1 Preventing and Addressing Bullying in Our Schools Catherine Jones-Hazledine, Ph.D. ESU 13 10/30/14
2 O What bullying is, and what forms it takes O Who bullies O What contributes to this behavior (and how) O Consequences of bullying O What you can do to help stop this problem
3 What is Bullying?
4 O Bullying is a repeated aggressive behavior that is intentional and involves an imbalance of power O Power imbalance can be due to size or social status O Aggressive behavior can be physical, verbal or emotional O Verbal is the most common
5 Accepted Definition O 3 Components O Intentional O Repeated O Power Imbalance
6 Is This Bullying? - Jo hates Kelsey. They used to be friends, but had a fight and stopped hanging out. Now every day in the hallway, Jo and her new friends make a point of staring and whispering under their breath and then giggling when Kelsey walks by. They aren t really saying anything about her, but want her to think they are.
7 Is This Bullying? O A group of 8th Graders always sit in the same seats on the bus, and like to suddenly stick out a foot to trip an unpopular 6th Grader as he walks past.
8 Is This Bullying? O Jen and Tara have an argument at school. Tara texts Jen afterward to say how angry she is, and that she doesn t want to be friends any more.
9 Is This Bullying? O Sam and his friends play football at recess. Sam routinely tells John that he cannot play because he is not fast enough, so John is only allowed to play football with the group if Sam is absent.
10 Is This Bullying O Pam has poor frustration tolerance and when she cannot understand something in class she tends to get very angry and verbally lash out at whoever is near telling them to shut up or drop dead.
11 Forms of Bullying O Physical Bullying O Hitting, kicking, poking, tripping O Verbal Bullying O Calling names, insults, racist remarks O Social Bullying O Not letting someone join a group, spreading rumors or lies, mimicking O Psychological Bullying O Intimidating, stalking O Cyber-bullying O Using technology to make someone feel bad
12 Some bullying behaviors O Pushing, hitting, kicking O Spreading a mean rumor O Repeatedly calling names O Repeatedly making fun of someone s clothing, speech, appearance, etc O Preventing someone from sitting at a certain table, being involved in an activity, associating with a group. O Sending mean or threatening s, texts, Facebook posts
13 More bullying behaviors O Stealing or destroying another s property O Playing pranks on someone in front of their peer group O Obscene gestures or language intended to harass or embarrass O Repeated racial slurs O Intentional, repeated annoyance of another
14 Identifying The Bullies Who Bullies?
15 If Only It Were This Easy To Tell.
16 Who Bullies? O There are bullies everywhere O All regions, all socioeconomic statuses, both genders, all ages O Problem peaks, though, in Middle School O Likely due to transitional nature of this time O Less supervision, hormonal changes, stress of transition, greater likelihood of depression and anxiety in this group, etc O 30% of all kids in grade 6 10 have been involved in bullying (either being bullied or bullying someone) in any given semester O Boys are more likely to be physically bullied O Girls are more likely to be victims of rumor or sexual comments and are more likely to use social exclusion (not let people hang out with them)
17 Who Bullies? O It is important to remember that there are not really stable categories of bully and victim kids involved in bullying may cross back and forth over this line during their time in school. O At the same time, research indicates that 80 percent of the problem is caused by 20% of the students
18 Consequences of Bullying The High Cost of Bullying
19 Words Hurt..
20 Effects of Bullying O Kids who are bullied are more likely to: O Be depressed O Be anxious O Be lonely O Have low self-esteem O Feel sick a lot O Have migraine headaches O Think about suicide O kids per year commit suicide due to bullying
21 O Kids who bully are more likely to: O Be unemployed later O Have substance abuse problems O Engage in dating or marital violence O Be convicted of a crime O Commit suicide
22 Why Does This Happen? Causes of Bullying
23 What Causes Bullying? O Not a simple question! O Probably multiple factors O Individual Factors O Family Factors O Peer Group Factors O School Factors O Community Factors
24 Individual Factors O Depression, Anxiety and other emotional issues O Misery loves company? O Impulsiveness O Makes students prone to act first, think later types of behavior O Poor social skills O Can lead to negative attention seeking O Inadequate coping ability O Reduces student s ability to more appropriately handle frustration, sadness, etc
25 Family Factors O Abuse O Neglect or just lack of parental involvement O Inadequate supervision O Aggressive behaviors modeled by family
26 Peer Group Factors O Bullying is seen as acceptable O Mob Mentality O People often willing to do or say things in a group that they wouldn t 1:1 O Us versus Them (e.g. jocks versus nerds)
27 School Factors O Inadequate staffing O Inadequate supervision in high-risk areas O Adults are bullies O Students pay attention if staff model name- calling, teasing, mimicking of other students or staff O Lack of adult intervention O Failure to see bullying as a problem O This is normal kid behavior O Kids need to just deal O Discouragement of tattling
28 School Factors O Punishment versus intervention O Zero tolerance policies not necessarily effective O Negative school climate O Where staff or students are unhappy O Prosocial behaviors are not encouraged/valued
29 Community Factors O High levels of community aggression O Few resources O Lack of community-school cooperation
30 How Do We Stop This? Finding Workable Solutions
31 Preventing and Intervening In Schools O Simply having a no-tolerance policy is not enough O Neither is a one time bullying presentation O Teachers can t do this alone O Change must be system wide and include students, staff and parents
32 At a School-Wide Level O Create an advisory team to study this issue in your school O Every school is different O Advisory team should include staff members, administration, parent members and students O Involve EVERYONE O Have a clear anti-bullying policy O Study policies from model districts O Policy should clearly define bullying O Reporting procedures, investigation, and consequences should be outlined O Policy must be written AND clearly communicated to staff and students. Frequently.
33 At a School-Wide Level O Prevention is important O It is never too early to start teaching tolerance, empathy and prosocial behavior O Increased adult supervision will help O Certain areas and times are more high risk O These may vary school to school, but often include: hallways between classes, recess, bus rides, periods before and after school, bathrooms O Train, train, train O Have trainings for all staff in how to respond consistently O Train students in how to respond to bullying O Train parents in how to identify and address these problems with their kids
34 At a School-Wide Level O Don t limit this discussion to seminars and assemblies O Set aside class time to address bullying topics O Include Bullying literature in reading classes, etc O Provide individual and group resources to victims of, and perpetrators of, bullying O Remember long-term consequences for both groups?
35 At a School-Wide Level O Changing the school climate O Have adults consistently model appropriate social behaviors O In their own behavior, and when they witness students exhibiting inappropriate behaviors O Encourage and reinforce prosocial behaviors and let students do the same O Coins for kindness O Recruit older students as models and mentors and identify them to the student population O Use peer pressure to your benefit!
37 In The Classroom O Model prosocial behaviors O Be careful of your own use of teasing, etc O If you hear students being unkind or socially unskilled use it as a teaching moment O Teach to this problem as often as possible O Consider including readings about this issue in your curriculum O Make sure that students understand the definition of bullying, and set a firm classroom policy O Be sure this is in line with your school s larger policy O Post it students are visual beings!!!!
38 O Be careful about words such as tattling O Tattling is telling a teacher SOLELY to get someone else in trouble O Don t overestimate students coping abilities O If students could just ignore it they wouldn t be bringing it up to you in the first place O Communicate with parents O Both the positive and the negative O Use school and community resources O Refer high risk kids to school or community counseling professionals
39 S.T.A.N.D O Students Taking A New Direction Against Bullying O A program that involved Gordon-Rushville Middle School, Gordon Elementary School and GordonRushville High School O Asked students to commit to: O Standing for something different than bullying O Standing up for themselves if they are bullied O Standing up for others if they see them being bullied
40 O Almost entire student populations (literally with 2 exceptions) signed a commitment sheet O Used highly valued high school mentors O Signed commitment of agreement to principles O Highly identifiable visual element (tie-dyed shirt) Smilebox Playback
41 References O Coloroso, B. (2008). The Bully, The Bullied, and the Bystander. New York: Harper Collins. O Kohut, M.R. (2007). The Complete Guide to Understanding, Controlling, and Stopping Bullies and Bullying. Ocala: Atlantic Publishing. O National Health Service Corps. O Swearer, S.M, Espelage, D.L. & Napolitano, S.A. (2009). Bullying Prevention and Intervention : Realistic Strategies for Schools. New York: The Guilford Press.
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