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1 Green BIM/ Early BIM/

2 Agenda/ Introduction to Sustainability Process Environmental Analysis Tools Environmental Analysis Relation to LOD Conclusion

3 Disclaimer/ This seminar is looking at Building Performance Analysis through the eyes of the architect.

4 Principles of Sustainable Design/ Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. Sustainable architecture uses a conscious approach to energy and ecological conservation in the design of the built environment. Dublin institute of Technology

5 Principles of Sustainable Design/ Optimize Site Potential Optimize Energy Potential Protect and Conserve Water Optimize Building Space and Material Use Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practice Social Enrichment Sustainability is not only about energy efficiency

6 Share of Building Activity/ 40% 30% 20% 10% Green Construction Starts 0% USGBC

7 Top Triggers for Green Activity UK/ Corporate Commitment Increased Building Value Decreased Operating Costs Right Thing to Do Environmental Regulations Branding Market Demand Client Demand 9% 15% 18% 21% 29% 32% 35% 44% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% McGraw Hill Smart market report World Green Building Trends

8 Building Energy use US/ Potable Water Consumption 12% Waste Output Raw Material Use Green House Gas Emissions 30% 30% 30% Electricity Consumption 65% Energy Use 36% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% US Environmental Protection Agency

9 Benefits of Green Building/ Higher Occupancy Rates Increased Productivity Higher Rental Rates Education of Occupants Future Proofing Assets Certification of Quality Higher Building Value Lower Operating Costs 25% 25% 27% 31% 36% 38% 38% 76% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% McGraw Hill Smart market report World Green Building Trends

10 Modeling for sustainable design/ Models are an approximation of reality Different models are used by different people at different points in time. Geometric Model Analytical Model Discipline Design Model Try to keep the number of models to a minimum.

11 Iterative Design Process/ Design Refine Test Evaluate

12 Workflow/ Goals Metrics Tools Analysis What is to be achieved? What is the measurement of success? What software should be used? What type of analysis needs to be run? What are you trying to learn? What type of model is required? What is the best way to show the results?

13 When to Start/ Models are too detailed Heavy to analyze More difficult to modify quickly

14 Start Early/ Cost Impact Time

15 Process/ Design Massing Orientation Concept Schematic Design Development Construction Documents Post Occupancy Energy Modeling Validation Thermal Envelope Glazing Envelope Loads Equipment Complexity TTime

16 Tools/ Modeling tools Vasari Revit FormIt Rhino SketchUp Tool should promote positive workflow Avoid losing data or back tracking

17 Tools/ Analysis tools Climate Consultant Vasari Revit Ecotect Green Building Studio Integrated Environmental Solutions (IESVE)

18 Passive design strategies/ Design to respond to the local climate conditions Use free sources of energy such as sun and wind. Sun and wind are almost always available. Know when use wind and sun and when to provide protection. Minimize the use of mechanical ventilation and artificial lighting.

19 Passive design strategies/ Key elements of passive design Location Orientation Layout Window design Insulation Thermal mass Shading Ventilation

20 LOD 0/ Pre Design Understand the requirements of the project. Acquire information about the existing conditions. Establish the goals of the project. Learn the potential and limitations of passive design strategies. Learn the potential for renewable energy.

21 LOD 0/ Pre Model Location Program Local conditions Weather data Strategize best passive design strategies Dalian Healthcare Center - China

22 LOD 0/ Program Who are the end users? Active, Passive, Old, Young How is the project to be used? Sports, Office, Education, Sleeping Hours of operation 24/7, Daytime, nighttime Location Urban, Rural, Plains, Mountains

23 LOD 0/ Climate data Project location Reliable weather data Finding weather stations in close proximity Typically airports Actual weather data based on a Typical Meteorological Year

24 LOD 0/ Climate data File formats Separated Value Files (Require Conversion).wea.epw Energy Plus US Department of Energy Weather Tool Ecotect Climate Consultant UCLA Autodesk

25 LOD 0/ Climate data Temperature Charts Wind Roses Solar Radiation Psychrometric Charts Weather Tool Ecotect Climate Consultant UCLA

26 LOD 0/ Wind Rose

27 LOD 0/

28 LOD 0/ Psychrometric Chart Learn what strategies will work in the local climate. Copenhagen

29 LOD 0/ Psychrometric Chart Copenhagen Hong Kong

30 LOD 0/ Existing condition model Site and surrounding structures modeled as masses. Maps and satellite images. Solar analysis Sunlight hours. Shadow diagrams.

31 LOD 0/ Victoria Street - London

32 LOD 0/ Summer Winter Spring/ Fall Victoria Street - London

33 LOD 0/ Summer Winter Victoria Street - London

34 LOD 0/ Maximum Buildable Envelope Victoria Street - London

35 LOD 0/ Best orientation Heating Degree Days Cooling Degree Days Average daily radiation For 1 year Coldest 3 months Warmest 3 months

36 LOD 1/ Conceptual Design Test and compare designs. Define building form, orientation and layout. Define the amount of glazing and shading requirements. Understand which parameters drive the performance of the project. Get the entire project team working together on the solution.

37 LOD 1/ Mass model The simpler the better. Model built to test scenarios. Need to create at least two models. Iterative Process. Modification to building form, orientation and site placement easy and inexpensive.

38 LOD 1/ Modeling Process Create mass model Establish mass floors Extract areas

39 LOD 1/ Modeling Process Enable analytical model Revise and Re-analyze Start analysis China Mobile

40 LOD 1/ Solar Analysis Winter Spring Summer Total insolation Siemens Headquarters - Munich

41 LOD 1/ Solar Analysis Sunlight Hours Yan Ti Master Plan - Wuxi, China

42 LOD 1/ Solar Analysis Winter Summer Solar Radiation Yan Ti Master Plan - Wuxi, China

43 LOD 1/ Wind Identify wind tunnels. Block undesired wind. Use desirable wind. Sondre Vollbekk - Norway

44 LOD 1/ Early energy analysis Use. Preliminary construction types. Preliminary system types. Building orientation. Percentage glazing. Energy use intensity (EUI) Energy intensiveness is the energy demand per unit area of the building's floor plan.

45 LOD 1/ Energy Use Intensity N-S Orientation 40% Glass Ratio Electricity 125 kwh/m 2 /yr. Fuel 150 MJ/m 2 /yr. E-W Orientation 40% Glass Ratio Electricity 116 kwh/m 2 /yr. Fuel 70 MJ/m 2 /yr. Total 166 kwh/m 2 /yr. Total 135 kwh/m 2 /yr.

46 LOD 1/ Energy Use Intensity E-W Orientation 80% Glass Ratio Electricity 121 kwh/m 2 /yr. Fuel 107 MJ/m 2 /yr. E-W Orientation 40% Glass Ratio Electricity 116 kwh/m 2 /yr. Fuel 70 MJ/m 2 /yr. Total 145 kwh/m 2 /yr. Total 135 kwh/m 2 /yr.

47 LOD 1/ Energy Use Intensity Benchmarks for building functions.

48 LOD 2/ Design Development Developing the façade concept. Develop the interior layout. Develop passive design details. Quantify thermal and visual comfort. Explore the active systems required to support the passive systems.

49 LOD 2/ Model Object model Walls, windows, floors and roofs roughly defined. Analyze project form. Verify performance of project.

50 LOD 2/ Model Object model. Walls, Windows, Floors, Roofs Defined. Analyze project at a spacial level. Verify performance of project. Modifications to building form more costly.

51 LOD 2/ Lighting No Skylight Nuuk Prison Skylight

52 LOD 2/ Sunlight Insolation Analyzes the amount of direct sunlight Shadow study Campus Skejby - Aarhus

53 LOD 2/ Shading Devices Ecotect to develop the most effective shading devices. Design for orientation. Period of time. Test different types of shading devices.

54 LOD 2/ Shading Devices Winter Sun Konstitucijos Avenue 21 - Vilnus Summer Sun

55 LOD 2/ Rain water harvesting Use local weather data and building occupancy in combination with schedules. Use roof area to dimension retention cisterns. Schedule plumbing fixtures with calculated values.

56 LOD 2/ LEED Credits 1.1 Building Reuse maintain existing structure. 1.2 Building Reuse maintain existing finishes. 2 Construction waste management. 3 Materials reuse. 5 Regional materials. Shared parameters. Scheduling.

57 Software Issues/ Interoperability. Getting the right file formats. Selecting the correct tool to use. Understanding how the tools function. Time to conduct the analysis.

58 Conclusion/ Start early and verify often. Use the right tools at the right time. The tools are not the expensive part of sustainability. Use the power of the cloud. Interpret your results carefully. Don t just make cool images. Make useful results.

59 Reading/ Rough Guide to Sustainability Brian Edwards Bygninger Energy Klima Mod et nyt Paragigme Rob March, Vibeke Grupe Larsen, Jake Hacker BIM in Small Scale Sustainable Design Francois Lévy Design with Nature Ian McHarg Autodesk Sustainability Workshop

60 Thanks David Fink Architect/ BIM Manager schmidt/ hammer/ lassen architects/

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