Nanocomputer & Architecture

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1 Nanocomputer & Architecture Yingjie Wei Western Michigan University Department of Computer Science CS Dr. Elise dedonckor Febrary 4 th, 2004 Nanocomputer Architecture Contents Overview of Nanotechnology Concept of Nanocomputer Future of Nanocomputer types Achievement in Electronic - Nanocomputer Architecture of Electronic - Nanocomputer Conclusion Question

2 Overview of Nanotechnology Nanometer =1/1,000,000,000 meter millimeter micrometer 1.74 meter nanometer Overview of Nanotechnology What is Nanotechnology? Capability to manipulate, control, assemble, produce and manufacture things at atomic precision Quantum corral.using a tool known as a scanning tunneling microscope(stm), the wave nature of electrons becomes visible to the naked eye. Here, the electrons are confined by a ring of 48 irons atoms individually positioned with the same STM used to image them.

3 Overview of Nanotechnology The Nobel Prize Winner s Point of View Nanotechnology has given us the tools to play with the ultimate toy box of nature atoms and molecules, Everything is made from it. The possibilities to create new things appear limitless. Horst Stormer (Nobel Prize in Physics 1998) Columbia University Concept of Nanocomputer A computer with circuitry so small that it can only be seen through a microscope. Nanocomputers deal with materials at a molecular level and hold the promise of creating increasingly smaller and faster computers. In the computer industry, the ability to shrink the size of transistors on silicon microprocessors will soon reach it s limits of speed and miniaturization.

4 Future of Nanocomputer Types Mechanical Nanocomputer Electronic Nanocomputer Chemical / Biochemical Nanocomputer Quantum Computer Future of Nanocomputer Types Mechanical Nanocomputer The first mechanical computer was designed by charles Babbage (Cambridge University) in 1837 called Difference Engine No.1 K.Eric Drexler proposed a design of mechanical nanocomputer based on rods and gears made of molecules in Picture from Acc.Chem.Res 34(2001) 445

5 Future of Nanocomputer Types Electronic Nanocomputer Continue a miniaturization of current electronic computer. Elementary components are based on soft materials, i.e. organic molecules, semiconducting polymers or carbon nanotubes, instead of inorganic solid-state state materials. Use only 1 or few electrons instead of billion electrons. Use self assembly or other patterning techniques instead of photolithography. Future of Nanocomputer Types Chemical Nanocomputer Computing is based on chemical reactions (bond breaking and forming) Inputs are encoded in the molecular structure of the reactants and a outputs can be extracted from the structure of the products Dr. Leonard Adleman proposed DNA computing in demonstrated that DNA -- the spiraling molecule that holds life's genetic code -- could be used to carry out computations. Picture from englib.cornell.edu/scitech/w96/dna.html

6 Future of Nanocomputer Types Quantum Nanocomputer Based on proposals by Bennett, Deutsch and Feynman in 1980s. Use quantum bit (qubit( qubit) ) from the physical properties of materials, i.e. spin state, polarization. Parallelism in Nature. Achievement in Electronic-Nanocomputer The HP-UCLA has developed technology which will enable it to build complex molecular-scale chips simply and inexpensively. Researchers from HP-UCLA team has demonstrated a working logic gate composed of a single layer of molecules suspended between wires. A logic gate is the most basic element of a computer.

7 Architecture of Electronic-Nanocomputer Problems of Electronic devices Scaling limits of CMOS - Defect and reliability limits. - Wiring delay. Heat dissipation will ultimately limit any logic device using an electronic charge Physical problems - leakage - shreshold voltage control - tunnelling - high interconnect resistance etc. Architecture of Electronic-Nanocomputer Computer Emerging Research Architecture 3D integration Quantum cellular automata Defect-tolerant Molecular Cellular nonlinear networks Quantum computing

8 Architecture of Electronic-Nanocomputer 3D integration Implementation Advantages Challenges Maturity CMOS with dissimilar material systems Less interconnect delay; Enables mixed technology solutions Heat removal; No design tools; Difficult test and measurement Demonstration The integration of semiconductor devices in 3D arrays.it is driven from two distinct directions: Integrate dissimilar technologies on a common platform to deliver r an optimum information processing solution. Reduce global interconnect delays to maximize system performance.. The most promising application of 3D integration appears to be combining memory with microprocessors. Architecture of Electronic-Nanocomputer Quantum cellular automata Implementation Advantages Challenges Maturity Arrays of quantum dots High functional density; No interconnects in signal path Limited fan out; Dimensional control (low-temperature operation); Sensitive to background charge Demonstration In the QCA paradigm, a locally interconnected architecture consists of aregular array of cells containing several quantum dots. Electrostatic interactions, not wires, provide the coupling between the cells.

9 Architecture of Electronic-Nanocomputer Defect-tolerant tolerant Implementation Advantages Challenges Maturity Intelligently assembles nanodevices Supports hardware with defect densities > 50 percent Requires precomputing testing Demonstration All nanocomputer will contain faulty components. Defect/fault tolerance supporting the ability to detect and avoid defects at both the commissioning/configuration stage and at run-time. The general idea behind defect-tolerant tolerant architectures is conceptually the opposite: Designers fabricate a generic set of wires and switches, then they configure the resources by setting switches that link them together to obtain the desired functionality Architecture of Electronic-Nanocomputer Molecular Implementation Advantages Challenges Maturity Molecular switches and memories Supports memorybased computing Limited functionality Concept

10 Architecture of Electronic-Nanocomputer Cellular nonlinear networks Implementation Advantages Challenges Maturity Single electron array architectures Supports memorybased computing Subject to background noise; Tight tolerances Demonstration Architecture of Electronic-Nanocomputer Quantum computing Implementation MMR devices, single flux quantum devices Advantages Exponential performance scaling, but can break current cryptography Challenges Extreme application limitation; extreme technology Maturity Concept The core idea is that each individual component of an infinite superposition of wave functions is manipulated in parallel, thereby achieving a massive speedup relative to conventional computers. The challenge is to manipulate the wave functions so that they perform a useful function and then to find a way to read the result of the calculation.

11 Conclusion As we move to nanotechnology, one of the challenges we face is the integration of hard stuff that is very precise and well defined with stuff that's soft, wet, squishy, and subject to fault tolerance and large variations in capabilities. CMOS will continue to scale for another 12 to 15 years. Advance in Nanotechnology Advance in Nanoelectronics Advance in Computer 21 Reference columbia.edu/faculty/ /faculty/stormer.htm aeiveos.com/~.com/~bradbury/authors/engineering/drexler- KE/RLaTNitMN RLaTNitMN.html webopedia.com/term/n/.com/term/n/nanocomputer.html itworld.com/tech/3494/idg020124nanochip/ cs.caltech.edu/~ /~westside/quantum-intro.html

12 Question? What is Nanocomputer? How many type in future computer? CMOS has what kind of limitation? What are the emerging computer architecture Thanks you!

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