# 6: Financial Calculations

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2 Financial Functions A B C D E F G H Growth of money I Rate.% 00 At start At end Interest 0 Year of year of year Figure Principal Years Enter the year values in column A as shown. Enter the rate of.% in B and the initial value of 00 in B. The formula in C to compute the interest is =B*\$B\$ (the \$ symbol allows us to copy the formula later.) The formula in D is =B+C. Now we have the value of the investment at the end of year. Since the value on I January of the next year will be the same as that on December of the previous year, enter in B the formula =D. Copy C:D down to row. Now we have the value at the end of the second year. The process repeats itself, so copy B:D down to row. The value in D is the answer. A plot of the values in column D against years in column A looks like a linear plot. This is misleading because the time period is so short for the low rate of interest. You can see this if you raise the rate to some large value such as %. The plot is then a curve - it is in fact an exponential curve. Growth of Money II In Figure we have changed the scenario slightly. Rather than a single deposit, this time we will make a deposit of 00 at the end of each year. All we need do is modify the formula in D, replacing =B + C by =B +C + 00, and copy this down to D. At the end of the sixth year we will have.. 0 A B C D E F G H Growth of money II Rate.% Year Figure At start At end Interest of year of year Principal Years The FV Function We could have found the answer to the first problem above in one step using the equation A=P( + R) n = 00(+ 0.0)^ see Quantitative Approaches in Business Studies page. The answer for the second problem would be more difficult. However, the Microsoft Excel functions are relatively easy to use.

3 Financial Functions The future value FV function is the one needed for the two problems above. The syntax of this is FV(rate, nper, pmt, pv, type). We have already noted that the quantities present value, future value, payment, number of periods and rate are interrelated. For this reason, the arguments for the function are the remaining quanitites. In addition, we have the type arguments. This has the value 0 when payments are made at the end of the period and when they are made at the start. A value of 0 is assumed if the argument is omitted. When using this, and other financial functions, care must be taken with the signs used for the monetary quantities. It is normal to use positive amounts when the cash flows in and negative amounts when the cash flows out. In the scenarios of the two problems above, the initial deposit and the subsequent annual payments flow out from the saver into the bank. From the saver s point of view, these are negative quantities. Note that when Excel computes a negative value for the financial functions the cell is formatted to show the amount in red. The two problems from above are solved in the worksheet shown in Figure. Only G and G contain formulas and these are: =FV(B,C,D,-E) and =FV(B,C,D,E), respectively. In each case the present value (and in the second formula, the payment) is made negative using different approaches. In line, the pv cell (E) holds positive value but the formula in G uses -E. In line, the two quantities that are to be treated as negative amounts in G's formula are entered as negative values in their respective cells (D and E). A B C D E F G Growth of Money Problems rate nper pmt pv type fv Problem.% \$. Problem.% \$. Figure Amortisation of a Loan A company borrows i0,000 to purchase a machine. The bank expects this to be paid off in monthly installments over -years with interest compounded quarterly at the rate of.% per month. What will be the payments? How much of the principal will be paid off by the end of the first year? The syntax for the PMT function is =PMT(rate, nper, pv, fv, type). The first three arguments are the interest rate, the number of periods, and present value (amount of loan); these three are required. The optional fourth argument (fv) is the future value of the outstanding loan at the end of the repayment period; normally we wish this to be zero. The last option (type) is as before. So the formula in B is =-PMT(B,B,B) where the negation sign is used to force a positive value. In the table from which the chart is made the formulas in row are: B: =B C: =B*\$B\$ (The \$ symbols enable us to copy this formula later) D: =\$B\$ - C (The payment less the interest due)

4 Financial Functions In row 0 we have: B0: =B-D C0: =B0*\$B\$ (Copied from C) D0: =\$B\$ - C0 (Copied from D) Row is copied down to row. 0 0 A B C D Loan Amortization Principal 0,000 Rate.0% Periods Payment. Periods Principal Interest Paydown 0, ,...,...,...,...,0..0.,.. 0.,..0 0.,... 0,. 0..,0. 0..,...,...0,.. 0., Interest Paydown Figure Some points to note: a) In the initial months, most of the payments go to pay interest; only after month does more than 0% of the payment go towards paying off the principal. b) After month (i.e. at the start of the th month) the principal is i. c) At the start of the last month, i. is owed. The interest on this at month-end is i0. and the remainder of the payment is exactly the amount needed to reduce the principal to zero. Annuity Calculation An annuity makes periodic payments over a fixed length of time. Normally, one purchases an annuity for a lump sum. Suppose I wish to purchase an annuity that will give me \$,000 each month (payment) for years. In addition I wish the annuity to make a final payment of \$,000 at the end of this period (this is the future value). How much must I pay for this annuity if the current interest rate is.0% per month? This is a present value problem since it asks about the value today of money to be received in the future. The syntax of the PV function is PV(rate, nper, pmt, fv, type). Note how this parallels the FV function. The

5 A B C D E F Annuity Years Rate.00% pm Payment,000 fv,000 pv -\$0,. Figure =PV(B,B*,B,B,0) Financial Functions problem is solved in the worksheet shown in Figure in which B has the formula =PV(B, B*, B, B, 0). The result is in red since I must pay the bank (outflow of cash from me) this amount if I am to receive (inflow of cash) the payments. If a banker were making this calculation she may make the payments negative and produce a cash inflow from the buyer of the annuity. Note the second argument (nper). Because it is easier to think in terms of years, B contains a year value but when the compounding of interest is done monthly I must work in units of months. Hence the second argument is B*. Comparing Investments In Quantitative Approaches in Business Studies (page 0) two investments are compared. The initial costs and the annual revenues produced by the two investments for a three year period are shown in Figure. 0 A B C D E F G H I J Comparing Investments Discount rate % Cash Flow Present value calculations Discount factors Year A B Year A B 0 -,000 -,00 0 -,000 -,00,000,00,,0 0.,00,00,0,0 0.,00,000, 0. Present value 0 Present value 0 Figure We may calculate the present value of the cash flow using the same method as the text book. This is dome in the area E:G. The discounted worth of each year s revenue is computed from amount ( + rate) period. Thus in F we use =B*(+\$G\$)^-\$E. The \$ symbols, of course, are there to enable us to copy the formula down and across. With the discounted cash flows for project A in F:F we calculate the prevent value for the project in F0 with =SUM(F:F) Note that our values are slighlty different from those in the textbook. This results from using discount factors rounded to three decimal places. In column I we show more accurate discount factors. The formula in I is =(+\$G\$)^-E. There is a shorter way to obtain these answers in Excel. We cannot use the PV function because the annual cash flows are not the same. We can, however, use the NPV (net present value) function. The formula in B0 is =NPV(\$G\$,B:B)+B. The first term computes the NVP of the revenues using NPV which has the syntax =NPV(rate, value, value,...) where Value, value,etc. are the cash flows for periods,, etc. We have

6 Financial Functions chosen to use a range for Value. We must allow for the zero year cash flow in this case the cost of the machine. This is the second term in the formula in B0. Note that since we chose to enter this as a negative value in B, we add B's value. A second way of making a decision between two competing projects is to compute the internal rate of return for each and opt for the one with the highest value. We show these calculations in Figure. The formula in B is =IRR(B:B,0%). There is no simple algebraic formula to find the internal rte of return. So Excel uses an iterative process. For this to work, it needs an initial guess. This is the 0% argument in the formula. The IRR for project A exceeds that for project B we expected as much since A has the higher present value. 0 A B C D E F G Internal rate of return Modified internal rate of return IRR.%.% MIRR 0.% 0.% FV of reinvested cash,0,,,0,00,000 Total,0, Rate.%.% Figure Many authors have commented on the inappropriateness of the IRR computation. It assumes that the revenues generated by the project can themselves be invested at the same rate as generated by the project. This is not necessarily true. We may have a marvellous machine making high-value items at low cost. Thus we are getting a good return on the investment but we may not be able to find something with the same high return in which to invest the revenues. The calculations in A:C make this point. In A we compute the future value of project A s the first-year revenue assuming it is invested at.% for two years. The formula in A is =B*(+B\$)^(-\$A). Note that the term (-\$A) computes the number of years the money will be invested. This formula is copied down to row to compute the next two amounts. Using =SUM(B:B) we compute the total future value in B0. In B we show that this total accumulated from an invested of,000 does indeed required a rate of return of.%. To calculate this quantity we use the geometric growth t equation: rate = income / investment where t is the number of years. How do we compute cube roots (or higher roots) in Excel? Recall that x = x, so x = x and n x = x n. The formula in B is, therefore =(B0/-B)^(/)-. Because of the limitations of the IRR concept, Excel also provides the modified internal rate of return function MIRR which allows the user to specify both the rate for the initial investment and the rate for the annual revenues. Using % for each of these, the MIRR values for the two projects are computed in F and G. The interested reader should look in Excel s Help facility for more details.

7 Financial Functions Worked examples On page 0 of Quantitative Approaches in Business Studies you will find three worked examples of financial calculations. We will see how to solve these using Excel. ) What is the minimum amount you would expect to pay in return for a guaranteed income of 000 a year for ten years, the first payment to be made at the end of year one? Assume an interest rate of %. We begin by reproducing the method in the text book compute the present value for each annual payment using the discount formula and sum them to get the present value of this annuity. The formula in B is =\$B\$*(+\$B\$)^(-B0) and this is copied to K. The SUM function is used in L to give the same value as in the textbook. We compute the same quantity in B rather more quickly with =PV(B,0,B). Note that we use only the three required argument: rate, payments and number of periods. There is no future value in this problem so we omit the fourth argument. The fifth argument specifies if payments are paid/received at the end or beginning of each period. When this is omitted, Excel assumes a value of ) payments are at the end of each period. The PV function automatically formats the cell. In this case we get a red negative value indicating that if we are to get positive payments in the future, we should expect an outflow of cash today. 0 A B C D E F G H I J K L Worked Examples Annuity question Rate % Payment Year 0 Total Discounted payment ,0. Using PV -,0. Figure ) Projects A and B both cost Project A yields a cash flow of 000 annually for years, while B simply yields a lump sum of at the end of a three-year period. Assuming a % interest rate, which is the more profitable project? Figure show a worksheet set up to solve this problem. The formula in C is =C0*(+\$C\$)^(-C\$). This computes the discounted value of an amount after so may years. Copy this C:F and to C:F. In column G add the discounted amounts. Project B has the least negative PV. Hopefully the company can find a project with a positive present value! The same values may be computed using the NPV function. In I0 the formula is =NPV(C,D0:F0)+C0. Because the revenues are the same in all three years for project A, one can use a similar formula with PV in place of NPV. This is left for the reader to do.

8 Financial Functions 0 A B C D E F G H I J Project Decision Rate % Year 0 NPV PV formula Project A Cash Total -\$, -\$, Discounted Project B Cash Total NPV Discounted \$, Figure ) If 00 is invested at % per annum compound interest, how years will it take for the account to be worth 00? As indicated in Quantitative Approaches in Business Studies, one might solve this problem using trial and error. Set up your worksheet as shown in Figure 0. The formula in B0 could be =B0*(+B)^B which corresponds to 00 (. 0) n or we could use the Future Value function as in =FV(B,B,0,-B0). In the later case note that we have -B0 since B0 was entered as a positive value but it was an outflow of cash (the depositor gave it to the bank.) Now we experiment with various values in B until the future value is close to the required 00. You may even wish to let Solver do this for you as explained in Unit. 0 A B C D E F G H Savings problem Principal -00 Logarithm method Rate % Target 00 Years n. Future value \$. Figure 0 Using NPER. Alternatively, if the future value is computed with: pri nci pal ( + n rat ) e = future val ue n then ( + rate) = future value / principal and, by taking logarithms n LOG( + rate) = LOG( future value / principal) LOG( future value / principal) or n = ( + rate) In E this is entered as =LOG(E/B0)/LOG(+B) and yields a value of about ½ years. Of course, Excel provides a direct way of getting this answer. The formula in G is =NPER(B,0,-B0,E). Again, we negate the B0 value to indicate an outflow of money. When you are using only Excel functions, it is better to enter all outflows as negative values and then you need not adjust the arguments in Excel functions.

9 Financial Functions Other Financial Functions Excel has over 0 financial functions. To see a full list with a short description of each in the Help facility, in the Answer Wizard search box enter the name of any financial function (such as PV). Open the Help area for the function and click on See Also. In the Topic Found box, click on financial functions. You might expect a more direct route!

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