engineering Skwara Witold analytical chemistry Sochanowicz Barbara biology Sommer Sylwester radiobiology, cytogenetics Stachowicz Wacław radiation chemistry, EPR spectroscopy Starosta Wojciech chemistry Strzelczak Grażyna radiation chemistry Sun Yongxia chemistry Szreder Tomasz chemistry Turek Janusz chemistry Waliś Lech material science, material engineering Warchoł Stanisław solid state physics Wierzchnicki Ryszard chemical engineering

16 16 SCIENTIFIC STAFF 54. Wiśniowski Paweł radiation chemistry, photochemistry, biophysics 57. Zielińska Barbara chemistry Wojewódzka Maria radiobiology Wójciuk Karolina chemistry 58. Zimek Zbigniew electronics, accelerator techniques, radiation processing

17 CENTRE FOR RADIATION RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY Electron beams (EB) offered by the Centre for Radiation Research and Technology located at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) are dedicated to basic research, R&D and radiation technology applications. The Centre, in collaboration with the universities from Poland and abroad, apply EB technology for fundamental research on the electron beam-induced chemistry and transformation of materials. Research in the field of radiation chemistry includes studies on the mechanism and kinetics of radiation-induced processes in liquid and solid phases by the pulse radiolysis method. The pulse radiolysis experimental set-up allows direct time-resolved observation of short-lived intermediates (typically within the nanosecond to millisecond time domain), is complemented by steady-state radiolysis, stop-flow absorption spectrofluorimetry and product analysis using chromatographic methods. Studies on radiation-induced intermediates are dedicated to energy and charge transfer processes and radical reactions in model compounds of biological relevance aromatic thioethers, peptides and proteins, as well as observation of atoms, clusters, radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), also focused on research problems in nanophase chemistry and radiation-induced cross-linking of selected and/or modified polymers and copolymers. This research has a wide range of potential applications, including creating more environmentally friendly and sustainable packaging, improving product safety, and modifying material properties. Electron accelerators provide streams of electrons to initiate chemical reactions or break of chemical bonds more efficiently than the existing thermal and chemical approaches, helping to reduce energy consumption and decrease the cost of the process. The Centre may offer currently four electron accelerators for study of the effects of accelerated electrons on a wide range of chemical compounds with a focus on electron beam-induced polymerization, polymer modification and controlled degradation of macromolecules. EB technology has a great potential to promote innovation, including new ways to save energy and reduce the use of hazardous substances as well as to enable more eco-friendly manufacturing processes. Advanced EB technology offered by the Centre provides a unique platform with the application for: sterilization medical devices, pharmaceutical materials, food products shelf life extension, polymer advanced materials, air pollution removal technology and others. EB accelerators replace frequently thermal and chemical processes for cleaner, more efficient, lower-cost manufacturing. EB accelerators sterilize products and packaging, improve the performance of plastics and other materials, and eliminate pollution for industries such as pharmaceutical, medical devices, food, and plastics. The Centre offers EB in the energy range from 0.5 to 10 MeV with an average beam power up to 20 kw and three laboratory-size gamma sources with Co-60. Research activity are supported by such unique laboratory equipment as: nanosecond pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis set-ups, EPR paramagnetic spectroscopy for solid material investigation, pilot installation for polymer modification, laboratory experimental stand for removal of pollutants from gas phase, laboratory of polymer and non-material characterization, microbiological laboratory, dosimetric laboratory, pilot facility for radiation sterilization and food product processing.

18 The unique technical basis makes it possible to organize a wide internal and international cooperation in the field of radiation chemistry and radiation processing including programmes supported by the European Union and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It should be noticed that currently there is no other suitable European experimental basis for study radiation chemistry, physics and radiation processing in a full range of electron energy and beam power. Since 2010, at the INCT on the basis of the Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, an IAEA Collaborating Centre for Radiation Processing and Industrial Dosimetry is functioning. That is the best example of capability and great potential of concentrated equipment, methods and staff working towards application of innovative radiation technology.

19 CENTRE FOR RADIATION RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY OXIDIZING RADICALS AND THEIR REACTIVITY IN IONIC LIQUIDS BASED ON NTf 2 ANION Jan Grodkowski, Rafał Kocia, Jacek Mirkowski, Małgorzata Nyga, Agnieszka Sulich, Tomasz Szreder 19 Ionic liquids (ILs) belong to quickly expanding field of science. Their properties: negligible vapour pressure, non-flammability, thermal and chemical resistance, high conductivity, possibility to be reused and others make them a very attractive alternative to classical solvents [1-4]. Additionally, the properties of ILs can be controlled to a large extent by variation of both cation or anion [5, 6]. The aim of the study is to understand radical-ion reactions in selected ILs. We focused on kinetics and spectral characteristic of oxidizing species N 6 in these solvents. The N 6 radical belongs to pseudohalide radicals family and is known as intermediate in radiation chemistry. This radical is a strong one-electron oxidant and can be used in studies of electron transfer reactions. Since reactions in water are very fast and individuals are very short-lived, the spectral and kinetic characterization of species participating in reaction (1) in aqueous solutions were investigated before [7, 8]. Equilibrium constant values (K) for reaction (1) was determined to be equal to 0.33 [9] and 200 [10] in water and acetonitrile, respectively. Due to high viscosity of ILs radiation-induced reactions are slowed down in such media. Thus, one can expect different behaviour of certain species. For instance, the participation of presolvated electron vary with viscosity of medium. In very viscose solvents presolvated electrons are more likely to react before their solvation and thus influence radiation yield of radicals species [11]. N 3 + N 3 N 6 (1) In the present paper the mechanism of the azide radical anion dimmer N 6 formation (1) was studied in three different ILs: methyltributylammonium N,N-bis(trifluoromethylosulphonyl)imide (MeBu 3 NTf 2 ), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium N,N- -bis(trifluoromethylosulphonyl)imide (hmimntf 2 ) and triethylammonium N,N-bis(trifluoromethylosulphonyl)imide (Et 3 NHNTf 2 ), (Fig.1). All of ILs base on the same anion N,N-bis(trifluoromethylosulphonyl)imide which was used to obtain low melting point of solvents. The most useful technique to study the chemistry of short-life free radicals is pulse radiolysis. In our research we used 10 ns pulses of 10 MeV electrons from a LINAC linear electron accelerator (LAE 10) with spectrophotometric detection. Energy from the incident electron beam radiation was absorbed in ILs generating a range of ILs excited states (IL*), electrons and ionized species. The electron deficiency species often called holes [12] react with azide anion forming azide radical N 3 according to reaction (2). Then, the azide radicals react as mentioned above via reaction (1) forming N 6. IL hole + N 3 N 3 + IL (2) Spectrum of the N 3 /MeBu 3 NNTf 2 system, recorded by means of pulse radiolysis, is shown in Fig.2. Basing on the literature data [7, 8] the band with distinct absorption maxima at 700 nm was assigned to N 6. Observed increase of absorption of A B C D Fig.1. Methyltributylammonium cation (a), triethylammonium cation Et 3 NH + (b), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium cation hmim + (c), N,N-bis(trifluoromethylosulphonyl)imide anion (d). Fig.2. Pulse radiolysis of N 2 O-saturated solution of tetrabutylammonium azide (0.06 M) in MeBu 3 NNTf 2 : ( ) 1 μs, ( ) 5 μs, ( ) 10 μs, ( ) 40 μs after the pulse; 20 Gy. this band with N 3 concentration confirmed our assignment. The calculation of equilibrium constants was carried out basing on the equation: = + (3) G G0 G 0K [N 3 ] where: G 0 the radiolytic yield at 700 nm at infinitely high N 3 concentrations, G the radiolytic yield at given N 3 concentrations, K = [N 6 ]/[N 3 ] [N 3 ] the equilibrium constant.

20 20 CENTRE FOR RADIATION RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY A plot of 1/G vs. 1/[N 3 ] is a straight line. From the slope of this line, K value can be extracted. Obtained K values in MeBu 3 NTf 2 and hmimntf 2 were determined to be equal to 7 ± 2 and 6 ± 1, respectively. In protic ionic liquids (Et 3 NHNTf 2 ) we did not observe formation of N 6 which is probably due to the reaction of N 3 with the amine resulting from the radiolysis of ionic liquid, or from contamination from the synthesis of IL (Et 3 NHNTf 2 ). From the obtained data, it can be observed that the K value does not dramatically change in the case when methyltributylammonium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulphonyl]imide (MeBu 3 NNTf 2 ) is satured with water (0.15% mass percent of water). The equilibrium constant K in this case was determined to be equal to 7. Concluding, the low K value can be interpreted in terms of the relatively little difference in free energy of formation of the N 6 radical as compared to the sum of free energy formation of N 3 and N 3 species and may reflect the difficulty in forming stable bonding in N 6 species. Stability of N 6 radical in ionic liquids is much higher as compared to aqueous solutions. References [1]. Aparicio S., Atilhan M., Karadas F.: Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49, (2010). [2]. Endres F., El Abedin S.Z.: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 8, (2006). [3]. Plechkova N.V., Seddon K.R.: Chem. Soc. Rev., 37, (2008). [4]. Wasserscheid P., Keim W.: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 39, (2000). [5]. Earle M.J., Seddon K.R.: Pure Appl. Chem., 72, (2000). [6]. Welton T.: Chem. Rev., 99, (1999). [7]. Alfassi Z.B., Prutz W.A., Schuler R.H.: J. Phys. Chem., 90, (1986). [8]. Hayon E., Simic M.: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 92, (1970). [9]. Butler J., Land E.J., Swallow A.J., Prytz W.: Radiat. Phys. Chem., 23, 265 (1984). [10]. Workentin M.S., Wagner B.D., Negri F., Zgierski M., Lusztyk J., Siebrand W., Wayner D.D.M.: Phys. Chem., 99, (1995). [11]. Wishart J.W., Lall-Ramnarine S.I., Raju R., Scumpia A., Bellevue S., Ragbir R., Engel R.: Radiat. Phys. Chem., 72, (2005). [12]. Wishart J.F.: J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 1, (2010). FREE RADICAL REACTIONS OF NICOTINE Katarzyna Kosno 1/, Monika Celuch 1/, Jacek Mirkowski 1/, Ireneusz Janik 2/, Dariusz Pogocki 1,3/ 1/ Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warszawa, Poland 2/ Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, USA 3/ Faculty of Biology and Agriculture, University of Rzeszów, Poland Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)pyridine), a natural alkaloid of main responsibility for tobacco smoking addiction, has some medical applications. Besides its common usage in nicotine replacement Fig.1. Acid-base properties of nicotine in aqueous solution at 25 o C [6]. therapy, is applied in neurodegenerative diseases diagnosis, and for alleviation of some symptoms and ailments accompanying these diseases [1]. Nicotine can have a potential protective effect on nerve cells. Neurodegenerative diseases are usually accompanied by an extensive oxidative stress, where nervous tissue is exposed to the presence of oxygen radicals beyond a threshold for proper antioxidant neutralization [2-4], and therapeutic usage of nicotine can be related to its free radical scavenging capacity. Nicotine molecule is made of two rings aromatic pyridine and aliphatic pyrrolidine. In physiological ph of blood 7.4, ca. 76% (37 o C) of nicotine Fig.2. Alternative pathways of OH radical reaction with nicotine.

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