The Politics of Sectionalism Slavery in the Territories Slavery in the Territories The Wilmot Proviso The Election of 1848 The Gold Rush

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1 The Politics of Sectionalism Slavery in the Territories How did slavery transform from a political issue to a moral crusade? Political Realignment How did the intrusion of religion into the political process contribute to the rise of the Republican Party? The Road to Disunion How did the elevation of slavery to a moral issue polarize North and South during the 1850s? Slavery at the Watershed: The Compromise of 1850 The Dred Scott Decision The Lincoln Douglas Debates Slavery in the Territories The Wilmot Proviso The Election of 1848 The Gold Rush The Compromise of 1850 Response to the Fugitive Slave Act Uncle Tom s Cabin The Election of 1852 Immigration and Revolution Slavery in the Territories Attempt to solve question of slavery in new territories One solution: Compromise of The Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso Amendment to Mexican War appropriations bill 1

2 Amendment to Mexican War appropriations bill Slavery to be excluded from former Spanish territories Rejected The Election of 1848 Parties attempted to distance themselves from slavery debate Democrats: Lewis Cass He suggested popular sovereignty should decide the issue in new territories Whigs made no stand on slavery Free-Soilers No slavery in new territories Not abolitionist The Gold Rush Migration to California spiked By 1853, gold mining was a corporate undertaking Movement west kept question of spread of slavery in the forefront The Compromise of 1850 California asked for admission Should it become slave or free? Taylor supported popular sovereignty Compromise of 1850 suggested Long debate Pressed by Stephen A. Douglas Compromise passed Fugitive Slave Act very controversial Response to the Fugitive Slave Act Abolitionists vocal in opposition The act separated North and South Free blacks in the North rallied Their liberty was threatened 2

3 Their liberty was threatened Many left for Canada Uncle Tom s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe Strong influence Humanized slaves Reviled in the South The Election of 1852 Democrats: Franklin Pierce Whigs: Winfield Scott Democrats successful But divisions deepened Immigration and Revolution European problems Potato famine Revolutions Irish and German immigration increased Nativism grew Order of the Star-Spangled Banner Concern over failure of 1848 revolutions Political Realignment Young America s Foreign Misadventures Stephen Douglas s Railroad Proposal The Kansas-Nebraska Act Know-Nothings and Republicans: Religion and Politics The Election of 1856 The Dred Scott Case The Lecompton Constitution The Religious Revival of The Lincoln-Douglas Debates 3

4 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Young America s Foreign Misadventures Conflict with Spain over shipping Young America Nationalists Ostend Manifesto Claimed Cuba belonged to American nations Embarrassment to Pierce administration Stephen Douglas s Railroad Proposal Douglas Nationalist Transcontinental railroad Further Indian removals Nebraska Territory suggested The Kansas-Nebraska Act Kansas-Nebraska Act Two new states one free, one slave Popular sovereignty Conflict between pro-slavery and antislavery forces Both interfered with elections Bleeding Kansas John Brown Pottawatomie Creek Know-Nothings and Republicans: Religion and Politics Know-Nothing Party Nativist, anti-catholic Mostly former Whigs Republican Party Coalition of northern Whigs, Know-Nothings, and some northern Democrats 4

5 northern Democrats Against expansion of slavery The Election of 1856 Republicans selected John C. Frémont Democrats chose James Buchanan Successful Took all of the South The Dred Scott Case Dred Scott Slave who was taken to free territory Argued that he was thus free Roger Taney Dismissed claim Dred Scott decision Said slaves could never be citizens Missouri Compromise unconstitutional The Lecompton Constitution Kansas territory Popular sovereignty should have decided question of slavery Lecompton Constitution accepted by Buchanan Panic of 1857 Recession Hurt North more than South The Religious Revival of Popular revival Distractions of politics and business condemned Secular ideologies called equally unimportant The Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 mid-term elections 5

6 1858 mid-term elections Illinois senatorial race Abraham Lincoln versus Stephen A. Douglas Lincoln-Douglas debates Douglas wanted voters to decide on slavery Lincoln treated slavery as a moral issue The Road to Disunion North-South Differences John Brown s Raid The Election of 1860 Secession and Slavery Presidential Inaction Peace Proposals Fort Sumter: The Tug Comes The Road to Disunion Northerners dismayed by series of events Compromise of 1850 Dred Scott decision Lecompton Constitution Issues Slavery White supremacy 33 North-South Differences Economic differences Urban, industrial North versus agrarian, agricultural South West shared attributes of both Social and religious differences Slavery Embedded in southern society Northerners equally racist, but increasingly against slavery Explore the Sectional Crisis on MyHistoryLab 6

7 36 John Brown s Raid John Brown Prominent abolitionist Involved in Pottawatomie Massacre Planned raid John Brown s Raid October 16, 1859 Alarmed southerners Grief for Brown s death exacerbated fears The Election of 1860 Some former Whigs formed the Constitutional Union Party Four candidates Abraham Lincoln (Republican) John C. Breckinridge (southern Democrat) John Bell (Constitutional Union) Stephen A. Douglas (northern Democrat) Lincoln takes most of North, Breckinridge most of South Secession and Slavery South Carolina seceded December 20 Confederate States of America February 1861 Seven states initially Jefferson Davis, president Declarations of causes Presidential Inaction Buchanan had little support 7

8 Buchanan had little support Much of his government was southern He took no action Congressmen departed Peace Proposals Crittenden Plan John J. Crittenden, Kentucky Rejected John Tyler Border states and their neighbors Border states remained in the Union Fort Sumter: The Tug Comes Lincoln made no statement on slavery Wanted to ensure loyalty of border states Fort Sumter Needed provisions Confederate fired on Union ships Conclusion The Wilmot Proviso began the process that ended with the outbreak of the Civil War. Political conflict over slavery eventually focused on northern efforts to stop southern expansion and southern efforts to maintain their power and influence in the federal government by expanding slavery in the western territories. By 1861, neither national political nor other organizations could mute sectional animosities. 8

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