Presented by Erin Cathey FOED 6022

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1 Presented by Erin Cathey FOED 6022

2 Shifts in Language Policy Since the beginning of what is known as the United States of America, federal policies on serving English language learners (ELLs) in the public school setting have been in a constant state of flux. There has been an ongoing battle in legislation between preserving one s native tongue through bilingual education and the English Only policy. The subject has raised many concerns for languages and dialects in danger of becoming extinct, however, the need for people to assimilate into the American society has won over time and time again. The following presentation highlights some important changes that English language learning policies have undergone in the United States of America and supports the need for an ESL program with sheltered instruction and inclusion to be used in our public schools today.

3 Multilingualism in America In the beginning Before the Europeans arrived in the Americas, more than 15 million speakers throughout the Western Hemisphere used more than 2,000 languages (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2007). Aside from Native American tongues, by the mid 1600s, there are at least 18 different languages spoken on Manhattan Island alone (Crawford, 2004).

4 Multilingualism Continued The addition of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 introduces more Spanish, French, and Native American languages to the public education system. The Irish potato famine of 1845, the German Revolution of 1848, and the Gold Rush of 1849 bring over 4 million immigrants to the U.S. Between 1860 and 1900, over 13 million people come to the U.S. from Eastern Europe and Russia, many are Jews fleeing persecution. The great railroads across America were built by many of these immigrants (PBS.org, 2005). In just two decades, between , over 14 million people immigrate to America from Eastern and Southern Europe as well as the first large wave of Mexicans coming across the border to work on farms and railroads (PBS.org, 2005). Between , over 8 million immigrants continue to come annually, including refugees from Cuba, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and many illegals from throughout Latin America.

5 Fluctuating Language Policies in the U.S. German language schools are formed in Philadelphia in 1694 (Crawford, 2004). In 1839, Ohio passes the first state law that authorizes bilingual education in English and German (Crawford, 2004). In 1855, California requires English only instruction throughout the state but it is not well enforced. In 1968, Title VII is created, mandating Bilingual Education in all schools. In 1974, 1978, and 1984, the Bilingual Education Act is reauthorized, each time requiring special circumstances for the implementation of bilingual education in public schools (Crawford, 2004). The 1974, Lau vs. Nichols case provides extra assistance to students who are nonproficient in English. In 1981, Castaneda vs. Pickard defines a set of criteria for implementing programs to meet federal obligations for ELLs. In 1981, The English Only Policy, requiring English as the official language for all government related business, is introduced to Congress. In 2002, No Child Left Behind replaces The Bilingual Education Act of 1968.

6 Important Legislation for ELLs The 1954 Supreme Court ruling Brown vs. The Board of Education puts a stop to separate but equal public schools and ends segregation. The Civil Rights act of 1964 made it illegal to exclude a child from an educational institution based on his sex, race, or national origin (Crawford, 2004). The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 made aware the needs of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. 1n 1974, Supreme Court case Lau vs. Nichols, ruled that students with a language deficiency would receive additional assistance to help them participate equally in the school s program (Crawford, 2004). The Bilingual Education Act is permanently repealed in 2002 and replaced by NCLB.

7 Overview of Bedford County Bedford County, Tennessee is an industrial center situated in the middle of rolling countryside and farmland with several large factories and plants. The Tyson chicken plant employs a large number of Hispanics and the Calsonic car parts plant employs a lot of people from Japan. The county is dominated by rural farmland and industries of agriculture and livestock. There are many jobs available for the Hispanic population in the area and it has grown drastically over the past decade. There are several trailer parks and old rundown neighborhoods. There are also many middle class and lower middle class neighborhoods but not very many wealthy areas, except for privately owned farms. Most of the ESL students served in Bedford County are from a second generation of immigrants that arrived here in the 1990 s to early 2000 s. Many of them were born here and are now caught in between 2 languages and cultures. They haven t been taught how to read or write in Spanish and still need assistance in gaining proficiency in English.

8 What are the components of the sheltered instruction model and inclusion model? Sheltered Instruction Students are taught Language Arts by an ESL certified teacher for 50 minutes a day and are grouped for instruction at similar proficiency levels. Lesson content is based on core subject areas but is used as a meaningful vessel to teach ELLs important grammatical structures and academic vocabulary % English; Some of the student s native language may be used for clarification only. Students may also receive extra help from Title I funded programs based on the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and T.C.A Inclusion ELLs are taught in mainstream classes by certified teachers for Math, Science, Social Studies, and Reading. Certified ESL teachers work in the mainstream classrooms with ELLs and collaborate with the mainstream teachers to implement strategies geared toward making lessons comprehensible for English language learners. ELLs designated as SPED may also receive assistance from SPED certified inclusion teachers.

9 Sheltered Instruction and Inclusion Models Overview and Implementation in Bedford County Schools The ESL teacher would continue to serve as the ELL s primary Language Arts instructor in the upper grade levels but would teach English grammar and content through a scientifically research based curriculum adopted by the county such as Language!, or Read 180. The ESL teachers would also spend 2 or 3 periods a day serving ESL students in mainstream classes. The teacher would collaborate and offer advice to the teachers and would implement strategies for making input comprehensible to the ELL in the regular classroom. The teacher may also serve as a small group instructor within the regular classroom to offer extra assistance and support to the ESL student. The regular teacher may ask the ESL teacher to teach sections of a lesson that implement strategies brought forth by the ESL teacher. The ESL inclusion teacher may not be used to make copies, run errands, or be used for other noninstructional duties for the regular classroom teacher. This program complies with the federal legislations of Title VI. Bedford County Schools has an English Only policy and these models do not encourage the use of the student s native language within the public school setting. The model is an acceptable model under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of Title III will continue to fund the yearly (ELDA) English Language Development Assessment. The curriculum is taught through a research based program as mandated by NCLB (Rosenthal, 2008).

10 Harris Middle School as a Prototype for Combining the Sheltered Instruction and Inclusion Models The ESL sheltered instruction model combined with inclusion is effective because Harris Middle School has 48 students receiving ESL services and two ESL certified teachers. The ESL teachers serve as the primary Language Arts instructors for the ESL students which helps address the individual needs of each student s deficiency in language acquisition. The students are mainstreamed into regular classes for the other core subjects tested on the ELSA/TCAP. There is a high number of ESL students also classified as SPED this year. Many of the mainstream teachers lack training for teaching LEP students but not experience. Students don t always receive appropriate modifications or differentiated instruction in mainstream classes. ESL teachers can collaborate effectively with these teachers to provide extra support to ELLs and their teachers, alike. Sheltered instruction lays the foundation for learning English and inclusion provides the supports needed to make the content meaningful and comprehensible to the ELL.

11 References Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (2007). Native american languages. Retrieved from: Crawford, J. (2004). Educating english learners. Los Angeles, CA: Bilingual Education Services. Pbs.org. (2005). Destination america. Retrieved from: Rosenthal, R. (2008). Language issues. Washington D.C.: Migrant Legal Action Program, Inc. U.S. Department of Education; Office for Civil Rights. (2001). Federal law and english language learners. Retrieved from: MTSU Honor Statement This assignment/assessment was solely written by me. In no way have I plagiarized (represented the work of another as my own) or otherwise violated the copyright laws and academic conventions of fair use. I know that violations of this policy may result in my being dismissed from Middle Tennessee State University and/or appropriate legal action being taken against me. Signed: Erin B. Cathey

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