COLOPHON. Industrial Design Engineering Faculty of Engineering Technology PO Box AE Enschede The Netherlands

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2 COLOPHON This self-evaluation report waswritten by the Programme Industrial Design Engineering of the faculty of Engineering Technology of the University of Twente for the periodic assessment of research quality under auspices of the QANU (NVAO/VSNU University of Twente Industrial Design Engineering Faculty of Engineering Technology PO Box AE Enschede The Netherlands T F W Editors W.A. Poelman A. O. Eger F.J.A.M. van Houten Data collection & editor Anne-Marie Klijnstra Language editor Angie Souren MSc, Smarter Science Photography Jan Hesselink (a.o.) Design and layout Rob Hulsbosch ISBN

3 PREFACE We are proud to present the first official self-evaluation of research, carried out under the umbrella of Industrial Design Engineering. We are especially proud of the fact that such an extensive programme can be presented only seven years after the start of the course Industrial Design Engineering (IDE) in Twente. This was made possible by the contribution of an enthusiastic and competent team of professionals under the inspiring leadership of Professor Fred van Houten. Before reading this report it is of great importance to take notice of the following remarks. First of all one should realise that IDE did not start from scratch. At the start Twente was already well known in the field of design, but the emphasis was on mechanical design, design technology, design management and design for manufacturing. For marketing and innovation management IDE could build also on a strong fundament within the university and the same goes for subjects like consumer research and ethics. Missing links to build a full-grown course and research programme in IDE were sub-disciplines like ergonomics and design & styling. Expertise in the field of ergonomics was mainly built up within the faculty of Engineering Technology and Design & Styling was filled in by employing an experienced professor from outside (Eger). As technology is one of the main assets of IDE in Twente, a special chair has recently been created in the field of product realisation (Poelman). Secondly, it is important to notice that IDE in Twente is organised in a kind of matrix organisation within the faculty of Engineering Technology. Three chairs (Van Houten, Eger and Poelman) are directly involved in IDE and carry the responsibility for IDE research. This does not mean that other chairs do not cooperate in IDE research. Several chairs are involved intensively in the research for technical aspects in fields like energy, materials, tribology, biomedical engineering and sound/acoustics. The chair Product Realisation (Poelman) received as a special task to form a bridge between technology oriented chairs and IDE. That s why several sub-programmes of those chairs are presented in the program Product Realisation. Those chairs, as a whole, are not subject of this self evaluation, but only the specific subprogrammes as part of the research programme Product Realisation. Thirdly, we would like to point out that, because of the early stage of our research, we are not just interested in the opinion about past and present projects, but, in particular, also in the opinion about future plans. Many projects are presented in a concept phase and the response and advice of the committee will play an important role in decision making about the future of these projects. Because of this interest the number of projects presented might be somewhat larger than usual. We look forward to your visit and expect to learn a lot from discussions with you. Prof dr Rikus Eising Dean of the Faculty of Engineering Technology 3

4 CONTENTS Colophon 2 Preface 3 PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE 7 A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE 9 1 GENERAL INFORMATION, MISSION STATEMENT Global data Historical context Socio-economic context Mission statement 12 2 LEADERSHIP 12 3 STRATEGY AND POLICY Introduction The concept of products Evolutionary Product Design Knowledge cycle of industrial design engineering Demarcation of IDE research 19 4 RESEARCHERS AND OTHER PERSONNEL 22 5 RESOURCES, FUNDING AND FACILITIES 23 6 PROCESSES IN RESEARCH, INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COLLABORATION 24 7 ACADEMIC REPUTATION 27 8 INTERNAL EVALUATION 27 9 EXTERNAL VALIDATION OVERVIEW OF THE RESULTS ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES AND EXPECTATIONS FOR THE INSTITUTE 28 RESEARCH PROGRAMMES 33 B1 RESEARCH PROGRAMME: DESIGN ENGINEERING LEADERSHIP Management style Means of motivation Communication and monitoring Process of improvement and innovation STRATEGY AND POLICY Introduction Sub-programme: Management of Product Development Sub-programme: Use Anticipation in Product Design Sub-programme: Computational Synthesis Sub-programme: Sustainable Energy Design Sub-programme: Product Life Cycle Management 56 4

5 1.2.6 Sub-programme: Integrated Development of New Products and Processes Sub-programme: Design Support for Mechatronic Systems Sub-programme: Packaging Design and Management PROCESSES IN RESEARCH, INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COLLABORATION Research atmosphere Processes of quality control Supervision of junior researchers Internal and external collaboration ACADEMIC REPUTATION INTERNAL EVALUATION EXTERNAL VALIDATION RESEARCHERS AND OTHER PERSONNEL RESOURCES, FUNDING AND FACILITIES OVERVIEW OF THE RESULTS ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES AND EXPECTATIONS FOR THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME FULL LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 79 B2 RESEARCH PROGRAMME: EVOLUTIONARY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT LEADERSHIP Organisation Motivation Communication and control Process of improvement and innovation STRATEGY AND POLICY Introduction Sub-programme: Evolutionary Product Development Sub-programme: History / Design History Connection to the education programme PROCESSES IN RESEARCH, INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COLLABORATION Research atmosphere Processes of quality control Communication Supervision of junior researchers Internal and external collaboration ACADEMIC REPUTATION INTERNAL EVALUATION EXTERNAL VALIDATION RESEARCHERS AND OTHER PERSONNEL RESOURCES, FUNDING AND FACILITIES OVERVIEW OF THE RESULTS ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES AND EXPECTATIONS FOR THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME FULL LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 108 5

6 B3 RESEARCH PROGRAMME: PRODUCT REALISATION LEADERSHIP Organisation Motivation Communication and control Process of improvement and innovation STRATEGY AND POLICY Introduction Sub-programme: Technology Diffusion Sub-programme: Mobility, Sociality and Safety Sub-programme: Industrial Building Innovation Sub-programme: Cradle to Cradle Sub-programme: Transformable Green Buildings Sub-programme: Materials Engineering Sub-programme: Biomedical Product Design Sub-programme: Sound Design and Perception Sub-programme: Friction and tactility in product-user interactions PROCESSES IN RESEARCH, INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COLLABORATION ACADEMIC REPUTATION Memberships in scientific boards Editorships and reviewing of academic journals Other proofs of academic reputation INTERNAL EVALUATION EXTERNAL VALIDATION RESEARCHERS AND OTHER PERSONNEL RESOURCES, FUNDING AND FACILITIES OVERVIEW OF THE RESULTS ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES AND EXPECTATIONS FOR THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME FULL LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 147 6

7 PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE 7

8 UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN ENGINEERING SCIENTIFIC REPORT Horst building 8

9 A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE Name of the Institute Date of establishment 2001 Institutional affiliations Formal responsibilities Research area Industrial Design Engineering Faculty of Engineering Technology University of Twente Bachelor in Industrial Design Engineering Master in Industrial Design Engineering Industrial Design Engineering 1 GENERAL INFORMATION, MISSION STATEMENT 1.1 GLOBAL DATA The Faculty of Engineering Technology is responsible for three Bachelor programmes: Industrial Design Engineering (IDE), Mechanical Engineering (ME) and Civil Engineering (CE), three related Master programmes and two 3TU Master programmes. IDE is not an independent department. The Faculty regards this as a strength. IDE research at the University of Twente is carried out by most of the research groups within Engineering Technology, but also by research groups of other faculties. In this respect, IDE in Twente is unique in the Netherlands and perhaps even in the world. A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE 9

10 A large section of the staff involved in IDE education and research is employed by the Department of Design, Production and Management, a cluster of full-time and part-time chairs addressing the area of product and production system research and development. Three full chairs carry the main responsibility for IDE education and research: - Design Engineering; - Product Design; - Product Realisation. The chair of Design Engineering hosts the part-time professor in Packaging Design and Management. The chair of Product Design hosts the part-time chair of Design History. The full-time chair of Product Realisation has recently been established. The staff associated with the three chairs comprises 2 associate professors, 22 assistant professors, 2 university teachers and 5 administrative and technical support staff. There are approximately 500 Bachelor and Master students, 15 PhD students and 1 post-doc. The Department s budget is approximately 550 K, of which 30 % is obtained from external funding. Full chairs coordinate their own research programme, divided into sub-programmes. Some of the subprogrammes are within the domain of competence of other chairs inside and outside the Faculty and are carried out by those chairs. In view of these programmes importance for the domain of Industrial Design Engineering, they are presented in the context of this self-assessment. 1.2 HISTORICAL CONTEXT The University of Twente was founded in Mechanical Engineering was one of the four initial departments. The first students arrived in Starting as a university of technology- the third in The Netherlands after Delft and Eindhoven - the university gradually broadened its scope to encompass disciplines like Public Administration, Business Administration, and Applied Educational Technology in the late 1970s and 1980s. Over the years, the University of Twente profiled itself more and more as an entrepreneurial university with a tradition in interdisciplinary research and education in the technical as well as the social sciences. In 2001, the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering merged to form the new Faculty of Engineering Technology. In 2000, the Department of Mechanical Engineering decided to initiate a new five-year educational programme in Industrial Design Engineering (IDE) which was accredited in The first students enrolled in the same year. This educational programme has become a success, with close to 500 students enrolled now. In order to realise the educational programme, three sources of knowledge and capacity were identified. First of all, a substantial part of the required knowledge and capacity was available within the Department of Mechanical Engineering, especially in the fields of design methodology, design tools, materials and manufacturing. Secondly, knowledge and capacity could be supplied from within the rest of the university, from fields such as marketing, psychology, sociology and logistics. Lastly, knowledge and capacity had to be acquired from outside the university in specific IDE fields such as sketching, design and styling, graphic design, ergonomics and user investigation. 10 A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE

11 Figure 1 Knowledge sources at the start of IDE in 2001 Existing knowledge within mechanical engineering New knowledge in the field of industrial design engineering Existing knowledge within e.g. civil engineering, business- and human sciences In 2008, the educational programme of IDE was evaluated for re-accreditation, with a positive result. The situation at the University of Twente is unique compared with Delft and Eindhoven in the sense that three educational and research programmes are embedded in one Faculty of Engineering Technology. The advantage of this is that it leads to intensive contacts between the members of the different research groups. An important quality of the IDE graduate is his or her ability to integrate the natural, engineering and social sciences. At the University of Twente, students develop this quality in a natural, almost organic way. As already explained, the IDE research group is linked to the educational programme with the same name, which started in the year New research activities started up somewhat later. Research in the field of human factors started in 2002 after the appointment of Dr Van der Voort as assistant professor associated with the chair of Professor Van Houten. Research in the field of design and styling started in 2003 after the appointment of Professor Eger. In 2007, Professor Ten Klooster (0.2 fte), an expert in packaging design and management, was appointed. In the same year, Professor Drukker (0.4 fte), an expert in design history, joined the Faculty. In December 2008, a new chair for Product Realisation was established and Professor Poelman was appointed. IDE-related research started much earlier, though. Engineering and design were not new topics at the Faculty of Engineering Technology. Research was already carried out in several disciplines relevant to IDE, like design methods and tools. Design and construction has been a research area from the beginning of the Department of Mechanical Engineering in In the early 1990s, the Faculty decided to continue only design education and abandon research in this field. The group on Design and Construction was dissolved and a multi-disciplinary design education group was established. In the group of Production Engineering, design research in the area of Intelligent CAD-CAM systems developed rapidly. The name of the group was changed to Design and Production Engineering in In 1998, a new chair was created within that group. Professor Van Houten was appointed as professor in Design Engineering. In 2001, he became Chair of the group. After the retirement of Professor Kals in early 2003, Professor Akkerman was appointed as his successor in Production Technology. Material sciences and manufacturing technology, which are now embedded in the Production Technology research portfolio, have been research areas at the Faculty of Engineering Technology since A Master track in the area of Architectural Building Components Design Engineering (ABCDE) or Product Development for the Building Industry is under development as a joint effort with the Department of Civil Engineering, but there is also cooperation between faculties: A IDE Bachelor variant with the emphasis on ICT has recently been launched together with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science. These initiatives lead to broadening of the research programme towards building innovation and smart product design. A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE 11

12 1.3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT Research in the field of IDE is carried out in a socio-economic context. In general, four stakeholders can be distinguished: the academic world, companies, society and students. As a university, we strive to contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of Industrial Design Engineering. The medium is scientific publications. However, the new discipline of Industrial Design Engineering does not yet have a long academic tradition, and there are only limited opportunities for publishing in high-ranking journals. Non-scientific journals as well as conference contributions therefore of course also play an important role in the dissemination of knowledge in the field of Industrial Design Engineering. As entrepreneurial university, there is a strong tradition to cooperate with the second stakeholder, industry. The third stakeholder is society. A university has a task in developing knowledge which contributes to the realisation of societal goals. The existence of behavioural and social sciences at the same university stimulates that IDE research pays attention to societal issues, including environmental concerns. Last but not least, students are also stakeholders for IDE research. Especially in this start-up period of Industrial Design Engineering in Twente, knowledge development aimed at contributing to the quality of education was emphasised. 1.4 MISSION STATEMENT In concert with what was said in the previous paragraphs, our research mission statement reads as follows: Industrial Design Engineering related research within the University of Twente aims to develop qualitative and quantitative knowledge on all phases in the life cycle of products, i.e. initiative, design, production, use, maintenance and recycling, all with a strong emphasis on the user, in a societal and environmental context, with special focus on interdisciplinary cooperation, leading to answers on design questions from the real world. 2 LEADERSHIP The University of Twente is organised as a matrix organisation of faculties and institutes. By the end of 2006, the University of Twente had five faculties and six research institutes. Industrial Design Engineering in Twente has taken upon itself a special task as an intermediary between fundamental technological sciences and practical application in industry and society. Therefore, cooperation with each research institute in Twente is relevant. For each research institute, examples for mutual interest are provided below. CTIT IBR IGS IMPACT MESA+ MIRA Centre for Telematics and Information Technology: Communication products with a special emphasis on human interface design Institute for Behavioural Research: Product experience, design for emotion, with a special emphasis on scenario-based design Institute for Governance Studies: Safety, IP, standardisation and certification Institute of Mechanics, Processes and Control Twente: Smart products, robotics with a special emphasis on interactive technology; design for sustainability and recycling of materials Institute for Nanotechnology Special functionalities in surfaces, resulting in visual and ergonomic improvements. Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine (formerly called BMTI): Products for biomedical objectives, with a special emphasis on ergonomics 12 A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE

13 Clearly, there is an influence of the discipline of industrial design engineering on other research groups in the Faculty of Engineering Technology and even in other faculties. Industrial Design Engineering can be regarded as an intermediary discipline for deployment of technology. Application of new information technology (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science) is only possible through the design of new devices and the same applies to new chemical micro-analysis techniques. The Faculty of Engineering Technology - in Dutch, Construerende Technische Wetenschappen (CTW) - is headed by the Dean, Professor Eising, who is assisted by a Management Team. Dean is a full-time position for a full professor. The Dean represents the Faculty in the University Management Team, and carries responsibility for all strategic, organisational, financial and personnel affairs concerning the Faculty. The Management Team is chaired by the Dean and meets every two weeks. Primarily, it discusses all strategic matters concerning the Faculty - ranging from strategic plans for research and education to organisational issues, human resource management, budgets and financial results, public relations and accommodation. Every month, the so-called Chamber meets to discuss matters of interest for the Faculty and to exchange information and opinions. The members of the Chamber are all full professors/ programme leaders of the three Departments and the two Directors of Education. All other (part-time) professors have a standing invitation to participate in the Chamber meetings. The Dean chairs the Disciplinary Councils of the Departments, in which the research strategy of the respective Departments is discussed. The members of the Disciplinary Council are the full professors/ programme leaders of the Department and the Director of Education of that Department. Each Council meets every month. To strengthen the design and production profile of the Faculty, the three full-time chairs of Design Engineering, Product Design, and Product Realisation (yellow in Figure 2) are clustered in the vakgroep of Design, Production and Management. Each chair, however, has its own line of research. Furthermore, there are two part-time chairs for Design History (0.4 fte) and Packaging Design (0.2 fte). All Engineering Technology research groups participate in the Bachelor and Master programmes of Industrial Design Engineering. However, as mentioned before, the major effort in industrial design education and research is concentrated in the Design, Production and Management group presently consisting of also the full chairs of Surface Technology and Tribology, and Production Technology (green in Figure 2). The other chairs most closely involved in IDE within the Faculty of Engineering Technology but not part of the Design, Production and Management group are Applied Mechanics and Biomechanical Engineering (also green in Figure 2). As IDE is interdisciplinary, close cooperation with other chairs within and outside the Faculty goes without saying. The most important chairs in this respect are represented in grey in Figure 2. A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE 13

14 Figure 2 The unique structure of Industrial Design Engineering Research in Twente Advanced Robotics Stefano Stramigioli Innovation Processes Joop Halman Mechanics of Forming Technology Han Huétink Experimental Psychology Willem Verwey Elastomer Technology and Engineering Jacques Noordermeer Production Technology Remco Akkermans Biomechanical Engineering Bart Koopman Market- & Organisation Dynamics André Dorée Thermal Engineering Theo van der Meer Design Engineering Fred van Houten Packaging Design Roland ten Klooster Product Design Arthur Eger Design History J.W. Drukker Engineering Fibrous Smart Materials Marijn Warmoeskerken Mechanical Automation Ben Jonker Surface Technology and Tribology Dik Schipper Product Realisation Wim Poelman Applied Mechanics Andre de Boer Social Safety Studies Marianne Junger The involved chairs not only take part in IDE, but also in Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, and Biomechanical Engineering. The interdisciplinary structure of the IDE research is fundamental for the Master track called Emerging Technology Design, coordinated by Professor De Boer. The translation of technological opportunities within the university into products is one of the unique selling points of IDE in Twente. Members of the IDE group meet regularly on an formal and informal basis, this picture was taken during the morning coffee break. 14 A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE

15 These interdisciplinary cooperation linkages have resulted in the following list of programmes and programme leaders: Programme level and programme leaders 1 Design Engineering: Van Houten 2 Evolutionary Product Development: Eger 3 Product Realisation: Poelman Sub-programmes and leaders 1 Design Engineering and Packaging Design: Van Houten Associated with chair: Theme 1.1 Design, Methods and Tools Management of Product Development Lutters Use Anticipation in Product Design Van der Voort Computational Synthesis Tragter Theme 1.2 Energy and Sustainability Sustainable Energy Design Reinders Product Life Cycle Management Toxopeus Theme 1.3 Integration and Hybrid System Design Integrated Development of New Products and Processes Vaneker Design Support for Mechatronic Systems Bonnema Packaging Design and Management (part-time chair) Ten Klooster 2 Evolutionary Product Development: Eger Associated with chair: 2.1 Evolutionary Product Development Eger 2.2 History / Design History Drukker 3 Product Realisation Poelman Associated with chair: 3.1 Technology Diffusion Beusenberg 3.2 Mobility, Sociality and Safety Poelman 3.3 Industrial Building Innovation Poelman 3.4 Cradle to Cradle Poelman Not associated with chair: 3.5 Transformable Green Buildings Durmisevic 3.6 Materials Engineering Akkerman 3.7 Biomedical Product Design Koopman 3.8 Sound Design and Perception De Boer 3.9 Friction and Tactility in Product-User Interactions Schipper A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE 15

16 3 STRATEGY AND POLICY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The fact that the new IDE programme was not embedded in a new faculty but integrated in the existing Faculty of Engineering Technology is regarded as an asset rather than a constraint in the development of the research. The vision behind the policy underlying the research programme of Industrial Design Engineering is illustrated below with some reflections. The first reflection is about the concept of products as the subject of IDE. The second reflection is about evolutionary product development which is an important starting point for education as well as for research. The third reflection is about the relation between design and fundamental research. 3.2 THE CONCEPT OF PRODUCTS The University of Twente distinguishes itself both in education and research in the approach with respect to the phenomenon product. Time period Scope Outcome Industrial Revolution: production process > product Late 1960s design process > product Late 1990s user behaviour > product Twente, early 21st century: entrepreneurship > product During the Industrial Revolution, a product was regarded as the output of a production process. The word product has its roots in that period in which manufacturing was the main challenge. At the start of the IDE Department in Delft (1969), the challenge had moved from production of products to the design of products. Key question was how industrially made products could be taken to a higher level of form and function. This is in the tradition of the Faculty of Architecture in Delft, which formed the roots of Industrial Design Engineering. Architects became interested in the potential for designers of industrial manufacturing of mainly interior products. In the last decennium, attention moved again, this time from the design problem to the user; user-centred design became the starting point of extensive research activities. The University of Eindhoven started up ID at around the time when this shift of interest was taking place, which can be observed in its activities in which user interaction is very important. Twente has chosen a different starting point. For many years now, Twente has positioned itself as an entrepreneurial university. For Industrial Design Engineering, this implies that the starting point is in the first place the company involved, a company in need of new commercial activities. As a university, we therefore concentrate on the development of knowledge that can help companies to be successful in this respect. This does not mean that the research only focuses on the commercial aspects of products. All research should contribute to three domains: people, planet and profit. Unique for IDE at the University of Twente is the explicit role with respect to valorisation of technology within the university. IDE is regarded as a key discipline for application of technology for human benefit. This role is implemented in what is called Emerging Technology Design (ETD). Professor De Boer coordinates a special Master programme dedicated to ETD. Starting points of Industrial Design Engineering in Twente are reflected in the individual chairs. For example, in the chair of Product Design of Professor Eger, research is organised around a clear model of how product types develop during their existence, called the Evolutionary Product Development model 16 A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE

17 (EPD). The first phase in this development is often based on emerging technologies. This model is a research subject itself and provides a foothold for companies to develop a product plan for the future as well as for researchers in the area of industrial design to position their activities. This theory is explained in Section 3.3. Special about the research policy of IDE is the embedding in the traditional, linear research chain which starts with fundamental research and ends with practical application in products and services. Design and styling is not only regarded as an output of this chain but also as an input for new fundamental research activities where it provides research questions for the natural and engineering sciences as well as the social sciences and humanities. This is elucidated in section EVOLUTIONARY PRODUCT DESIGN The model explains that each of six product phases displays a typical pattern of product characteristics. Every company making money through the development, production or marketing of products will have to deal with this phenomenon. Managing it requires skills with respect to management of product development and design methodology, but also a sound awareness of design history. In practice, products in each phase can be found on the market and for every phase specific knowledge is required. Figure 3 Model for Evolutionary Product Development (Eger, 2007) Management of product development Design methodology, Design history Individualisation Segmentation Itemisation Optimisation Performance Awareness Emerging Technology Design Manufacturing Design & styling Generally speaking, the emphasis in the first phase - performance - is on new technologies. At this point, the nearby presence of technical specialists is advantageous to IDE, in the field of new materials as well as IT knowledge. New product functions are developed for which the functional performance of the products is the main challenge at that point. Tools like scenario application and creativity techniques can help to define completely new functions. New approaches like emerging product design and sources of innovation can help develop these new products. In the second phase - optimisation - new knowledge is required. The market no longer accepts imperfections and other disciplines become important. Manufacturing technology and quality control become increasingly relevant. Product development is aimed at improving performance, better reliability, improvement of ergonomics and safety. In the third phase - itemisation - high quality and safety no longer suffice. Ergonomics and styling become important success factors. Research in the field of man-machine interfaces starts playing a role. Product development endeavours to develop extra features and accessories, including special editions of the product for different trade channels and target groups (segmentation). The last three phases co-exist. Product development is either aimed at the extra features and accessories, including special editions, or at mass customisation or cocreation, thus allowing the customer to influence the final result (individualisation). The social behaviour A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE 17

18 of the company or organisation behind the product is becoming more and more important to the customer (awareness). The company can be successful with products that become more attractive during use ( positive aging ). The EPD model provides a useful idea how several categories of knowledge are linked to product development. The model described in the next section will focus on the position of product design in relation to fundamental and engineering knowledge. 3.4 KNOWLEDGE CYCLE OF INDUSTRIAL DESIGN ENGINEERING The discipline of industrial design engineering can be characterised by the knowledge cycle (see Figure 4). Figure 4 Breakdown of research and design activities RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT Fundamental research Applied research Technical systems development Commercial systems development PROCESS DESIGN Design & styling Application design With fundamental and applied research as an input, the Faculty of Engineering Technology is strong in the development of technical systems and even, together with companies, in the development of commercial systems. Application design is not new either in this Faculty. This cannot be claimed of design and styling, which was the missing link for establishing an educational and research programme in Industrial Design Engineering. In the well known linear model of research to market, design and styling seems distant from fundamental research, but design and styling is directly connected to fundamental research questions of both a technical nature and a human science nature. Below, some examples are provided for (natural and) engineering sciences as well as for the social sciences. Engineering sciences: - New functionalities of materials and coatings; - New driving, heating, cooling and lighting systems. Social and behavioural sciences: - Psychological and social aspects of products; - History of artefacts; - Form semantics. At the moment, we are seeing a growing involvement of fundamental research groups in the IDE programme; this will become clear in Part B of this report. 18 A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE

19 3.5 DEMARCATION OF IDE RESEARCH The reflections above, combined with the opportunities, have resulted in a research programme which is distributed over three full chairs: Design Engineering (Van Houten), Product Design (Eger) and Product Realisation (Poelman). General programme leader is Professor Van Houten. The part-time chair in Packaging Design and Management of Professor Ten Klooster was added to the chair for Design Technology and the part-time chair History of Design of Professor Drukker was added to the chair of Product Design. In the following Sections, the focus of all chairs relevant to IDE is discussed, starting with the directly involved chairs. Directly involved chairs A Design Engineering, Professor Van Houten The new chair in Design Engineering was founded in 1998 and Professor Van Houten was appointed. In 2000, he was asked by the Dean to start a joint exploration of the possibility to start a Bachelor/Master curriculum in Industrial Design Engineering. Time was short because the new educational programme was planned for September An enthusiastic group of young staff members spent many hours putting the curriculum together and finding outside expertise to help realising it. The second IDE chair - in Product Design - was established in 2003, with the appointment of Professor Eger. The research domain of the Design Engineering group was historically based on work in the field of Production Engineering, not so much on the technology of manufacturing processes but more on automation and informational support. In the early 1990s, the group was very successful in Computer Automation of Process Planning (CAPP). An offspring company was founded to exploit and further develop the PART system and is still a successful business with the commercialised results of research. Crossing the border of CAD/CAM, research was done on automatic tolerance allocation, constraint-based geometry generation and the so-called what-if system, finally resulting in information management for design processes and design tools. Another important topic was life cycle engineering. After the instantiation of IDE, its research portfolio was extended with physical and cognitive ergonomics and user-centred design, as well as mechatronic design and system engineering, and sustainable energy design. B Product Design, Professor Eger The chair Product Design aims to develop qualitative and if possible quantitative methods for the analysis of the history of products and for the development of new products. The product phase model plays a key role and serves as a guideline in the Product Design research plan. Starting from the well known six phases of the economic product life cycle (development, pioneering, penetration, growth, maturity, saturation), these phases are combined with a qualitative model of six product phases (performance, optimisation, itemisation, segmentation, individualisation and awareness). The most important aspect of this model is that the type of dominant product development is also influenced by the place the product occupies in its life cycle. The main practical implication is that one needs to consider this relationship explicitly when choosing specific product development activities, while the chance of success during the product development process can be enhanced when the life cycle is considered. Research areas are Evolutionary Product Development, Gender and Design and Co-Creation. In research, the concept of a product is relatively broad; a product can also be interpreted as a service. C Product Realisation, Professor Poelman The chair Product Realisation was founded in December 2008 with the appointment of Dr Poelman as the first professor and is still in its start-up period. The chair is positioned between the human/soft and the technological/hard aspects of industrial design engineering. Design and styling as well as ergonomics and design history are regarded as soft aspects, while e.g. construction, material sciences and mechatronics are regarded as hard aspects. In the context of industrial design engineering, a distinction is made between three kinds of technology: Product technology (aimed at the functioning of products), manufacturing technology (aimed at the parts production and assembly) and design engineering (aimed at the methods and tools for design). A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE 19

20 Manufacturing technology and design engineering are well covered by existing chairs. Hence, the chair for Product Realisation will mainly focus on product technology. D Design History, Professor Drukker Design is an important aspect of, and embedded in, material culture. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the role of culture in design, which is best understood in a historical perspective. Interestingly, all explanation in cultural history is nowadays deeply influenced by evolutionary models. So design history, as one of the pillars of the Product Design group, acts as a servant of two masters. On the one hand, it tries to provide a cultural basis for the research carried out by Professor Eger, aimed at the further elaboration, testing and refinement of his model of evolutionary product development. On the other hand, a small number of independent PhD projects in design history and institutional history are carried out: Unruly Product Design, History of the University of Twente, and History of the Science Centre NEMO. Finally, Professor Drukker recently took the initiative for a research project aiming at a reformulation of basic principles of design history in an evolutionary perspective. Publications stemming from this project will be published in a series of articles in international journals, and will finally be summarised in a book, planned for publication in E Packaging Design, Professor Ten Klooster The research of Professor Ten Klooster concentrates on raising professionalism in the world of packaging. Mistakes are often made in this field of design. For example, many projects lead to designs that are not producible, the cost of products being thrown away in the packaging chain exceeds the value of the used packaging and packaging materials, and many graphical designs cannot be realised. Therefore, several themes have been set up to overcome such problems. The chair is funded by eleven companies and discussions are held with these companies twice a year on the themes and results to ensure continued contact with the market and its insights. Associated chairs Within the framework of the new IDE Master track of Emerging Technology Design, there are opportunities to carry out research which is focused on product applications of new technologies. The contribution of the following research groups to the IDE research programme is typical for the ETD approach. F Surface Technology and Tribology, Professor Schipper As a result of biomedical developments, there is an urgent need for tribological knowledge of soft tissues (tactile contact). Therefore, the Surface Technology and Tribology group started this theme a few years ago. Within the biotribology area, the main focus is on the interaction between human skin and objects. These objects can be of a range of types, with applications varying from medical and leisure to design and engineering and include both static contact and dynamic contact. Sub-micrometer texturing of surfaces is another research topic related to Industrial Design. G Production Technology, Professor Akkerman The establishment of the IDE programme reinforces the links between research and product development and widens the scope for research related to materials and production technology. Interests shared with IDE are the application of new materials and processes in new products, on the one hand when considering society s needs for safety and sustainability and on the other hand when considering the specific opportunities of composite materials for construction applications and of advanced (composite) materials with added functionality. H Applied Mechanics, Professor De Boer Consumer product development research can benefit from theory and methods developed in the Applied Mechanics group. This could be a good base for valorisation. Acoustics is attracting a growing interest in the circles of industrial designers. A product s sound influences the overall experience of the product considerably and sound also plays an important role in user interfaces. In the past, the research 20 A PROFILE OF THE INSTITUTE

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