1/2010. Second life Redesign and testing of a gas turbine unit. Classification of materials Ensuring product quality by customized material tests

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1 1/2010 Improved design quality 3D CAD tools speed up design and manufacturing Classification of materials Ensuring product quality by customized material tests Second life Redesign and testing of a gas turbine unit

2 EDITORIAL Sulzer today The Sulzer brothers laid the foundations of today's company in 1834 in Winterthur, Switzerland. Sulzer is active in the fields of machinery, equipment manufacturing, and surface technology in more than 120 locations around the world. Its divisions are global leaders in their respec tive markets, including the oil and gas sector, the hydrocarbon processing industry, power generation, pulp and paper, aviation, and the automotive industry. Sulzer employs a total of professionals who develop innovative new technical solutions. These prod ucts and services enable Sulzer's customers to achieve sustained improvements in their competitive positions. Modern development tools and test procedures Dear Technology Professionals, Customers, and Partners, At Sulzer, we place high demands on the development of new solutions, namely that they should continuously improve the benefits for our customers and partners. How can potential difficulties in design be identified at an early stage and the development process guided in the right direction? And how can the improvements we have implemented be measured? An important role here is played by the modern design tools and test procedures that are the subject of various articles in this issue of the Sulzer Technical Review (STR). Sulzer Pumps accelerates the design process through computer-supported development with 3D CAD tools. Both customers and suppliers can benefit from the complete visualization of the unit at an early phase of the project. Together with Sulzer Pumps, Sulzer Innotec has developed a new test procedure that systematically compares the effectiveness of coatings and thereby directly measures the improvements. You will read how the corrosion and erosion resistance of a layer are not only dependent on the material composition but are also strongly tied to the process parameters during the coating process. Furthermore, based on the overhaul and modernization of a gas turbine in Indonesia, Sulzer Turbo Services shows how a number of targeted individual measures can create great benefits for the customer. In the other articles, Sulzer Innotec and Sulzer Pumps present the solutions that Sulzer develops for the growing renewable energy production market. The contribution from Sulzer Metco will show you how the wear resistance of tools in the plastics industry can be increased and how the reliability of delivery and the competiveness of the customers can be strengthened through combined surface treatment. Finally, Sulzer Chemtech presents the Peeler cartridge generation II for the construction sector, which has been developed for specific customer needs. I hope you enjoy this issue. Sincerely yours, Ton Büchner CEO Sulzer Sulzer Pumps Sulzer Pumps offers a variety of centrifugal pumps, ranging from custom-built models to standardized series. The division's marketleading position reflects its research and development activities relating to processoriented materials as well as its reliable service. It serves customers in the oil and gas, hydro - carbon processing, pulp and paper, power generation, water distribution and treatment sectors, as well as other specialized areas. Sulzer Metco Sulzer Metco specializes in thermal-spray and thin-film processes for surface technology applications. The division coats and enhances surfaces, produces materials and equipment, and develops machining processes for special components. Its customers are active in the aviation and automotive industries, the power generation segment, and other specialized markets. Sulzer Chemtech Sulzer Chemtech is the market leader in the fields of process tech nol ogy, separation columns, static mixing, and cartridge tech - nologies. The division has sales, engineering, production, and customer service facilities throughout the world that enable it to meet the needs of its customers in the oil and gas, chemical, petro chemical and plastics industries. Sulzer Turbo Services Sulzer Turbo Services is a large independent provider of repair and maintenance services for thermal turbomachinery and other rotating equipment. The division also manufactures and sells replacement parts for gas and steam turbines and compressors. Its customers operate in the oil and gas, power generation, and other specialized industrial sectors. Sulzer Innotec The research and development unit supports the development projects of Sulzer's own divisions as well as projects of industrial companies around the world by providing contract research and special technical services. Sulzer Innotec has considerable expertise in materials engineering, surface engineering, fluid technology, as well as in the field of mechanics. Its core competencies in the area of contract research also focus on these traditional disciplines. 2 Sulzer Technical Review 1/2010

3 CONTENTS 4 News Exhibitions, Events Design and testing 6 Improved design quality Modern 3D CAD tools used to package pumps speed up design and manufacturing processes 10 Sulzer analogy How animals use tools 11 Classification of materials Ensuring product quality through customized material tests 15 Sulzer history Computers replace labs Panorama 16 Second life From relocation to commissioning of a Frame 5 gas turbine unit 20 The power of the sun Safeguarding the future through sustainable power generation 25 Sulzer world Welcome to Sulzer Turbo Services in Indonesia 26 Longer life span Efficient coating systems for plastics processing tools 28 Peeler cartridge The second generation 30 Interview Peter Moritz, Sulzer Chemtech 31 Imprint On the cover: Sulzer Pumps uses standardized 3D CAD tools to speed up the design process and visualize the full assembly at a very early stage of a project for the benefit of clients and suppliers. Sulzer Technical Review 1/2010 3

4 Exhibitions, Events Torsional vibration measurement on natural gas compressors in China March 31 April 2, 2010, Lang Fang, China International Pipeline Exhibition and Conference Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone April 12 14, 2010, Jubail, UAE SABIC Technical Meeting Information for Sulzer Chemtech: Rafic Traboulssi Phone Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone April 18 21, 2010, Oran, Algeria GNL/LNG 16, Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone April 18 21, 2010, Melbourne, Australia APPITA annual Conference & Exhibition Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone May 3 5, 2010, Singapore ITSC 2010 International Thermal Spray Conference & Exhibition Information for Sulzer Metco: Karin Gehrig Phone On behalf of the MAN Turbo AG in Oberhausen, Germany, the Machinery Dynamics and Acoustics group of Sulzer Innotec determined the torsional vibration behavior of the drive train of the compressors of a natural gas pipeline. The measurement of the torsional vibration on several machines at different locations had the goal of determining the torsional natural oscillating frequencies and the resonance amplitudes that were actually excited, as well as defining the corresponding rotary speed block out regions and checking whether the safety of the systems could be guaranteed over the service life. The measurements were carried out by means of strain measurement using strain gauges. By using four strain gauges connected appropriately to form a full bridge, the bending and tension components can be counterbalanced so that the pure torsion strain can be measured. The torsion moment is then calculated from this strain. The strain signal is transmitted from the rotating system to the stationary system using telemetry. Torsional vibration measurements from Sulzer Innotec are also applicable for the Sulzer divisions. Contact: May 3 6, 2010, Houston, USA OTC Offshore Technology Conference Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone May 5 6, 2010, Würzburg, Germany 1. Würzburger Werkzeug Symposium Information for Sulzer Metco: Corinna Heinz Phone Strain gauge on the drive train, with full bridge and battery power supply for the telemetry. Sulzer expands its automotive synchronizer business May 19 20, 2010, Oulu, Finland Maintenance 2010 / Kunnossapito Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone May 26 28, 2010, Shanghai, China 5th China International Starch Exhibition Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone Sulzer Friction Systems has strengthened its position in high-performance carbon friction materials for synchronizers. BorgWarner Inc. of Auburn Hills, Michigan, U.S.A., and Sulzer Metco of Winterthur, Switzerland, have agreed to transfer the automotive synchronizer equipment of BorgWarner to Sulzer. Sulzer has agreed to acquire the assets of the BorgWarner facilities in Margam, U.K., and Longview, Texas, U.S.A., and to transfer them to its locations in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Sulzer plans to continue supplying products to BorgWarner s customers. Sulzer Friction Systems also plans to offer synchronizers with the BorgWarner friction material to existing and new synchronizer customers in the future. Contact: 4 Sulzer Technical Review 1/

5 Blade vibration measurements on the rotating impeller using strain gauges Exhibitions, Events June 1 3, 2010, Helsinki, Finland Pulpaper Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone Radial compressor impeller with strain gauges applied. The Machinery Dynamics and Acoustics group of Sulzer Innotec carried out blade vibration measurements on an operating radial compressor impeller from MAN Turbo AG Switzerland on the test stand of MAN Turbo in Zurich. In order to do this, twelve strain gauges were fitted to the impeller. The signals from eight strain gauges were transmitted from the rotating system to the stationary system using a telemetry system and were then recorded. The quality of the signals was very good, and the evaluation provided important information regarding the effect of internals on the flow behavior and regarding the level of the amplitudes of the blade vibrations. These data served also for the validation of the finite element calculations of the impeller. Similar measurements are also applicable for impellers of Sulzer Pumps or for turbines that have been overhauled by Sulzer Turbo Services. Contact: Most famous James Bond car Goldfinger On Her Majesty s Secret Service The Living Daylights Golden Eye Die Another Day fans surely remember the popular vehicle that was featured in the action-packed James Bond movies: the Aston Martin. Sulzer Metco is honored to be part of the new One-77 V12 Aston Martin sports car. Engine Technology International magazine has published a case study on the One-77 V12 powertrain, which out - lines Sulzer s thermal spray coating on the cylinder block. Replacing the original pressed-in cast-iron liners, the bore has been plasma-iron sprayed onto the parent metal, using the Sulzer Metco RotaPlasma TM process. This has saved weight, improved the cooling performance, and increased the engine knock resistance. (Citation Showcase 2010 of Engine Technology International). Contact: June 8 10, 2010, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Power Gen Europe Information for Sulzer Turbo Services: Sue Hudson Phone Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone June 14 17, 2010, St. Louis, USA International Fuel Ethanol Workshop and Expo Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone June 15 17, 2010, Moscow, Russia International Sugar Forum Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone June 14 18, 2010, Glasgow, United Kingdom Turbo Expo 2010 Gas Turbine Technical Congress & Exhibition Information for Sulzer Metco: Karin Gehrig Phone June 21 25, 2010, Moscow, Russia Neftegaz Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone June 22 23, 2010, Friedrichshafen, Germany Getriebe in Fahrzeugen Information for Sulzer Metco: Corinna Heinz Phone June 22 25, 2010, Qingdao, China Asia-Pacific Desalination Conference Information for Sulzer Pumps: Claudia Pröger Phone Courtesy of Aston Martin June 22 24, 2010, Stuttgart, Germany Engine Expo 2010 International Trade Show for Engine Technology Information for Sulzer Metco: Nadine Pernhardt Phone Sulzer Technical Review 1/2010 5

6 DESIGN AND TESTING Modern 3D CAD tools used to package pumps speed up design and manufacturing processes Improved design quality Today, not only is the technical quality of the core product, i.e., the pump, critical to the success of any operation, but all support and secondary parts, such as pipework and electrical circuits, also have to meet the highest standards. Modern 3D CAD modeling brings all these components together in one assembly. This approach allows for the visual inspection of the design and identification of interferences or necessary space for maintenance or plant requirements like piles or walls. Sulzer Pumps uses standardized 3D CAD tools to speed up the design process and visualize the full assembly at a very early stage of a project for the benefit of clients and sub-suppliers. The same 3D model delivers an isometric view as well as foundation and nozzle details. pump assembly, or package, includes, in addition to the main items, a multitude of standard and non-standard parts, such as a baseplate, nuts, bolts, gaskets, piping and supports, wiring, etc.. All these parts require space and have a certain relation to each other in (three-dimensional) space. It is very challenging to analyze these relationships and possible interference using traditional 2D drawings, which are usually designed independently of one another. When a 3D CAD program is used to create the piping drawings, all parts are covered, including the small ones. So the bill of materials (BOM) is complete once the drawing is finished, and when the packaging of the unit starts, no parts are missing. Prefabrication shortens delivery times In earlier times, the drawings of the pipework were mainly schematics, and it was not always clear how many elbows, flange pairs, or straight pipes were needed. The use of 3D CAD makes it possible to plan the pipe layout exactly at the design stage, thus facilitating the prefabrication of the piping. This feature is a considerable advantage especially for projects with several identical pumps. In such cases, total packaging time can be reduced significantly thanks to prefabrication. Accurate 3D preliminary designs allow for parallel workflows of pump fabrica- 6 Sulzer Technical Review 1/

7 DESIGN AND TESTING Pump package as a CAD model and on the shop floor. tion, packaging design and machining. In the past, the package had to be assembled to determine the exact locations of piping and supports. After that, disassembly was necessary, followed by final machining and painting of the baseplate, and final assembly of the package for the customer. Today, up-to-date 3D design programs for the pump package, including the piping, significantly reduce the lead time required to completely package a skid within the assembly shop. Manufacturing in parallel These modern design processes allow engineers to perform multiple tasks in parallel and only lay down a baseplate onto the shop floor when all items have been manufactured and are ready to fit onto the skid. In today s practice, the baseplate can be fabricated, the bare shaft pump can be machined and assembled, and the pipework can be prefabricated simultaneously using the piping isometrics or drawings generated from the 3D CAD system. The current practice is to fabricate a small section of the pipework and fit it to the pump. The fitter then checks the dimensions, takes the pipe off, and fabricates the rest of the pipework. The piping is then refitted, checked, and adjusted. The completed pipework is then taken off again for x-ray or other examination, pressure test, and cleaning. Once these processes are completed, the pipework is 3D CAD pictures and corresponding photos of a pump. Sulzer Technical Review 1/2010 7

8 DESIGN AND TESTING Modern 3D CAD and visualization tools allow the pipework (bottom) to be prefabricated prior to the skid arriving. refitted for final inspection. This procedure can take up to five weeks and can only be performed once the actual pump is available for fitting. Speed up of fitting Modern production processes at Sulzer Pumps using 3D CAD and visualization tools ensure that the pipework is completely prefabricated, incorporating all the inspection and cleaning, prior to the skid arriving. The pipework is fitted only once when the skid arrives and only small adjustments are made before the final inspection. This approach reduces the overall leadtime for the assembly of a pump package from 12 to 7 weeks on average. This improvement is only possible if all subcomponents are in place and ready to fit as soon as the baseplate enters the shop. Three-dimensional design also offers engineers the possibility to analyze additional space requirements, like the room needed for ventilators and silencers of a noise hood, service openings, or accessibility to the seal systems for service. The engineers need to provide sufficient clearance for stud, nut, and wrench for seal assembly and removal. Clearance checks in the virtual reality of a fully homologous 3D model on the computer allow for the planning of additional measures to ensure access for such tasks. Supporting customer processes An obvious strength of 3D design programs is the visualization of the pump assembly at a very early stage of the project. This feature is helpful for the planning of the whole plant, as it supports the integration of the pump sets in the surroundings of e.g., a power plant with regard to pipework, wiring, highvoltage connection, as well as instrumentation and control. If such models are created during the inquiry phase of a project, customers can get a very vivid impression of how the pump will look and, at the same time, can receive a large amount of reliable data relating to requirements for space and hook-up to power supply. Because such custom models already include a lot of definite information, Sulzer Pumps is able to complete them very quickly in the event of an order and thus submit assembly drawings with binding dimensions within a very short time. Additionally, sub-suppliers and clients alike can use the 3D visualization provided by Sulzer Pumps in their downstream engineering activities, which saves them the effort of creating models from 2D drawings (that were previously made available). As these detailed models provide the ability to recognize exactly the space conditions around the unit, such as intersections with process piping or room for safety runways, the Sulzer 3D models support civil engineering and plant design processes. Booster pump (left) and boiler feed pump (right). 8 Sulzer Technical Review 1/2010

9 DESIGN AND TESTING Complete boiler feed pump set for an EPR Nuclear Power Plant. Thanks to modern CAD tools, the setup of the machines can be planned long before they are actually in the power plant. Three-dimensional modeling speeds up processes not only on the customer side but also on the vendor side. Other uses of the model include preliminary design of test bed arrangements. The pump assembly can be brought into the modeled test bed area for preconfiguring of the test bed piping on the computer screen. This computer-aided planning process reduces the time needed for the test setup when the actual test runs must be performed. Process proven in practice This improved process for the packaging design has already been put to practice for numerous projects including boiler feed pump set designs for several nuclear power plants, including a European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) in France and in China. The EPR design strategy is of an evolutionary type and takes advantage of over 30 years of operating experience acquired by French and German designers and operators. The reactor will consume 17% less fuel due to the use of more efficient assemblies and higher turbine efficiency than previous reactors. This improvement, along with refueling outage times, which are two to three times shorter, will increase annual power output by 36% compared with current reactors. Sulzer Pompes France has to supply four boiler feed pump sets including the booster and the main pumps. Three of the sets will be in operation, and there is also a standby unit. Each of the pump sets has a design flow of 33% of the total flow required. The growing use of 3D-design tools for pump arrangements, including drivers, gears, baseplates, pipework, and other additional equipment, will increasingly speed up design and manufacturing processes for pumps and also support customer processes by facilitating the integration of Sulzer products in the clients plant layout. Andy Thomas Sulzer Pumps (UK) Ltd. LS11 8BR Leeds United Kingdom Phone +44 (113) Jean-Maurice Legoy Sulzer Pompes France Mantes la Jolie Cedex France Phone +33 (1) Martin Amann Sulzer Pumpen Deutschland GmbH Bruchsal Germany Phone Sulzer HPT Multistage Barrel Casing Boiler Feed Pump in a thermal power station in Lippendorf, Germany. Sulzer Technical Review 1/2010 9

10 SULZER ANALOGY How animals use tools For a long time, humans were convinced that only they were capable of using tools. That changed in 1764, when a Dutchman in Indonesia observed how a fish used water as a hunting weapon by spitting a well-aimed stream of water at insects on low-hanging leaves. Photo credit: Manfred Werner. Licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Neophron percnopterus, Egyptian vulture Since then, hundreds of examples of animals using tools have become known. If the Brown tegula, a top snail, ends up on its back during a reckless climb, it searches for stones with the sticky soles of its feet in order to use the momentum of the additional weight to turn back onto its feet again. Chimpanzees know as many as ten different techniques, including throwing sticks and stones to ward off enemies, cracking nuts with a hammer and anvil, collecting liquid from a tree hollow using a leaf sponge, and carrying around a leafy branch as an umbrella. However, the keenest users of tools are not mammals, but birds. The best known example is probably the woodpecker finch from the Galapagos Islands. It grasps a cactus thorn with its beak and pokes about in a tree crack with this drill until it spears an insect. Marabou and even the Blue titmouse also use tools to poke for food. While a pine needle is sufficient for the titmouse s job, the marabou uses an up to 50-centimeter-long stick as its poking tool. Cracking open eggs and mussels Tools are particularly useful when the coveted food cannot be reached any other way. The Egyptian vulture opens the eggs of other birds by picking up stones with its beak and throwing them at the egg. If the egg is an ostrich egg, this rather small bird looks for stones of up to a kilogram in weight, and, where necessary, carries the appropriate tool from up to a kilometer away. The cracking technique of the sea otter is very sophisticated. It dives to depths of up to 50 meters to fetch mussels from the sea bottom and also finds a stone weighing up to half a kilogram. Swimming on its back on the surface of the water, the otter lays the stone on its stomach and hits the end of the shell against the anvil using its paws, until the shell breaks open. The observed endurance record is 54 mussels, which a sea otter opened within 86 minutes with a total of 2237 blows. To save time during this hard work, the animal simply tucked the stone into its armpit between dives. Medical self-help The observations of animals using tools for medical self-help are almost unbelievable. The Australian ornithologist Alec Chisholm reported seeing sandpipers apply a splint to their injured legs using feathers and plaster them in place using mud. A case is known in the Augsburg Zoo where an Indian elephant cow pushed its trunk 60 centimeters into a sharp branch to puncture an abscess in its nasal passage and allow the pus to drain out. An adaptation to human culture can be seen in the behavior of American crows that throw walnuts onto the road in California, and, when a passing car breaks the shell, arrive within seconds to enjoy the treat. Similarly, carrion crows on the Shetland Islands have discovered that the best way to break open seashells is to let trucks do it for them. The actions of human beings have also been fully exploited by the Swedish Hooded crows. They seize the fishing lines of the packice fishermen with their beaks and then run back across the ice to bring the bait or a caught fish to the surface. Herbert Cerutti 10 Sulzer Technical Review 1/

11 DESIGN AND TESTING Ensuring product quality through customized material tests Classification of materials The exact wear behavior of a material cannot be predicted using only its simple physical and mechanical properties, such as hardness, modulus of elasticity, or tensile strength. Sulzer Innotec develops new testing methods that make the precise prediction of service life possible. Sulzer Innotec has a wide range of different testing methods for the characterization of materials and coatings. In addition to standard tests, customized methods are increasingly being used to test materials under near-service conditions with a range of stresses close to the actual range that will be encountered in the application. Materials as the key to success Hydroabrasive wear and corrosion are significant factors in the lifetime of pump components. In many cases, the service life of a pump can be significantly extended through the selection of special materials and coatings. To make a determination, it is necessary to have detailed information about the corrosive and abrasive characteristics of the liquid being pumped and a thorough understanding of the behavior of the material under the respective conditions. For modern pump materials and coatings, however, this data often cannot be found either in open literature or in publicly accessible data - bases, but has to be determined in application-specific test methods. Since the Sulzer builds the most powerful water injection pumps in the world. The pumps help optimize the pressure in oil fields over their full productive life cycle. Highly loaded parts of these pumps are coated for protection against corrosion, erosion, and cavitation Sulzer Technical Review 1/

12 DESIGN AND TESTING Block-on-ring test bench for testing slide friction wear and three-body abrasion. Water jet erosion test equipment. correct choice of materials can substantially affect not only the technical performance, but also the commercial success of a pump, the generation of reliable materials data remains one of the central tasks of Sulzer Innotec today. Sulzer Innotec works closely with the specialists from Sulzer Pumps and Sulzer Metco to select the materials and coatings to be tested as well as the tests to be performed. They determine whether these tests exist already, can be adapted from existing tests, or need to be developed from scratch. This approach has a long tradition at Sulzer. In the 1980s and 1990s, highly complex test benches such as SAPHYR, EROCOR, and TRIPAL were developed. These made a considerable contribution to the understanding of the 1 2 Material probe High-pressure jet 2 Powder-dosing unit (Waterjet AG, 4912 Aarwangen, Switzerland) 3 for abrasive material 1 3 wear processes in pumps and also to the development of extremely resistant protective coatings (SUMEPUMP ). Some of these facilities are still in use today. Wide range of stresses Unlike loads in many other applications in mechanical engineering, the conditions in pumps cannot be clearly defined in many cases. Instead of a single main load factor, a wide range of different loads arise that interact with one another to some extent, and, in the worst case, can even mutually reinforce each other. One example of this phenomenon is erosioncorrosion, in which either the erosive degradation of the protective oxide film brings about an increase in the corrosion or, on the other hand, increased wear results from the build-up of soft hydroxide coatings caused by the corrosion. In general, it can be assumed that wear through abrasion, erosion-corrosion, and cavitation will increase with the flow speed, solid content, and corrosion potential of the pumped liquid. However, it is difficult to state specific limits for individual materials because wear during operation depends on additional factors, such as the size, shape, and hardness of the solid particles. In addition, the application range of pumps is very wide with regard to abrasive materials and concentrations, stretching from relatively clean river water in drinking water supply systems up to highly loaded slurries in the fertilizer industry. To further increase complexity, the wear mechanism is also decisively influenced by the structure and design of the pump. For this reason, the best test bench is always the pump itself. Because wear tests at the customer s premises are only to be recommended in exceptional cases and the operation of pump test benches is cost- and time-intensive, various laboratory tests have been developed for evaluating the wear behavior of materials under defined conditions. Wear tests Because the wear behavior of a material cannot be predicted with the help of its simple physical and mechanical properties, such as hardness, modulus of elasticity, or tensile strength, it is necessary to carry out special wear tests. These tests can be divided into two categories: phenomenological tests and application specific tests. The former are used to determine the basic wear behavior of a material under clearly defined loads, while the latter are designed for components and specific applications. The results of such component tests can often be directly utilized. The disadvantages here are the high costs and the low transferability of the results to other applications. The general rule is that the closer the test is to reality, the higher the costs will be. In addition to the investment costs 12 Sulzer Technical Review 1/2010

13 DESIGN AND TESTING 5 mm Three-dimensional pictures of erosion damage caused by water jet. for the test bench and the operational costs, the manufacture of the often very complex test samples contributes significantly to the expense. Therefore, one of the main tasks in the definition of wear tests in industrial research is to find the right compromise between purely academic laboratory tests and extremely expensive component tests. Test methods at Sulzer Innotec Sulzer Innotec places a very high value on the fact that the wear test method should lie as close as possible to the actual service conditions of the subsequent application, whilst at the same time allowing material screenings to be carried out on a wide range of different materials. As it is not possible to characterize the wear behavior of a material using a single test, the results of different tests are grouped together in a material fact sheet and are then weighted by the material specialists according to the relevant application. A material fact sheet contains the purely material data, but also, information about the microstructure, hardness, and porosity of the material, as well as the results of the wear tests. Material characteristics are currently determined using the following test methods: Sliding abrasion: The two-body blockon-ring test evaluates the wear behavior of friction pairings subject to sliding friction, for example, such as can arise between the shaft and the bushing when starting up or shutting down pumps. When carrying out the test, a test block is pressed against a rotating, water-cooled disk with a defined standard force, and the resulting frictional force is measured using strain gauges. The standard force is increased until a greater increase of the sliding friction indicates the transition to heavy wear. Abrasion: In the three-body block-onring test, in a similar manner to the one in previous test, a test block is pressed onto a rotating metal disk with a defined force, which, in this case, is also impacted by water-sand slurry. It is thereby possible to simulate realistically the so-called three-body wear caused by liquid containing sand in the narrow passages of the pump. Cavitation test rig. Erosion: In the water jet erosion test, a finely focused high-pressure water jet containing abrasive material is directed over the material at different angles, and the wear volumes for each angle are then determined. The erosion behavior of the materials is then calculated from these values, which can vary strongly with the angle depending on the brittleness of the material. Cavitation: In the cavitation test, the material is subjected to high-frequency ultrasonic vibrations in a water bath. Thereby, very fine water vapor bubbles Clear differences can be seen in the surface structures of Stellite 6 and nickel after the cavitation test. Stellite 6 Nickel 1 mm Sulzer Technical Review 1/

14 DESIGN AND TESTING Results from the three-body wear test Relative wear Oscillating test bench for the determination of adhesive and sliding abrasion under reversing conditions. 0 WCCoCr coating type Differences in the three-body wear of thermally sprayed protective coatings of the same metallurgical composition. Coating with minimum of wear maximum of wear arise, whose implosion create shockwaves in the material; these, in turn, lead to a strong degradation of the surface. The determination of the wear volume and the change in surface roughness allows conclusions to be drawn about the toughness of the material. Furthermore, areas of poor bonding at the interface between the substrate and the coating become visible. In addition, the corrosion behavior of the materials is tested, for which both aging tests and ultramodern electrochemical Pin-disk arrangement for the determination of sliding and static friction coefficients. Operation is possible both with lubricant and under a defined atmosphere. methods are used. Further tests are performed depending on the material and the area of application. Charpy impact tests are carried out on heat-treated components, while coated materials are routinely subjected to a thermal-shock test and a pull-off adhesion test, for which the coated sample is glued between two stamps and stressed in a tensile-testing machine until the test body fails at either the glued joint or the interface between the substrate and the coating. Special applications occasionally require additional test methods, such as: HELI erosion (erosion through dry sand), fretting (wear due to micro-oscillation), two-body abrasion (wear of the test body against an abrasive belt), oscillating test bench (adhesive and sliding wear under reversing stresses, or various pin-disk test rigs that can also be operated under defined corrosive atmosphere. Expert systems for material data The tests described above are well established at Sulzer, standard methods for both material development and for quality assurance, in particular, in the area of coatings and they make an important contribution to the understanding of material behavior and wear processes in pumps. The midterm goal is to set up a database to combine the material data collected with the expertise and the experience of the pump engineers and to establish thereby an expert system that will permit even better service life predictions for new applications and materials in the future. 5 cm Thomas Kränzler Sulzer Markets and Technology AG Sulzer Innotec Sulzer-Allee Winterthur Switzerland Phone Sulzer Technical Review 1/2010

15 SULZER HISTORY Computers replace labs As one of the core disciplines of mechanical engineering, fluid mechanics has been very important at Sulzer since its inception. A Sulzer employee invented the turbocharger more than one hundred years ago. Today, the latest flow computation tools are used to gain insight, improve products, and accelerate development. Keep at technological progress: Numerical simulation of flows as an example of purposeful research-efforts (picture company development Sulzer, 1990). In the early 20th century, Lewis Fry Richardson used mathematical models and numerical processes to produce meteorological forecasts. Instead of computer nodes, Richardson used people working in parallel with pencil and paper a task comparable to those handled by computational processors in a computer cluster today. The fundamentals, however, were developed over the course of several centuries. Newton laid the foundation with his laws of motion. In the 18th century, Bernoulli and Euler wrote equations describing fluid dynamics. In 1822, Scavenging process of the RTA diesel engine velocity field and levels of purity distribution (fig. STR 3/1986). 20º crank angle (CA) before BDC (Bottom dead center) 20º CA after BDC 40º CA after BDC 60º CA after BDC BDC Exhaust gas Fresh air Navier and Stokes supplemented Euler s equations with viscosity the internal friction which smoothes the motion of a fluid and published the familiar Navier-Stokes equations. These equations constitute the foundation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Direct numerical solution of these equations is still impracticable due to the immense computational effort required. Thus, it took the development of so-called turbulence models and, parallel to this, increasingly powerful computers, for CFD to break through to become a standard tool. The developments don t stop there, either. Keywords include the Lattice Boltzmann methods which can be solved faster because of a linear approach and the direct particle method which does not require a computational grid. Emergence at Sulzer At Sulzer, the use of CFD began in the 1980s. In 1983, an engineer at Sulzer s research and development department Gerhard Metzen became the first person at Sulzer to use a commercial code to compute the scavenging process of a two-cycle diesel engine. The computational grid had approximately 1000 computational cells, and the geometry was two-dimensional with periodic boundary conditions. CFD codes with a graphical user interface first became available in The first parallel computation a simulation in which multiple processors solve the same equations together was carried out at Sulzer in Today, geometries are typically computed with several million cells. Sulzer today Fluid mechanics plays an important role in Sulzer products. Whether in the flow in a pump that pumps water into an oilfield at high pressure, the flow in structured packings in which an exchange takes place between gas and liquid, or the melting of powder particles in a plasma spray gun: An understanding of the fluid mechanics phenomena that occur is vitally important in all of these situations. Today, it is impossible to imagine the industrial working day without computational fluid dynamics. Sulzer uses this tool to analyze products, draw conclusions for essential further developments, and shorten development cycles. Gabriel Barroso 4294 Sulzer Technical Review 1/

16 DESIGN AND TESTING From relocation to commissioning of a Frame 5 gas turbine unit Second life A discarded gas turbine unit for power generation was impressively restored by Sulzer Turbo Services Indonesia. The company carried out all the individual steps from relocation to commissioning. The unit was put into commercial operation on December 14, 2009 and has been running since then without any major problems. The incoming fully corroded gas turbine unit was stripped down for refurbishing. fter Sulzer Turbo Services Indonesia had successfully installed two used Japanese steam turbine generator sets (17 MW and 18 MW) and completed a major overhaul of three Japanese 37 MW steam turbine generator units, a pulp and paper company based in Sumatra, Indonesia, awarded another challenging job to the company. The task was to supply a second hand gas turbine generator unit. This project was initiated in order to optimize the company s pulp production capacity of 2600 air-dry tons per day and increase its tissue production capacity. The plan was supported by the initiative to have a gas supply to that geographical area in the near future. After consideration of various options, a gas turbine was selected to supplement the available multifuel and recovery boilers. The heat recovery from the gas turbine exhaust system will be put to further use in the future in the steam boiler increasing the plant steam capacity for both power generation (combined cycle) and processes requirements. A Frame 5001P European gas turbine met the customer s power needs. For Sulzer Turbo Services Indonesia, this was the first turnkey project for a complete relocation, refurbishment, installation, and commissioning of a Frame 5 gas turbine with limited data, drawings, and without a manual for this unit. A small team from the engineering department developed all the required drawings as well as an operation manual. Relocation to Indonesia Sulzer Turbo Services Indonesia located a suitable gas turbine generator set in Shenzhen, China. The next step was to build a team to dismantle and relocate the unit to Purwakarta, Indonesia. Instead of having a full team from Indonesia, two well-experienced field service engineers were assigned to work with local personnel to dismantle, preserve, and pack the units for shipment. The main equipment was packed and shipped to Indonesia. Some other parts, i.e., exhaust system and inlet air system, were fully corroded and considered too costly to ship for repair to Indonesia; thus, they had to be redesigned and fabricated locally in Indonesia. The shipment to Jakarta took about one month. Sulzer Turbo Services Indonesia's premises were well prepared, and there was enough space for the gas turbine unit to be positioned directly in the big bay of the workshop for refurbishment. 16 Sulzer Technical Review 1/

17 DESIGN AND TESTING Coated turbine wheels. Repair in the workshop The unit was stripped down for inspection and repair recommendation. The gas turbine rotor was removed, and the unit was completely disassembled. The compressor and turbine section were unstacked for a thorough inspection of the individual parts. Defects due to FOD (foreign object damage) were found on several compressor blades, and these underwent minor repairs. An aluminum coating (HI-Coat A08) was applied on an individual turbine wheel for corrosion protection. Both rotor-bearing journals were too small due to medium radial rubbing and minor pitting corrosion. In general, no indications of cracking were found on the rotor. Therefore, the rotor was restacked, all through-bolts were replaced, and new turbine buckets were installed. All turbine and compressor casings were cleaned, inspected, and reconditioned as necessary. The engineers determined that all combustion parts were fully corroded, and they found some cracks on transition pieces and combustion liners. Welding repair was performed and, as a final step, thermal-barrier coatings (TBC) were applied. After major repair of the stage nozzles, they were also coated with TBC. The generator rotor was dismantled. Indications of cracking on the retaining rings (which are high-stress components) made them unsafe for further service. Sulzer Turbo Services Indonesia manufactured and replaced these rings with rings made of a better material. Based on the stator wedge tightness result, the stator of the generator was rewedged. The 84 slots wedges with eight wedges per slot were replaced with new G10 packers of dielectric material that ensured a tight radial fit. All electrical tests of the generator rotor and stator were acceptable, and the rotor was reinstalled with new bearings. Installation of the rotor. The load gear was dismantled. The journal shafts of the bull gear and pinion gear were found to have medium pitting corrosion, evidence of radial rubbing, and some dents; these shafts were repaired with a HVOF spray coating (high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying). The quill shaft of the bull gear was excessively bent and needed to be straightened. Five bearings had to be exchanged because of medium pitting corrosion and radial rubbing on their inside diameter. The accessory gear shafts had minor rubbing on the bearing journals. They were polished and reassembled with the new bearings set. Parts Fabrication The gas turbine exhaust system and the inlet air system were fabricated by local vendors to technical specifications from Sulzer Turbo Services Indonesia. The gas turbine exhaust system com - prises structural steel plus three major Sulzer Technical Review 1/

18 DESIGN AND TESTING Reassembly of the turbine at the shop. plenum. While the inlet duct consisted completely of painted carbon steel, duct shell and inlet elbow consisted of a painted carbon steel duct shell com - pleted with a carbon steel cladding. subassemblies, namely, a 90º elbow and two silencer pack modules. The exhaust stack, which is installed on top of the exhaust plenum, is a normal con - figuration for a simple cycle type Frame 5001P model. The exhaust silencer modules are all welded carbon steel constructions with external seal welds; they have a thermal interior that allows for thermal expansion. All fabrication descriptions and prefabrication instructions were included in the technical specifications. The inlet air system consisted of an inlet silencer, an inlet duct, and an inlet elbow. The inlet silencer consisted of a painted carbon steel duct shell and a type 304 stainless steel perforated liner and baffles. The walls were acoustically treated and had vertical parallel baffles. The air filter system was a single-stage filter that used unique conical and cylindrical filter cartridges for the lowest operating-pressure loss. It consisted of three filter modules that were bolted together and/or assembled around a collecting Targeted upgrading Because the unit needed gas fuel to operate, dual fuel conversion was required on the fuel nozzle system. Therefore, a new set of dual fuel nozzles was purchased and installed on the unit. A gas ring manifold was fabricated and installed on the unit together with the fabricated gas fuel line and its accessories. Furthermore, fire protection system of the original unit used halon, which has since been prohibited by law, so the fire protection setup was upgraded to a system using CO 2. All fire detectors, all nozzles, and gas bottles in the system were replaced. Turbine, compressor and turbogenerator. 18 Sulzer Technical Review 1/2010

19 DESIGN AND TESTING The gas turbine unit was directly loaded onto the foundation, and prealignment checks were continued. The exhaust silencer modules were fabricated according to specifications from Sulzer Turbo Services. New control system A new control system was supplied and installed, which has the benefit of triple modular redundancy. All existing instruments on the skid were listed, identified, tagged, and then tested to establish which could be utilized in the new control system. When necessary, new instrumentation was purchased. The control system commissioning included recalibration of all the instrumentation, loop checking, and function testing. On-site work Preparation work was carried out on-site starting from the foundation. Preengineering work included a check of the civil work of the fundament. The anchor bolt locations were measured and compared with the original foundation drawings. Upon completion of the foundation work, the unit was delivered to the site to be directly loaded onto the foundation so that prealignment checks could be continued. All fabricated parts of the exhaust and inlet air system were packed and delivered to site. The exhaust system was ready for direct installation onto the unit; however, the inlet air system required reassembly work on-site before installation onto the unit. The engineers carried out a great deal of welding and grinding work, including much heavy lifting. This work was considered hazardous. Thus, safety precautions were reviewed each morning at the toolbox meeting prior to starting work. The lube oil pipeline was ready before oil flushing started. The final alignment was conducted at the end phase of the reassembly work. Because the gas supply was not yet ready, the unit was put into operation using heavy oil fuel. The inlet air system was reassembled on-site. The unit was put into commercial operation as of December 14, 2009, and a performance test of 72 hours was conducted without any major problems. Iman Sigit PT Sulzer Turbo Services Indonesia Kawasan Industri Kota Bukit Indah Purwakarta, West Java, Indonesia Phone ext. 210 Sulzer Technical Review 1/

20 PANORAMA The power of the sun The strongly increasing worldwide demand for power will require a considerable contribution of renewable energy in the long term. Solar energy has the greatest potential by far. Sulzer delivers key components as pumps and coatings for the operation of solar-thermal power plants already today. The global demand for primary power will double by the year 2060 because of the growing world population and increasing prosperity. According to UNO, the world population will increase from the current 6.8 billion to more than 9 billion in the next 50 years. Today, the world is dependent on limited and non-renewable sources of energy fossil fuels and uranium and thereby finds itself confronted by future scarcity of resources, increased environmental pollution and the global warming associated with it. The emerging and strongly escalating demand for energy will have to be increasingly met in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way and Sulzer is already supporting renewable forms of power generation today. Renewable power from solar energy If just one percent of the surface area of the Sahara desert were used to gather solar energy, it would be enough to satisfy the entire global need for power. Now, however, only about one-quarter of the worldwide primary demand for power is met using sustainable energy sources. It is forecasted that a significant part of the global primary energy needs will be provided in a sustainable way in the next 50 years. However, the actual requirements will probably have doubled by then. This increase means that in the year 2060, approx billion kwh of power will be needed annually which is at least billion kwh more than today resulting in an additional required installed capacity of 30 TW. As a renewable source of energy, solar energy has by far the greatest potential, producing at least 600 TW or, in other words, twenty times more than will be needed in total. The USA, Spain, North Africa, and Australia, among others, are regions that have a high level of direct solar radiation. Suitability of global locations for solarthermal power plants (>2000 kwh/m 2 /year). (Courtesy of Emerging Energy Research, Global Concentrated Solar Power Markets and Strategies: ) TWh Forecast primary energy demand 0 source: ETH Zurich Sustainable energy scenario 30 TW Contribution of fossil fuels 78 % 61 % 41 % 25 % renewable nonrenewable Others Geothermal Solar New biomass Wind Hydro Traditional biomass Nuclear Natural gas Oil Coal Two types of technologies produce electricity from solar energy: Photovoltaics (PV) generate electrical energy directly from sun light. Solar thermal systems (concentrated solar power, CSP) concentrate the direct sun s rays to first heat up a fluid typically, thermal oil that is then used to generate steam and thereby generate electricity using conventional steam turbines. Solar-thermal installations can be divided technologically into the following three most commercially important groups : Parabolic-trough technology is currently the most widely tested and, with more than 80% of the currently 20 Sulzer Technical Review 1/

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