Data Transmission via Modem. The Last Mile Problem. Modulation of Digital Signals. Modem Standards (CCITT)

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1 The Last Mile Problem LN, MN, WN how to connect private users at home to such networks? Problem of the last mile: somehow connect private homes to the public Internet without laying many new cables By using existing telephony lines: re-use them for data traffic Examples: Classical Modem Integrated Services Digital Network () Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Data Transmission via Modem Early approach: use existing telephony network for data transmission Problem of transferring data over an analogous medium Necessary: usage of a Modem (Modulator - Demodulator) Digital data are transformed in analogous signals with different frequencies (300 to 3400 Hz, range of voice transmitted over telephony network). The analogous signals are brought to the receiver over the telephony network. The receiver also needs a modem to transform back the analogous signals into data. For the telephony network the modem seems to be a normal phone, the modem even takes over the exchange of signaling information Data rate up to 56 kbit/s High susceptibility against transmission errors due to telephony cables Modem analog telephony Telefonnetz network /analog switching Schaltzentrale center switching Schaltzentrale center analog Modem Page 1 Page 2 Modem Standards (CCITT) ITU-T standard V.21 (FSK, 4 frequencies) Mode Downlink Uplink 300 Bit/s each The signals (0 resp. 1) have to be transformed into electromagnetic signals, that process is called modulation V.22 (QPSK, 2 frequencies) V.22bis (16-QM 4 phases, 2 amplitudes) V.23 (FSK, more frequencies) half Bit/s each Bit/s each Bit/s Bit/s 75 Bit/s 75 Bit/s Bit/s Electromagnetic signal: s(t) = sin(2 π f t + ϕ) : mplitude f: Frequency (T: Duration of an oscillation) ϕ: Phase 0 ϕ T = 1/f V.32 (32-QM) V.32bis (128-QM) Bit/s each Bit/s each Modulation means to choose a carrier frequency and press on somehow your data: V.34 (960-QM) Bit/s each V.34bis V.90 (128-PM) Bit/s each Bit/s Bit/s X Not modulated signal Carrier frequency (sin) modulated signal Page 3 Page 4

2 Bit value Bit value Time The conversion of the signals can take place in various ways, basing on the parameters of an analogous wave: s(t) = sin(2 π f t + ϕ) Time The conversion of the signals can take place in various ways, basing on the parameters of an analogous wave: s(t) = sin(2 π f t + ϕ) mplitude Frequency Phase mplitude Modulation (mplitude Shift Keying, SK) mplitude Frequency Phase Frequency Modulation (Frequency Shift Keying, FSK) Technically easy to realize Needs not much bandwidth Susceptible against disturbance Often used in optical transmission Resulting signal (frequency range): Waste of frequencies Needs high bandwidth First principle used in data transmission using phone lines Resulting signal (frequency range): Page 5 Page 6 dvanced PSK Procedures Bit value Time The conversion of the signals can take place based on different parameters of an analogous wave: s(t) = sin(2 π f t + ϕ) mplitude Frequency Phase Phase Modulation (Phase Shift Keying, PSK) The phase shift can also cover more than two phases: shift between M different phases, whereby M must be a power of two. Thus at the same time more information can be sent. Example: QPSK (Quaternary Phase Shift Keying) Shifting between 4 phases 4 phases permit 4 states: code 2 bits at one time Thus doubled data rate Q = sinϕ ϕ I = cosϕ 180 phase shift Complex demodulation process Robust against disturbances Best principle for most purposes Resulting signal (frequency range): = amplitude of the signal I = in phase, signal component (in phase with carrier signal) Q = quadrature phase, quadrature component (perpendicular to the carrier phase) Page 7 Page 8

3 PSK Variants (Only for Confusion ;-)) Terms also in use: BPSK = Binary PSK = PSK 2B1Q = 2 Binary on 1 Quaternary = QPSK CP = Carrierless mplitude Phase Modulation (~QM) lso, differential techniques are in use, e.g. DBPSK = Differential PSK Two different phases like in PSK Shift phase only if a 1 is the next bit for a 0, no change is done. Example: dvanced PSK Procedures Quadrature mplitude Modulation (QM) Combination of SK and QPSK n bit can be transferred at the same time (n=2 is QPSK) Bit error rate rises with increasing n, but less than with comparable PSK procedures Bit value QM: 4 bits per signal: 0011 and 0001 have same phase, but different amplitude 0000 and 0010 have same amplitude, but different phase Page 9 Page 10 Pulse mplitude Modulation (PM) Networks and Services Problem of QM: 960-QM for 28 kbit/s hard to increase the number of phases. Thus forget all about FSK, PSK, SK, ; for 56 kbit/s modems: 128-PM. Simple principle: Define 128 different amplitudes i.e. in this case: tension levels Transfer one signal (that means, tension level) all 125 µs By this, similar like in PCM, 56 kbit/s can be transferred Thus: coming in principle back to cable codes TM had shown: it is possible to combine telephony and data networks more efficient than modem does TM: digitization of speech / modem: analogization of data Telephony core networks today are, why not digitize voice already at the end user? Thus: service integration integrate several kinds of data transfer already on user site, with lower costs than TM technology would cause Integrated Services Digital Network () Integration of different communication services (voice, fax, data,...) Digital communication Higher capacity than modem-based data transfer Uses existing infrastructure: is no new network, but something added to an existing network Different standards (Euro- resp. national ) Page 11 Page 12

4 Services in Telephony Most important services: voice transmission But with new features, e.g.: Several numbers for single telephones Transmission of own phone number to the receiving party Forwarding of incoming calls to other phones Creation of closed user groups Conferencing with three parties Handling of several calls in parallel Presentation of tariff information Physical relocation of phones First tests since 1983 Commercial usage of a national variant since 1988 Since 1994 Euro- D switching D center D twisted pair analogous Connection of up to 8 devices to the NT Two channels of 64 kbit/s (B channels) for payload One channel of 16 kbit/s (D Channel) for signaling NT Computer Network access with a data rate up to 144 Kb/s Two variants: -Basisanschluss -Primärmultiplexanschluss Network Termination (NT) Page 13 Page 14 Connections Today: Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) -Basisanschluss Two independent channels of 64 kbit/s each for voice or data transmission Signaling information on the D channel (e.g. path establishment, transfer of phone number to the other party, ) Overall capacity of 144 kbit/s for data bursts by combining all channels Time multiplexing of the channels on the cable -Primärmultiplexanschluss Simply a combination of several basic connections: one D channel of 64 kbit/s, 30 B channels Overall 2 MBit/s capacity Broadband- (B-) Was planned as a variant with a higher bandwidth using the same mechanisms Two much problems: thus, TM was used as a basis here Characteristics of DSL High capacity (up to 50 MBit/s) Usage of the existing infrastructure Combination of usual phone service (analogous/) and data service: simply use the whole spectrum a copper cable can transfer, not only the range up to 3.4 khz! Data rate depends on distance to the switching center and the cable quality (signal weakening) utomatic adaptation of data rate in case of distortions Modulation by means of DMT or CP Several variants, general term: xdsl Distance Downstream Upstream 1,4 km 12,96 Mbit/s 1,5 Mbit/s 0,9 km 25,86 Mbit/s 2,3 Mbit/s 0,3 km 51,85 Mbit/s 13 Mbit/s Modem, DSL Carrier frequency f Page 15 Page 16

5 Discrete Multitone Modulation (DMT) Necessary Equipment Use multiple carriers (e.g. 32 channels of 4 khz bandwidth each for upstream and 256 channels for downstream) Each channel uses a suitable (optimal) modulation method: QPSK up to 64-QM Easiest case: use same method on each carrier Channels in high frequency range are usually of lower quality (faster signal weakening in dependence of the distance) Modulation method depends on the signal quality, i.e. robustness is given Only up about 1 MHz, higher frequencies are to susceptible to distortions telephony switching center Internet, broadband systems LT DSL LT low-pass filter ~ xdsl line low-pass filter ~ ~ ~ high-pass filter high-pass filter NT LT Line Termination NT Network Termination DSL NT f 1 f 2 f 3 f 4 f 5 f 6 f f n-2 f n-1 f n 7 analogous f [khz] upstream range downstream range Splitter: combines low- and high-pass filter to separate data and voice information DSL modem: does modulation TE: normal phone connector TE Splitter DSL modem Page 17 Page 18 DSL ccess Multiplexer (DSLM) xdsl: Variants In the switching center of the provider, also a splitter separates phone data from computer data Phone data are forwarded into the telephony network Computer data are received by a DSLM In the DSLM, all DSL lines are coming together The DSLM multiplexes DSL lines into one high speed line The muxed traffic is passed into an WN, usually SDH HDSL (High Data Rate Digital Subscriber Line) High, symmetrical data rate using only two carriers, not DMT Bases on 2B1Q or CP modulation No simultaneous telephony possible SDSL (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line) Variation of HDSL using only one carrier Symmetrical data rates 2B1Q, CP or DMT modulation Distance: Bandwidth: Distance : Bandwidth : 3-4 km 240 KHz 2-3 km 240 KHz xdsl Card xdsl Card Mux xdsl Processing Card Buffer & Switch Policing & Monitoring WN PHY WN DSL (symmetric Digital Subscriber Line) Duplex connection with asynchronous rates Data rate depends on length and quality of the cables, adaptation to best possible coding CP or DMT modulation VDSL (Very High Data Rate Digital Subscriber Line) Duplex connection with asynchronous rates Higher data rate as DSL, but shorter distances Variants: symmetrical or asymmetrical Distance: bandwidth: Distance: Bandwidth: 2,7-5,5 km up to 1 MHz KBit/s 1,5-9 MBit/s 0,3-1,5 km up to 30 MHz 1,5-2,3 MBit/s MBit/s Page 19 Page 20

6 xdsl: Variants downstream capacity 130 kbit/s 32 kbit/s 2 MBit/s 2 MBit/s 6 MBit/s 8 MBit/s 50 MBit/s VDSL DSL SDSL HDSL classical modem pplications and Services Integrated multimedia services: Internet access, teleworking teleteaching, telemedicine, multimedia access, video on demand,... Power remote user Internet access, telephony, terminal emulation (FTP, Telnet) Page 21 Conclusion Local rea Networks Today usually Fast/Gigabit Ethernet with star topology lso coming: 10G Ethernet CSM/CD is still considered, even not longer necessary Metropolitan rea Networks DQDB as only real MN standard Preferably, Gigabit Ethernet is used, 10G Ethernet directly is also standardized for MNs, maybe Resilient Packet Ring is coming Wide rea Network Still TM in use More and more replaced by SDH/SONET Synchronization used to achieve higher throughput than in LNs Last Mile DSL for connecting private persons DSL is most prominent variant Page 22

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