# Thermal Breakage Prediction

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1 Thermal Breakage Prediction The prediction of glass breakage due to thermal stress is an important analysis for the longevity of a window. Thermal breakage occurs when there is a large temperature differential between the edge and center of glass. The use of heat treated glass (tempered or heat-strengthened) in conditions where there is a high probability of glass breakage will greatly reduce this risk. This document outlines a methodology for estimating glass breakage probability from thermal stress. In order to estimate breakage potential, a thermal simulation of the window needs to be conducted using the appropriate glass, coatings and environmental conditions. For the simulations below, Cardinal illustrates two environmental conditions; an extreme winter condition of -20 F and a more typical condition of 0 F outdoor temperature. Using the LBNL programs Window and Therm, simulations were conducted for each window and glass type. For each pane of glass, the edge of glass temperature of a no solar condition was compared to the center of glass temperature of a full solar condition. This was used to approximate the condition of a fully shaded window frame on a bright sunny cold day (typically the worst condition for thermal stress). In order to calculate the glass stress, the difference in temperature (in F) was multiplied by the conversion factor of 50psi/ F. This thermal stress can then be used to calculate breakage probability. Based on field experience, Cardinal used an average breakage stress 500 PSI and a coefficient of variation (COV) of 20% for calculation of the breakage potential. The environmental conditions of the simulation as well as the glass strength assumptions are both variables that should be considered by the window manufacturer, as both will have a strong influence on the calculated breakage probability. The simulations that follow are for illustrative purposes and should be used for comparative purposes only. They are not an exact prediction of expected field breakage. They represent a worst case evaluation of the breakage potential. The values shown are based on the analysis by Cardinal IG of its IG products in generic window sash. As can be seen in the charts, the probability of breakage is affected by multiple factors including: sash and frame design, glass type, weather conditions and glass edge quality. The thermal breakage risk tables at the end of this TSB are a conservative interpretation of the results. Each window manufacture will experience different amounts of thermal breakage in the field due to the aforementioned factors. Page 1 of 7

2 Cardinal s Simulations Double- Breakage Prediction Temperature -20 F and 0 F Vinyl or Wood Windows side Temperature Extruded Aluminum Clad Wood Windows side Temperature -20 F 0 F -20 F 0 F 178 #3/AL Spacer # # #2/i89 # # # #2/i89 # # # #2/i89 # # # #2/i89 # # # #2/i89 # Color Coding: low thermal breakage probability, moderate thermal breakage probability, high thermal breakage probability. 1. Double- LoE-178 #3/AL spacer is no longer available. Past field history showed a breakage probability on the roomside pane approaching 10 per 1000 (1%) with wood windows. Page 2 of 7

3 Breakage Prediction Temperature -20 F and 0 F Vinyl or Wood Windows Center side Total IG Triple- Temperature Temperature Temperature -20 F 0 F -20 F 0 F -20 F 0 F Clear/Clear/AL Spacer <1 < #2/180 # #2/180 # #3/180 # #2/180 #4/i89 # #2/180 # < #2/180 #5 4 <1 1 < #2/272 # #2/272 # #2/180 #4/i89 # #2/272 #4/i89 # #2/180 #4 <1 <1 <1 < #2/180 #5 <1 <1 1 < #2/270 # < #2/270 # #2/180 #4/i89 # #2/270 #4/i89 # #2/180 #4 <1 <1 <1 < #2/180 #5 <1 <1 1 < #2/366 # < #2/366 #5 <1 < #2/180 #4/i89 #6 <1 <1 <1 < #2/366 #4/i89 # #2/180 # < #2/180 #5 <1 <1 1 < #2/340 # #2/340 # #2/180 #4/i89 # #2/340 #4/i89 # Color Coding: low thermal breakage probability, moderate thermal breakage probability, high thermal breakage probability. Page 3 of 7

4 Breakage Prediction Temperature -20 F and 0 F Extruded Aluminum Clad Wood Windows Center side IG Triple- Temperature Temperature Temperature -20 F 0 F -20 F 0 F -20 F 0 F Clear/Clear /AL Spacer #2/180 # #2/180 # #3/180 # #2/180 #4/ i89 # #2/180 rum # #2/180 # #2/272 # #2/272 # #2/180 #4/i89 # #2/272 #4/i89 # #2/180 # #2/180 # #2/270 # #2/270 # #2/180 #4/i89 # #2/270 #4/i89 # #2/180 # #2/180 #5 1 < #2/366 # #2/366 # #2/180 #4/i89 # #2/366 #4/i89 # #2/180 # #2/180 # #2/340 # #2/340 # #2/180 #4/i89 # #2/340 #4/i89 # Color Coding: low thermal breakage probability, moderate thermal breakage probability, high thermal breakage probability. 1. Center Glass Temperature Calculations The 0 F conditions: outdoor temperature 0 F, indoor temperature 70 F, 12.3 mph windspeed, and full sun (248 BTU/HR-ft²- F). The -20 F conditions: outdoor temperature -20 F, indoor temperature 70 F, 12.3 mph windspeed, and full sun (248 BTU/HR-ft²- F). 2. Edge Temperature Calculations Were made using the same conditions as center of glass with the exception of no solar load on the edge. This is a worst case situation with the edge shadowed. Window edge temperatures were determined using the Therm program with a generic vinyl or clad wood frame. The simulations were performed by an accredited NFRC simulator. All calculations were made using the Endur IG spacer. One exception is the first glazing (which is noted) used an aluminum spacer. 3. IG Constructions Double-pane constructions were based on 3mm glass and a 13.0mm argon filled airspace. Triple-pane constructions were based on 3mm glass and two 13.0mm argon filled airspaces. The wider the airspace in a triple-pane, the higher the center glass temperatures, and therefore, the worst situation for thermal stress. 4. Edge Damage Minor edge damage has been assumed in the glass stress calculations. In the case of shell chips, the same depth of chip will have a greater effect on the strength of 2.2mm glass than on 3mm glass. The same size chip in 2.2mm glass will therefore have a higher probability of breakage than in 3mm glass. 5. Breakage Probabilities Estimated based on a worst case condition of shadowed edges with full sun on the center of the glass. The breakage probability in most applications will not be as high as those shown in the table. The breakage probabilities are based on 60 minute load duration, with average breaking stress 500 psi, with a COV of 20%. The breakage probability on the exterior pane on the shown triple-pane IG units is estimated to be less than 1/1000. The breakage probabilities shown are for each pane of the IG unit. For triple-panes the IG Breakage Probability is the sum of the breakage probabilities of the center pane and the roomside pane. Page 4 of 7

5 Summary Based on the generic simulations above and previous Cardinal field experience, Cardinal has developed a summary table of expected thermal breakage risk. It is intended to be used as a guideline for window producers, with their own judgment, in the decision for the use of heat-treated glass for the prevention of thermal stress breakage. This summary was based on the -20 F temperature condition and an extruded aluminum clad window. Risks are based on an average glass breakage stress 500 psi and 20% COV. The use of solar control coatings on surfaces 3 and 5 of a triple-pane (compared to surface 2 and 4 or 2 and 5) will increase the breakage probability and is not suggested. The use of heat-treated glass is typically suggested in constructions with high levels of expected thermal breakage. Double- IG Units Coating Type 2.2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm Glass Thickness 1 LoĒ i89 Clear Gray Tint Bronze Tint 180 Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate Low Low Low Low 272 Low Low Low Low Low High Low Low Low Low 270 Low Low Low Low Low High Low Low Low Low 366 Low Low Low Low Low High Moderate 2 Low Low Low 340 Low Low Low Low Low High Moderate 2 High Low High Note: mm not available in tints. 2. For thickness of 5mm and above, gray tint on the outdoor pane with LoĒ -366 or LoĒ -340 room side on surface #3 has a high risk of thermal breakage. 3. The use of solar control LoE coatings such as Cardinal LoĒ 272, 270, 366, and 340 are not recommended on the #3 surface of a two pane IG unit with a clear outdoor pane because of concerns for thermal stress breakage. 4. For units containing tinted glass substrates thermal breakage risk was based on solar absorption and past field history. Coating Type LoĒ i89 6 mm Glass Thickness Clear Gray Tint Bronze Tint 180 Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate High Low Moderate Low 272 Low Low Low Low Low High High Low High Low 270 Low Low Low Low Low High High Low High Low 366 Low Low Low Low Low High High Low High Low 340 Low Low Low Low Low High High High High High Note: 1. The use of solar control LoE coatings such as Cardinal LoĒ 272, 270, 366, and 340 are not recommended on the #3 surface of a two pane IG unit with a clear outdoor pane because of concerns for thermal stress breakage. 2. For units containing tinted glass substrates thermal breakage risk was based on solar absorption and past field history. Page 5 of 7

6 Triple-s with Two LoĒ Coatings Glazing Description Center 180 #2/180 #4 Low High Low 180 #2/180 #5 Low Low Moderate 180 #3/180 #5 Low High High 272 #2/180 #4 Low Low Low 272 #2/180 #5 Low Low Low 272 #2/272 #4 Low High Low 272 #2/272 #5 Low Low Moderate 270 #2/180 #4 Low Low Low 270 #2/180 #5 Low Low Low 270 #2/270 #4 Low High Low 270 #2/270 #5 Low Low Moderate 366 #2/180 #4 Low Low Low 366 #2/180 #5 Low Low Low 366 #2/366 #4 Low High Low 366 #2/366 #5 Low Low Moderate 340 #2/180 #4 Low Low Low 340 #2/180 #5 Low Low Low 340 #2/340 #4 Low High Low 340 #2/340 #5 Low Low Moderate Triple-s with Three LoĒ Coatings Glazing Description Center 180 #2/180 #4/i89 #6 Low High High 272 #2/180 #4/i89 #6 (Preferred) Low Low Low 272 #2/272 #4/i89 #6 Low High High 270 #2/180 #4/i89 #6 (Preferred) Low Low Low 270 #2/270 #4/i89 #6 Low High Moderate 366 #2/180 #4/i89 #6 (Preferred) Low Low Low 366 #2/366 #4/i89 #6 Low High Low 340 #2/180 #4/i89 #6 (Preferred) Low Low Low 340 #2/340 #4/i89 #6 Low High Low Note: 1. The use of LoĒ solar control coatings such as Cardinal LoĒ 272, 270, 366, and 340 are not recommended on the center pane of a triple pane IG unit due to concerns with thermal stress and heat buildup in the airspace. 2. Heat Treating (H/T) recommendation based on cold winter climate, with full sun, shadowed edges, metal clad wood frame, with estimated maximum allowable thermal stress of 2600 psi (breakage probability of 17 per 1000 based on 4500 psi average breaking stress and coefficient of variation of 20%). Page 6 of 7

7 Conclusions Breakage potential due to thermal stress will vary greatly by window type and environmental conditions. The use of high absorbing or low solar heat gain products on the inboard surfaces (surface 3, 4 or 5) of an IG unit will increase the breakage potential and the need for heat strengthening. The use of Cardinal LoĒ on the exterior pane of double-panes and triple-panes reduces the breakage potential of the inboard pane in the IG unit. For triple-panes utilizing three coatings, the combination of LoĒ on the exterior pane, LoĒ-180 on the middle pane, and LoĒ- i89 on the interior pane offers excellent performance with low thermal stress. Heat treatment of the glass reduces the thermal stress breakage probability to less than 1 per The information in this Technical Service Bulletin is subject to the disclaimers and other limitations appearing in the TERMS AND CONDITIONS that accompanies this Bulletin and at Copyright 2016 Cardinal IG Company Page 7 of 7

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