2 A digital image is a representation of a twodimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. The digital image contains a fixed number of rows and columns of pixels. Pixels are the smallest individual element in an image, holding quantized values that represent the brightness of a given color at any specific point.
3 Digital images can be created by a variety of input devices and techniques, such as digital cameras, scanners, coordinate-measuring machines, seismographic profiling, airborne radar, and more. They can also be synthetized from arbitrary non-image data, such as mathematical functions or three-dimensional geometric models; the latter being a major sub-area of computer graphics.
4 Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of digital images, typically from a physical object. The term is often assumed to imply or include the processing, compression, storage, printing, and display of such images.
5 A digital image may be created directly from a physical scene by a camera or similar device. Alternatively, it may be obtained from another image in an analog medium, such as photographs, photographic film, or printed paper, by a scanner or similar device.
6 Resolution: Refers to the sharpness and clarity of an image, measured in terms of ppi and dpi. PPI: (pixels per inch) Measurement used for images displayed on screen. DPI: (dots per inch) Measurement used in printing images. Pixel: A word invented from "picture element" - the basic unit of programmable color on a computer display or in a computer image.
7 Megapixel: A megapixel (that is, a million pixels) is a unit of image sensing capacity in a digital camera. In general, the more megapixels in a camera, the better the resolution when printing an image in a given size. Lossy: A term meaning "with losses, " used to describe image file formats that discard data due to compression. Lossless: A term used to describe an image file format that retains all the data from the initial image file. RGB: (Red, Green, Blue) The color model for display devices (monitors, digital projectors, etc.) Each displayed color is determined by a combination of RGB. CMYK: (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black) The color model for printing. If you are printing something in color, be sure you have saved it in CMYK.
8 Bit-mapped (or Raster) images: Images that have data that describe the color of each pixel. Larger display sizes equal larger file sizes in this type of image. Bitmapped images cannot be rescaled without resulting in "pixilation", or loss of definition in the details. JPEG and GIF images are examples of bitmapped images. Vector images: Vector images have data that describe lines and curves. These images can be enlarged and still maintain their smooth edges (not pixilated like bitmap images). Artists and designers will often work with vector images, and then "rasterize" the finalized version for distribution and display. Adobe Illustrator files (.ai) and CorelDraw files (.cdr) are examples of vector images.
9 Proprietary: Denotes ownership and non-disclosure of details regarding format or programming code. In the context of this tutorial, proprietary refers to file formats that require a certain software application to read/open that file. For example,.psd is the proprietary file format for Adobe Photoshop files. Open Source: Denotes a more accessible way to share, improve and distribute resources, requiring that licensing not be specific to a particular product
10 TIFF A lossless file format that can be compressed. This format is widely supported across operating systems. TIFF is the best file format for archiving high quality images. JPG or JPEG GIF PNG The JPG file format was specifically created for photographs, and can contain millions of colors. JPGs are automatically compressed (you can choose the level of compression to match your desired image quality), resulting in a relatively small file size while still retaining quality. For this reason, JPGs are ideal for and Web use. JPGs are lossy, discarding information each time that they are compressed. The lossless and compressed file format that is preferred for graphics, because it keeps edges and lines sharp. GIFs are limited to 256 or fewer colors, and are not recommended for photographs, but rather for images with flat fields of color, such as clip art. GIFs can be static or animated. Portable Network Graphics format, an open source substitute for GIFs. PNGs provide a higher lossless compression rate than GIFs, and help to reduce cross-platform differences in image display quality, among other technical advantages. PNG provides a useful format for the storage of images during intermediate stages of editing.
11 Scanning: You can take pretty much any printed material and scan it to obtain a digital copy of it. Readily available scanners make scanning images on paper, printed photos, slides, and negatives a fairly simple process. Many of these scanners are "plug and play, " which means that soon after you unpack and plug your scanner into your computer, you can scan away without much delay.
12 Digital Cameras: Digital cameras and camera phones are probably the fastest, easiest way to produce digital images. Keep in mind that there is quite a wide range of performance differences among brands, models by the same brand, and between consumer vs. professional grade equipment.
13 Photo CDs: You may obtain a collection of digital images from your photo processor, along with your developed prints or slides. Many photo-processing services now provide photo CDs with.jpg images on them.
14 Image size a concept that has more than one meaning. The dimensions of a printed or displayed image, measured in inches or pixels. The file size, or how much disk space the image file occupies, measured in KB or MB. Both of these are influenced by the resolution of the image: the higher the resolution, the larger the dimensions and the more disk space occupied.
15 Resolution refers to the sharpness and clarity of your image. Of course, the sharpness and clarity vary depending on the context of the image.
16 Scanning: When scanning your images, you are usually prompted to choose what resolution you would like your images scanned at. The intended use or display of your images will help you make this choice.
17 Printing: Images intended for high-quality printing should be scanned in at no less than 150dpi, preferably 300dpi. Remember, dpi is "dots per inch", and the more dots per inch, the sharper and crisper your images will look on the printed page. Many publishers have minimum resolution requirements for digital image submissions - make sure you know what's required before you start digitizing.
18 Computer display: Images intended primarily for display on a computer monitor (such as attachments or images on a Web page) really only need a 72ppi to 96ppi resolution, as that is what computer monitors are capable of displaying. A higher resolution will not make your image appear any better on the screen.
19 File size is proportional to the pixel dimensions of an image, is partially determined by the file format, and it specifically refers to how much disk space your file occupies, either on the hard drive, CD, or other storage medium. Image files normally range in sizes measured in Kilobytes (KB or K) and Megabytes (MB or M); extremely large files may be measure in Gigabytes (GB). Images for print will have larger file sizes, since higher resolution = more data stored in the file. Images for Web or computer display will have smaller file sizes.
20 Start Big: When in doubt about how you might end up using your images, opt for the highest resolution possible. It is always better to start out with the most information possible, and then scale down as necessary. If you start out with low resolution, you cannot get a higher resolution without scanning or taking the picture again with higher resolution settings, and you may not get that chance.
21 Protect Originals: Keep the original, highresolution versions of your images (which should be in TIFF format, if possible) in a separate place from your working documents or optimized Web images. Back up your important documents on some kind of external storage medium (CD-Rom or fire wire drive, for example). This will help to ensure that you have something to go back to and work from should something unfortunate happen to the other files.
22 Name Files Accurately: Develop a file naming convention that will help you accurately identify your files. Names that include descriptive information, version or size information, or intended use information can be helpful when managing large digital image collections.
23 Image editing encompasses the processes of altering images, whether they be digital photographs, traditional analog photographs, or illustrations. Before digital scanners and cameras became mainstream, traditional analog image editing was known as photo retouching, using tools such as an airbrush to modify photographs, or editing illustrations with any traditional art medium. However, since the advent of digital images, analog image editing has become largely obsolete. Graphic software programs, which can be broadly grouped into vector graphics editors, raster graphics editors, and 3d modelers, are the primary tools with which a user may manipulate, enhance, and transform images.
24 The more powerful programs contain functionality to perform a large variety of advanced image manipulations. Popular raster-based digital image editors include Adobe Photoshop, Corel Photo- Paint, Paint Shop Pro, GIMP, and Paint.NET.
25 Selection One of the prerequisites for many of the applications mentioned below is a method of selecting part(s) of an image, thus applying a change selectively without affecting the entire picture. Most graphics programs have several means of accomplishing this, such as a marquee tool, lasso, vector-based pen tools as well as more advanced facilities such as edge detection, masking, alpha compositing, and color and channel-based extraction.
26 Layers Another feature common to many graphics applications is that of Layers, which are analogous to sheets of transparent acetate (each containing separate elements that make up a combined picture), stacked on top of each other, each capable of being individually positioned, altered and blended with the layers below, without affecting any of the elements on the other layers.
27 Image Size Alteration Image editors can resize images in a process often called image scaling, making them larger, or smaller. High image resolution cameras can produce large images which are often reduced in size for Internet use. Image editor programs use a mathematical process called resampling to calculate new pixel values whose spacing is larger or smaller than the original pixel values. Images for Internet use are kept small, say 640 x 480 pixels which would equal 0.3 megapixels.
28 Cropping an image Digital editors are used to crop images. Cropping creates a new image by removing a desired rectangular portion from the image being cropped. The unwanted part of the image is discarded. Image cropping does not reduce the resolution of the area cropped. Best results are obtained when the original image has a high resolution. A primary reason for cropping is to improve the image composition in the new image.
29 Removal of Unwanted Elements Most image editors can be used to remove unwanted branches, etc, using a "clone" tool. Removing these distracting elements draws focus to the subject, improving overall composition
30 Selective Color Change Some image editors have color swapping abilities to selectively change the color of specific items in an image, given that the selected items are within a specific color range.
31 Image Orientation Image editors are capable of altering an image to be rotated in any direction and to any degree. Mirror images can be created and images can be horizontally flipped or vertically flopped. A small rotation of several degrees is often enough to level the horizon, correct verticality (of a building, for example), or both. Rotated images usually require cropping afterwards, in order to remove the resulting gaps at the image edges.
32 Special Effects Image editors usually have a list of special effects that can create unusual results. Images may be skewed and distorted in various ways. Scores of special effects can be applied to an image which include various forms of distortion, artistic effects, geometric and texture effects, and combinations thereof.
33 Contrast Change and Brightening Image editors have provisions to change the contrast of images and brighten or darken the image. Many an underexposed image can be improved by using this feature. Recent advances have allowed more intelligent exposure correction whereby only pixels below a particular luminosity threshold are brightened, thereby brightening underexposed shadows without affecting the rest of the image.
34 Printing Controlling the print size and quality of digital images requires an understanding of the pixelsper-inch (ppi) variable that is stored in the image file and sometimes used to control the size of the printed image. Within the Image Size dialog (as it is called in Photoshop), the image editor allows the user to manipulate both pixel dimensions and the size of the image on the printed document.
35 1. Explain the definition of digital imaging. 2. Define the following terms: a. PPI b. DPI c. Lossy d. Lossless 3. Explain four graphic file formats. 4. Give three examples of graphic editing programs. 5. Give five features in graphic editing programs.
INPUT OUTPUT 08 / IMAGE QUALITY & VIEWING In this section we will cover common image file formats you are likely to come across and examine image quality in terms of resolution and bit depth. We will cover
Thanks to the Jerome Foundation. Image Formatting Saving your Image as a JPEG: If your image is saved in a format other than JPEG (.tiff,.psd,.pict, etc.) it will not work. You can save your image as a.jpg
Technical Information Scanned File Size Linotype-Hell Once you start scanning images and reproducing them as halftones, you find out very quickly that the file sizes can be enormous. It is therefore important
Image Optimization GUIDE for IMAGE SUBMITTAL Images can play a crucial role in the successful execution of a book project by enhancing the text and giving the reader insight into your story. Although your
Image Resolution Color Spaces: RGB and CMYK File Types and when to use Image Resolution Finding Happiness at 300 dots-per-inch Rules to remember Text should be 400dpi at the final size in the layout. Images
Essential Graphics/Design Concepts for Non-Designers presented by Ana Henke Graphic Designer and Publications Supervisor University Communications and Marketing Services New Mexico State University Discussion
Graphic Design Active Layer- When you create multi layers for your images the active layer, or the only one that will be affected by your actions, is the one with a blue background in your layers palette.
**** 1 Pictures / images on computers Images are important **** 2 Why learn the basics of images? Pictures/graphics/images are often inserted in» word processing documents» presentations with slides» web
Using the Olympus C4000 REV. 04/2006 In the digital photographic world, information is captured and stored as data not as pictures. The input device (camera) converts light to a series of 1 s and 0 s and
Optimizing graphic files Introduction As soon as I started using web-authoring tools, I realized that I should be careful to use graphics on the web. Well-designed graphics usually make the web site more
Overview Great Images for Papers and Presentations May 26, 2011 Web Tips Definitions Using the Michigan Tech logo Photography 101 Great images from others Great images you create PDF conversion Final words
Adobe Photoshop CS5 Summary You will understand and use the various elements in the Photoshop CS5 interface so as to efficiently work with the software. You will use the different tools in Photoshop to
Graphic Standards Table of Contents introduction...2 General Usage...2 Logo lockups: color...3 LOGO LOCKUPS: GRAYSCALE...4 Minimum Staging Area...5 Minimum Logo Size...6 Type Family...7 Color Palettes...8
Adjusting Digitial Camera Resolution How to adjust your 72 ppi images for output at 300 ppi Eureka Printing Company, Inc. 106 T Street Eureka, California 95501 (707) 442-5703 (707) 442-6968 Fax firstname.lastname@example.org
Get the Best Digital Images Possible What s it all about anyway? Issues to Consider Resolution Image Size File Size Intended Use of the Image File Formats Issues to Consider Image size (width and height
Introduction This page provides general information for authors creating figures to maximize the quality of those illustrations and to prepare artwork for submission to the Brazilian Journal of Medical
REVISED JUNE 2011. PLEASE DISCARD ANY PREVIOUS VERSIONS OF THIS GUIDE. Graphic Style Guide 1 Introduction 2 Logo Fonts 4 Logo Color 6 Logo Size & Clear Space 8 Logo Composition 10 Logo Application 16 Corporate
Resolution SCANNING, RESOLUTION, AND FILE FORMATS We will discuss the use of resolution as it pertains to printing, internet/screen display, and resizing iamges. WHAT IS A PIXEL? PIXEL stands for: PICture
Digital Image Requirements for New Online US Visa Application As part of the electronic submission of your DS-160 application, you will be asked to provide an electronic copy of your photo. The photo must
2013-11-22 Jesper Wiklander: Managing digital illustrations in publications 1 Preparing TIFF-images for publication There are 4 basic steps: 1. Check out the author instructions for the journal where you
Understanding Graphics/Images There are many different types of images. A solid foundation in the terminology associated with these different types of images will help you in working with multimedia. Line
Submission of electronic artwork The purpose of this guide is to provide you with information about the submission of electronic artwork to our journals so that together we can ensure that only the best
Desiging and Editing Custom Graphics for WinControl Includes WinControl, WinControl XL and WinControl XL Plus KMC Controls P.O. Box 497 19476 Industrial Drive New Paris, IN 46553 883-019-12 Designing System
BASIC PHOTO EDITING WITH ADOBE PHOTOSHOP This handout will help you adjust your photographic images so that they look more natural. There are eight steps to basic image editing with Adobe PhotoShop. They
Klaus Goelker GIMP 2.8 for Photographers Image Editing with Open Source Software rocky Table of Contents Chapter 1 Basics 3 1.1 Preface....4 1.2 Introduction 5 1.2.1 Using GIMP 2.8 About This Book 5 1.2.2
Images for PowerPoint Scanning, adjusting, & saving digital images Susann Lusnia Tech Day Tulane University September 19, 2008 Susann Lusnia email: email@example.com Classical Studies, Tulane University
14.1 Scanning photographs What is scanning and why is it useful? A scanner is like a photocopy machine. It makes copies of photos and documents, but instead of creating another piece of paper, it creates
How to resize, rotate, and crop images You will frequently want to resize and crop an image after opening it in Photoshop from a digital camera or scanner. Cropping means cutting some parts of the image
Scanning and OCR Basics Scan Text Documents into Word 2003 using OCR Software 1. Place the document to scan face down on the flatbed scanner. 2. Launch Microsoft Word 2003 for Windows. 3. Select Acquire
Printing & Copy Services Vol. 14, No. 5 Digital Imaging for Print Media June 2009 Figure 1. A very low resolution digital image where each pixel is visible. Digital imaging requirements for offset print
Tips for optimizing your publications for commercial printing If you need to print a publication in higher quantities or with better quality than you can get on your desktop printer, you will want to take
1 NDSU Technology Learning & Media Center QBB 150C 231-5130 www.ndsu.edu/its/tlmc Creating a Large Format Poster (Plot) Using PowerPoint 2013 Posters should be designed and created in a manner that best
36T Revised Fall 2015 Cover Page 36TITD 112 21TDesigning Web Page Graphics Program Head: Debbie Yancey Revised: Fall 2015 Dean s Review: Deborah Yancey Dean 21T Lab/Recitation Revised Fall 2015 None ITD
Chapter 3 Data Storage Objectives After studying this chapter, students should be able to: List five different data types used in a computer. Describe how integers are stored in a computer. Describe how
Introduction The commercial printing equipment used by is very different to standard desk top printers so it is important that files submitted for printing are prepared properly to ensure they print correctly.
A GUIDE TO Creating Print-Ready Files Our People. Your Vision. Let s Create. What is a Print-Ready File? A print-ready file allows a printer to produce your project quickly and efficiently. At Kopytek,
EPSON SCANNING TIPS AND TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE Epson Perfection 3170 Scanner SELECT A SUITABLE RESOLUTION The best scanning resolution depends on the purpose of the scan. When you specify a high resolution,
Unit R082 Creating digital graphics File Formats and the Properties of Digital Images and Graphics Instructions and answers for Teachers These instructions should accompany the OCR resource File Formats
What Resolution Should Your Images Be? The best way to determine the optimum resolution is to think about the final use of your images. For publication you ll need the highest resolution, for desktop printing
Cambridge TECHNICALS OCR LEVEL 3 CAMBRIDGE TECHNICAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA IN IT DIGITAL GRAPHICS M/601/6630 LEVEL 3 UNIT 27 GUIDED LEARNING HOURS: 60 UNIT CREDIT VALUE: 10 Oxford Cambridge and RSA DIGITAL
Otis Photo Lab Inkjet Printing Demo Otis Photography Lab Adam Ferriss Lab Manager firstname.lastname@example.org 310.665.6971 Soft Proofing and Pre press Before you begin printing, it is a good idea to set the proof
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES Adobe Illustrator CS5 Part 1: Introduction to Illustrator Summer 2011, Version 1.0 Table of Contents Introduction...2 Downloading
Instructions for Creating a Poster for Arts and Humanities Research Day Using PowerPoint While it is, of course, possible to create a Research Day poster using a graphics editing programme such as Adobe
Tips on Photography Photography and visuals greatly increases the chances of news coverage. With digital cameras, we can now quickly capture and send images. However, there are a few things to consider
An Artist s Digital Toolkit Allan Wood, for educational use only Web Publishing Guidelines Setting Up Files for the Web When creating files to be used for the Web, the measurement settings should be in
Photoshop- Image Editing Opening a file: File Menu > Open Photoshop Workspace A: Menus B: Application Bar- view options, etc. C: Options bar- controls specific to the tool you are using at the time. D:
3212 E. Hwy 30 P. O. Box 2110 Kearney, NE 68847 800-445-6621 Fax: 308-234-3969 web: www.morriscookbooks.com e-mail: email@example.com Press-Ready DIVIDER G U I D E L I N E S Accepted Software &
CONTENTS Programs Schmidt Supports 2 Preferred Format Setting up your document 3 Page Size Bleeds Live Area Common Creatives 4 Code and/or Date Changes Minor Copy Changes Typesetting 5 Applying Color Text
Digital Image Fundamentals Selim Aksoy Department of Computer Engineering Bilkent University firstname.lastname@example.org Imaging process Light reaches surfaces in 3D. Surfaces reflect. Sensor element receives
Introduction to Digital Resolution 2011 Copyright Les Walkling 2011 Adobe Photoshop screen shots reprinted with permission from Adobe Systems Incorporated. Version 2011:02 CONTENTS Pixels of Resolution
3 Data Storage 3.1 Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: List five different data types used in a computer. Describe how
Optimizing your image with Pixlr on-line photo editor Nick Dvoracek email@example.com In a web browser, go to http://pixlr.com/editor/ Click Open image from computer That will open a standard file dialogue
A guide created by the editorial team of Salud Colectiva Initial Recommendations 1. Do not increase the resolution of an already scanned document or photo. Not only will this not improve the quality of
Written by Jonathan Sachs Copyright 1996-1999 Digital Light & Color Introduction A scanner is a device that converts images to a digital file you can use with your computer. There are many different types
1 Multimedia Images: Vector-based vs. Bitmap Graphics Introduction Multimedia is, as described in Vaughan (2001), a combination of various elements, such as text, graphic art, animation, video, and sound.
Compressing Pictures From Your Hard Drive or Flash Drive Pictures can dramatically increase the file size of your documents and hard drive. To reduce download times, you can reduce image resolution, apply
OFFICIAL GRAPHIC STANDARDS MANUAL Published July 2011 by USA Synchro 132 E. Washington Street, Suite 820 Indianapolis, IN 46204. The USA Synchro logo is a trademark of United States Synchronized Swimming,
An Artist s Digital Toolkit Allan Wood, for educational use only Understanding File Formats File Formats To be productive in today s graphic s industry, a designer, artist, or photographer needs to have
COURSE GUIDE B.A IN GRAPHIC DESIGN GRD 126 COMPUTER GENERATED GRAPHIC DESIGN I UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION, WINNEBA DEPARTMENT OF GRAPHIC DESIGN Copyright Acknowledgements The facilitating agent of the course
Digitisation Disposal Policy Toolkit Glossary of Digitisation Terms August 2014 Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts Document details Security Classification Date of review
GRC 101 INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS PHOTO RESIZING & QUALITY MAINTENANCE Information Sheet No. 510 How to resize images and maintain quality If you re confused about getting your digital photos
This presentation is on standards and best practices related to the digitization of photographs. 1 This will cover three basic topics: Selection issues specific to photographs File specifications for digital
So you say you want something printed... Well, that s great! You ve come to the right place. Whether you re having us design and edit your work, or you fancy yourself a designer and plan to hand over your
Image editing seems overly complicated, but it's actually quite easy if you have good software. This month I'll offer 10 image-editing tips for FlexiSIGN users. I'm listing them in order of importance.
CS101 Lecture 13: Image Compression Vector Graphics Compression Techniques Aaron Stevens (firstname.lastname@example.org) 22 February 2013 What You ll Learn Today Review: how big are image files? How can we make image files
Office of Creative Services Tuck Visual Identity A reference guide to Tuck s logos and visual identification standards Tuck Visual Identity Guide Table of Contents Introduction.....................................................1
ESTIMATED TIME Image File Types H O U R S SOURCE: PHOTODISC INTRODUCTION Whether a finished project is in a visual or printed format, its impact is only as good as the image it produces. Many factors go
Microsoft PowerPoint is used for creating slide presentations to be used on a PC or even printed out as overheads and handouts. You can combine text, graphics, even audio and video to create exciting and
Mitigating Artifacts of JPG Compression in Digital Images Far too often, people use a high compression setting on their digital cameras and flatbed scanners or in the software they use to make images smaller
AIIM: Association for Information and Image Management. Trade association and professional society for the micrographics, optical disk and electronic image management markets. Algorithm: Prescribed set
Scanning in Windows XP: Basics Learning guide If you have ever wanted to scan documents and images on different scanners in your department, you've probably faced the difficulties that arise from needing
UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA PRESS Preparing Illustrations for Publication The following instructions are intended to guide you through the process of assembling and submitting the art program for your book. Any
Examining the sources of graphic images Draw and paint programs are used to develop graphic images from scratch. But what are other ways to obtain graphic images for multimedia titles? For example, can
Written by Jonathan Sachs Copyright 1996-1999 Digital Light & Color Introduction When using digital equipment to capture, store, modify and view photographic images, they must first be converted to a set
Art Submission Guidelines Organizing artwork for your manuscript may seem like a daunting task, but the following guidelines will walk you through our art submission process. Whether you have a large set
BICA PHOTOGRAPHICS Price List 1 st March 2015 INDEX Conditions of Business 2 Digital Photographic Printing 3 Old Canberra Photographs 4 Canvas Printing 4 Scanning 5 Film processing 6 Printing from roll
SOMERS POINT BRAND IDENTITY STYLE GUIDE WHAT IT IS The new Somers Point logo will be the single most recognizable icon used to represent our City. WHY IT MATTERS Our logo immediately identifies our brand.
TEXT FILES Format Description / Properties Usage and Archival Recommendations.txt.doc.docx.rtf.odt.pdf PDF/A Text file Simple plain text document Compatible across software packages Supports very little
PDI 2009 Working with Images for PowerPoint to get the Best Result What are Pixels and Resolution? Image Resolution: Image Resolution is the number of pixels displayed per unit of printed length A measurement