1 Passive Solar Heating and Thermal Mass Rob Dumont 2010
2 Quick Facts about the Sun 1. It supplies the earth continuously with about 10,000 times as much energy as is supplied by all the fossil fuels that we currently consume. 2. All our homes in Saskatoon are already mostly heated by the sun. (If the sun were not there, the temperature outside would be -273 o C)
3 Three Uses of the Sun: 1. Passive Solar Heat thru windows 2. Photovoltaic Panels on south roof 3. Solar Thermal Panels (vertical)
4 What is direct gain passive solar heating? The use of common building components such as south facing windows and thermal storage in the home s s ceilings, walls and floors to capture useful space heating.
5 Big Questions: 1. How energy conserving is the home? 2. How big is the home? 3. How is the home situated? 4. What building materials are used?
6 5. What type of windows will be used? 6. How much thermal mass inside the home will be used?
7 1. How energy conserving should the house be? Saskatoon has an average annual outdoor temperature of +2 o C (36 o F) [Less than 1% of the world s s population live in as bracing a climate.] Suggested minimum insulation values for this climate: Attic R60 Walls R40 Bsmt Floor R15 Well sealed air/vapour barrier: 0.5 air changes per hour at 50 pascals Heat recovery ventilator with an effectiveness of 0.8 or higher Energy Efficient LAME (Lights, Appliances and Miscellaneous electricity users) Allocate space for solar water heater and solar photovoltaic panels
8 2. How big should the house be? Small is beautiful. A smaller house requires less energy. Use creative floor layouts to keep the house smaller.
9 3. How is the home situated? Orient the home along an east-west axis so that the main windows can face south and the east and west windows are minimized.
10 4. What building materials should be used? As much as possible, use local building materials. Wood based products have a low embodied energy, and also remove carbon dioxide from the earth s s atmosphere. For thermal mass, concrete, brick and stone, and occasionally water have been used.
11 5. What type of windows should be used? On the south side, use windows with a high solar heat gain factor (greater than 0.55) and moderate R value. On the east, west, and north sides, use windows with a high R value and a lower solar heat gain factor.
12 Example: VerEco Home South Windows: Solar Heat Gain Factor of 0.57 R value 5.88 Center of glass East, West and North Windows: Solar heat gain factor of 0.31 R value of 8.06 Center of glass
13 Passive Solar even works on a cloudy day
14 6. How much thermal mass inside the home will be used? A. If the ratio of the south window area to the floor area is less than about 6%, no additional thermal mass is needed because there is enough heat storage in the house wood materials and gypsum board already.
15 Dumont House, Saskatoon South Window to Floor Area ratio equal to 5.5%
16 Dumont Residence, Saskatoon, 1992 South window to floor area ratio = 5.5% Almost no overheating; only extra thermal mass is scrap gypsum board in the interior walls. Note shading of upper windows in summer by roof overhang
17 Dumont Residence, Winter Note the lower sun angle and absence of shading on the windows
18 Too much glass:-- Not recommended. Roughly 30% ratio of south glass to floor area David Wright House in Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1974
20 Use of overhang on south windows
21 Problems with too much glass: 1. Severe overheating, particularly in the spring and fall, and also in the summer. The Santa Fe house shown on the previous slide would swing 20 degrees F (11 degrees C) on a sunny day in January even though the house had a lot of thermal mass. 2. Windows are quite costly compared with walls.
22 6. How much thermal mass inside the home should be used? A. If the ratio of the south window area to the floor area is greater than about 6% additional thermal mass should be added. Inexpensive thermal mass can be scrap gypsum board placed inside the interior stud walls. Other thermal mass options are concrete floors, scrap gypsum placed in the floor cavities. (Be careful about additional structural loads.)
23 Direct Gain Heating Use direct solar radiation to provide thermal comfort Use only building components, the windows, walls, floors, and ceilings, for solar collection and storage. Concerns: Daytime overheating and overnight heat loss
24 Window Design For a given heat loss, what combination of south window area, south window type, interior thermal mass, and exterior shading will give optimum building performance?
25 Design Guidelines 1. Windows should be concentrated as far as possible on the south facing wall 2. 6 to 8 %, percentage of south window area compared to heated floor area suggested in the past 3. South window area can be increased if the house has additional thermal storage 4. Summer overheating must be addressed
26 Dumont Residence - Saskatoon Upper Line Light, wood frame, construction Space Heating (kwh) Triple paned, low-e, argon filled, windows South Window Area / Heated Floor Area [%]
27 High Performance Windows 1.2 m x 1.2 m Low e, triple paned, argon filled, 12 mm spacing SHGC 0.59 R 5.9
28 Dumont House with and without better Windows Upper Line Space Heating (kwh) Light, wood frame, construction Triple paned, low-e, argon filled, windows Lower Line Replace current windows with better windows South Window Area / Heated Floor Area [%]
29 Dumont Residence, Saskatoon, 1992 South window to floor area ratio = 5.5% Almost no overheating; only extra thermal mass is scrap gypsum board b in the interior walls. Note shading of upper windows in summer by roof overhang
30 Thermal Storage / Mass The building s s ability to store internal and solar heat gains Greatly depends on the interior construction of the building
31 Thermal Mass Options Description Thermal Capacity MJ/Km 2 (floor area) Hot 2000 Computer Building Simulation Standard frame construction, 12.7 mm (0.5 in) gyproc walls and ceilings, carpet over wooden floors As above, but 50.8 mm(2 in) gyproc walls and 25.4 mm (1 in) gyproc ceiling Interior wall finish mm (4 in) brick, 12.7 mm (0.5 in) gyproc ceiling over wooden floor Very heavy commercial office building, mm (12 in) concrete floor
32 Dumont House - As Built Space Heating (kwh) Upper Line Light, wood frame, construction Triple paned, low-e, argon filled, windows South Window Area / Heated Floor Area [%]
33 Effect of Adding Mass Upper Line Light, wood frame, construction Space Heating (kwh) Triple paned, low-e, argon filled, windows Lower Line Same windows, change construction to very high thermal mass South Window Area / Heated Floor Area [%]
34 Dumont House Upper Line Light, wood frame, construction Space Heating (kwh) Triple paned, low-e, argon filled, windowa South Window Area / Heated Floor Area [%]
35 Higher Performance Windows & High Thermal Mass Upper Line Light, wood frame, construction Space Heating (kwh) Triple paned, low-e, argon filled, windows Lower Line Change construction to very high thermal mass and install new windows South Window Area / Heated Floor Area [%]
36 Thermal Mass Ideas 1. Large interior masonry wall 2. Concrete floor 3. Thicker gypsum 4. Thick walls, filled with scrap gypsum 5. Thick walls, filled with scrap steel 6. Thick walls, filled with water
37 Mass Comparison Description Very heavy office building, 30 cm (12 in) concrete floor 0.5 inch gypsum walls 1.5 inch concrete floor 2 inch gypsum walls 2 inch gypsum walls, filled with scrap gypsum 2 inch gypsum walls, filled with scrap steel 2 inch gypsum walls, filled with water 2 inch gypsum walls, 1.5 inch concrete floor, half filled with scrap gypsum Thermal Capacity MJ/Km
38 High Performance Windows Vary Mass Space Heating (kwh) Light (wood frame) construction (0.060 MJ/Km 2 ) Medium (thick walls) costruction (0.153 MJ/Km 2 ) Heavy (masonry) construction (0.415 MJ/Km 2 ) Very heavy (concrete) construction (0.810 MJ/Km 2 ) South Window Area / Heated Floor Area [%]
39 10% Ratio High Performance Windows Space Heating [kwh] Thermal Mass [KJ/Km2]
40 Case Study of High Glass, High Mass, Passive Solar Prairie House
41 Mill Creek House, Edmonton, 2009
42 Mill Creek House Very Energy Conserving House R90 attic insulation R56 wall insulation R24 basement floor insulation High Performance Windows (Triple, low- e, argon filled, tuned to orientation) Heat Recovery Ventilator
43 South Window to floor area ratio: 10.7% Added Thermal Mass: 2.5 inch thick concrete topping on wood floors Added Weight: 20,700 kilogrammes Annual Usable Passive Solar Heating: 50%
45 Conclusions Start with a very energy conserving design, orient for solar use Concentrate windows on the south wall Use best windows available Use inexpensive thermal mass Consider effect of overheating
46 Acknowledgments: VerEco Homes, Ronn Lepage Habitat Studio, Peter Amerongen Carroll Homes, John Carroll Conrad Norbert, Mill Creek House Dan Hagan, New Mexico State Gov.
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