3 Weather vs Climate Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place. The atmospheric parameters include temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, wind, and barometric pressure. In contrast to weather, Climate is the set of meteorological conditions that prevail in a particular place or region over a long period of time. Climate can vary over broad time scales, from years to millennia. Climate is the long-term statistical expression of shortterm weather.
4 Zimbabwe Climate Hot Season - mid-august to mid- November (hot day time T C 26 C to 36 C) Main rainy season - mid-november to mid- March (intercepted by 4 to 5 dry spells) Cool season - mid-may to mid-august (mild day time T C 20 C to 29 C) Post rainy season - mid-march to mid-may (mild and sunny, 23 C to 31 C)
5 Factors controlling climate Latitude which determines the amount of radiation received at any time of the year. Position in relation to land, sea and ocean Altitude which greatly influences temperature General circulation of the atmosphere and its perturbations. Nature of the underlying surface; soil type, water Vegetation cover Topographical features
6 ITCZ December/January/February
7 Guti This is a cool moist southeasterly airflow which causes cloudy conditions. If this condition becomes well established it results in widespread drizzle and rain in places. In summer if a guti sets in, it results in convergence; hence increasing rain and thunder activity in the country if conditions allow. Severe guti may push crucial rainfall activity out of the country and drier weather will be experienced over whole country.
8 Main rain months Zimbabwe Average Monthly Rainfall in mm (1980/81 to 2009/10) Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
9 2010/11 Rain Season Onset A start of the rain season is attained when a place receives 20 mm in 1 or 2 days and there is no dry spell of more than 10 days expected in the following 30 days. All dates for 2010/11 season onsets fell in November. The scale on the side of the map shows the days of the month from the 1st (bottom) to the 30th (top).
10 Rainfall Amts Vs Latitude
11 Zimbabwe Mean Annual Rainfall
12 R/fall amts Vs Altitude Zimbabwe Rainfall Distribution by Altitude ALTITUDE (METRES ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL)
13 Zimbabwe s hottest & warm areas (Av.Tx)
14 Zimbabwe s coldest and warm areas (Av.Tm)
15 Weather related Hazards Tropical cyclones Floods and flash flooding Drought and intra season dry spells Thunderstorms and lightning Hail storms Heavy rains Ground frost Heat Waves
16 Prediction of met hazards Biggest challenge is the prognosis lead time. Thunderstorms, lighting and hailstorms hours to 1 day. Ground frost 3 days to 1 week. Tropical cyclones 1 week Heavy rains and floods 3 days to 2 weeks. Dry spells 2 weeks. Meteorological Drought 3 months
17 Heavy rainfall A rainfall measurement of more than 100mm in 24 hours is regarded as a severe weather event. Usually associated with mesoscale severe convection or the passage of a tropical cyclone. Fortunately, Madagascar acts as a deviator of more than 95% of tropical cyclones from the South West Indian Ocean.
18 Lightning and hailstorms A result of very high convective available potential energy high temperatures. Usually occur during the first half of the season or after some days clear skies and very high temperatures. Highland areas are prone to lightning those that lie along the main watershed.
19 Hailstorm damage in 2009/10 Two people were killed in Dotito 51 homesteads destroyed in Muzarabani Three schools destroyed in Mhondoro Hundreds of hectors of tobacco destroyed in Magunje.
20 HAILSTORM: One of schools destroyed in Mhondoro
21 Hundreds of hectors of tobacco destroyed in Magunje. PLEASE INSURE YOUR CROP! Hailstorm damage in 2009/10 - economic impacts
22 Hailstorm Homestead destroyed in Muzarabani
25 Weather and Climate Factors controlling Weather Zimbabwe Climate Weather related Hazards Climate Change facts- Zimbabwe.
26 What is Climate Change? Climate change is any long-term significant permanent change in the average weather of a given area/ region. Average weather may include average temperature, precipitation, wind and pressure patterns. It involves changes in the average state of the atmosphere over duration ranging from decades to millions of years.
27 IS THE CLIMATE OF ZIMBABWE CHANGING? YES IS THERE ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THAT? YES.
28 Why is it changing? Both Nature and Human activities cause the Change UNFCCC (1992) attributed the change to human activities which alter the composition of the global atmosphere. Main Human activities Industrial Revolution in Europe. Rapid increase in greenhouse gas emissions Increase in population growth Increased deforestation and landuse Increased atmospheric aerosols Need to increase agricultural production
29 Climate change/variability? The difference Climate change refers to statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or its variability persisting over extended periods (typically decades or longer) Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state and other statistics (standard deviation, occurrence of extremes) of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales.
30 Annual Mean Maximum TºC (Daytime Temps)
31 Zimbabwe: temperature and rainfall extremes The temperature analysis shows a distinct trend towards higher temperature. Positive trends can be detected for the temperature time series in Zimbabwe from 1962 to Both annual min and max temps are showing an increasing trend. Annual average max and min air temperature has increased by around 2 degrees Celsius respectively during the past 100 years
32 Annual Mean Night Temperatures
33 Temperature and rainfall extremes Cont There is a trend towards decreasing number of cold days. There is also a noticeable increase in amplitude and duration of the mean annual deviation from the long-term average. Most of the temperature rise was observed over the last 40 years. Five warmest years on record for Zimbabwe have occurred since 1987 and that the increased frequency of droughts since 1990 (90/91, 91/92, 92/93, 93/94, 94/95, 97/98, 01/02, 02/03, 04/05, 06/07).
34 Nyanga s Av. Afternoon Temps NYANGA MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE (DEGREES CELCIUS) YEAR
35 Nyanga s Average Night Temps NYANGA MINIMUM TEMPERATURES TEMPERATURE (DEGREES CELCIUS) YEAR
36 Chipinge s Night Temps CHIPINGE MINIMUM TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE (DEGREES CELCIUS) YEAR
37 Chipinge s Daytime Temps CHIPINGE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE YEAR TEMPERATURE (DEGREES CELCIUS)
38 Zimbabwe: rainfall patterns Seasonal precipitation ( ) and monthly rainfall ( ) trends in Zimbabwe have been analyzed. Negative precipitation trends are observed for the summer period. The month on month rainfall totals reveals an increasing in rainfall in the months of October and December. November, January, February and March reveal a decreasing trend. The observed trends reveal distinct patterns thus emphasizing the occurrence of floods and droughts in the country.
39 Zimbabwe: rainfall Analysis Average seasonal rainfall (1901/2 to 2007/8) y = x / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /06 Season Rainfall (mm)
40 30 year climatic period Moving Av.
41 OLD CLIMATE vs NEW CLIMATE Station Rainfall in old climate (annual) Rainfall in new climate (annual) % change Blue line represents old climate Red line represents new climate Victoria Falls 684.7mm (1905/ /35) 635.2mm (1975/ /05) -7.17% Matopos 598.4mm (1903/ /33) 548.8mm (1975/ /05) -8.36% Nyanga 960.3mm (1905/ /35) 1209mm (1977/ /07) 25.94%
42 Past 30yr Climate period vs Recent 30yr Climate period
45 CLIMATE Vs HEALTH Climate and health are inextricably linked in a number of ways. Climate affects some of the most fundamental determinants of health: air, water, food, shelter and disease. It also plays a powerful role in the occurrence and spread of diseases worldwide, e.g. malaria, diarrhorea etc Mosquitoes that carry many of these diseases tend to thrive in warmer, wetter climates. Scientists are therefore concerned about an increased risk of water-borne diseases due to global warming that changes the survival rates of pathogens, coupled with increased rain and flooding, which mobilize contaminants.
46 Hazards for the future due to climate change and global warming EXAMPLE MALARIA Study done by Ebi et.al, 2005
47 Climate Change & Malaria (potential transmission) in Zimbabwe Baseline Harare Ebi et al., 2005
48 2025 projections: Malaria potential transmission due to climate change
Weather and Climate 53 40- to 1-2 50-minute sessions ACTIVITY OVERVIEW P R O B L E M S O LVI N G Students use a literacy strategy known as a DART (directed activity related to text) to organize the information
Weather and climate Which option best completes each of the following sentences? (a) Relief rainfall occurs. () in mountainous areas in desert areas in the east of England in rainforests (b) Convectional
53 Weather and Climate P R O B L E M S O LV I N G The word weather is used to describe what s happening outside at a specific time and place, and it can change from day to day or even within a day. Climate
Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate 1.1 What physical factors lead to variations in climate in different regions of the world Weather Climate The day to day changes in the atmosphere. It is constantly changing.
IPCC WORKSHOP 2005 Extreme Events in Climate Model Data What is happening over Europe in the present and in future centuries? Jana Sillmann International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modeling
8 th Grade Science Homework Due on: In this homework assignment we will 8.10(B) identify how global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather using weather maps that show high and low pressures
Temperature and Precipitation Changes at La Palma, Canary Islands (1971-2) Edward Graham Department of Geosciences University of Fribourg 1. Introduction La Palma is the western-most of the Canary Islands
Climate Change and Global Warming What is the difference between weather and climate? Weather Weather refers to general day-to-day temperatures, precipitation and air activities. For example: - Today is
The Weather of Pemba 3 years of SUN hours, winds & precipitation A unique weather system Pemba Island has a tropical monsoon climate with high precipitation figures all year round. Pemba Island has two
Students activities: The Sahara desert Sahara facts: * Hot deserts receive less than 250mm (25 cm) of rain fall per year. They have hot dry days and cold nights due to the high pressure weather systems
A Study of the Last Forty Years of Daily Rainfall Data in Trinidad to Examine Any Indications of Climate Change and its Repercussions for the Farming Population in Trinidad and Tobago. Name of Consultant
Weather and Climate Lesson 1 Web Quest: What is the Weather? List 10 different words to describe the weather in the box, below. How do we measure the weather? Use this web link to help you: http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/weatherwise/activities/weatherstation/
RESIREA Work Package 3 Assessment of the renewable energy potential in Oudomxay (Lao PDR), Dak Nong (Vietnam) and Kampong Thom (Cambodia) Evaluation of the solar photovoltaic potential in the 3 provinces
Low-Latitude Climates Chapter 9 Overview of Low-Latitude Climates The low-latitude climates lie for the most part between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and represent about 50 percent of Earth s surface.
What is Climate? Uma Bhatt (IARC-UAF) 4 April 2002 Climate synthesis of weather in a particular region monthly averages climate influences life life sensitive to climate Temperature & Precipitation Main
Lornshill Academy Geography Department National Revision Physical Environments Weather Weather Revision Sheets What you need to know: 1. Factors that affect the weather: a) latitude; b) altitude; c) distance
University of Wisconsin Milwaukee UWM Digital Commons Field Station Bulletins UWM Field Station Spring 992 UWM Field Station meteorological data James W. Popp University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Follow
The Weather Wire December 2011 Volume 18 Number 12 Contents: Upslope Winds Upslope Winds Drought Monitor October Summary/Statistics November Preview Sunrise/Sunset Snowfall Totals Here in Colorado we hear
The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events 2 How do changes
HOW DO WE DESCRIBE CLIMATE? To describe climate, geographers start by gathering data about weather. Meteorologists, the scientists who study weather, supply the data by measuring weather conditions like
Seasonality Weather & Climate Geog202 Spring 2011 Professor Paluzzi Seasonal changes - Based Sun s altitude Declination the latitude that receives direct overhead rays of the sun Moves 47 (between 23.5
Tropical Cyclone Cliff: April 5, Flooding in Nadi Town in mid-february due to heavy rainfall from an intense trough of low pressure. Excessive soil moisture in the Nadi Catchment in the previous week resulted
SUBTROPICAL ANTICYCLONES & ASSOCIATED WEATHER CONDITIONS 20 FEBRUARY 2014 In this lesson we: Lesson Description Discuss the THREE high pressure cells that affect South Africa: Location, identification,
Volume: 1 Summer 2009 No: 1 Fourth of July in the historic Puddle Dock neighborhood of Portsmouth, NH, part of the Strawbery Banke, outdoor urban history museum. (Photo credit: Mary Stampone) New Hampshire
Unit 2: Weather Weather Lore: ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence weather lore may vary from place to place as different
Variability in Barbados Rainfall Pattern: An El Nino/La Nina Perspective BY Sonia Nurse Deputy Director (Ag) Barbados Meteorological Services Issued: October,2011 Introduction Although El Niño and La Niña
Global warming & heat wave facts & impacts Ø Heat waves: hotter & more often. 10 hottest years ever: all since 1998. Hottest year on record: 2014. Ø Immediate risk: A long period of unusually hot weather
What Causes Climate? Reading Preview Key Concepts What factors influence temperature? What factors influence precipitation? What causes the seasons? Key Terms climate microclimate tropical zone polar zone
CHAPTER 5 Precipitation and evapotranspiration This is a long but important chapter about the input of water to Earth s surface as precipitation, and the output of water from the surface as evapotranspiration.
Rogue Valley Weather and Climate Modified from program by Gregory V. Jones, Southern Oregon University Talk Outline General Weather and Climate Overview Weather and Climate Large Scale Controls Weather
Chapter-8 Multiple Choice Questions 1. Climate is: a. based on vegetation types alone b. a model of reality that is too simplistic to be useful c. based on temperature and precipitation averages over decades
Monsoon Variability and Extreme Weather Events M Rajeevan National Climate Centre India Meteorological Department Pune 411 005 email@example.com Outline of the presentation Monsoon rainfall Variability
MAJOR AIR MASSES OVER AUSTRALIA Martin Babakhan Meteorologist 1 Air Mass An air mass is an extremely large body of air whose properties of temperature and moisture are similar in any horizontal direction
Outcomes: SCO 2.1: The student will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of how the earth s movement in space causes the occurrence of and the conditions related to day and night and the seasons,
Weather History for Forest Lakes, Arizona Recorded at Chevelon Ranger Station from 1959 until it s closing in December 2001 The Chevelon Ranger Station site is located approximately 15 miles NNW of Forest
TEST NAME:Weather Review 2 TEST ID:1100746 GRADE:05 Fifth Grade SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom Weather Review 2 Page 1 of 13 Student: Class: Date: 1. What happens to the
Table of Contents Part 1: Climate Graphs Activity Part 2: Texas Climate Handout Maps for transparencies: a. Texas Average Annual Temperature b. Texas Average Annual Precipitation c. Texas Climate Regions
Mars Weather, Agriculture and Greenhouses Before humans can exist on the surface of Mars, there is much to be learned about the weather, soil, and the potential use of greenhouses on Mars. Martian weather
Introduction LAB J - WORLD CLIMATE ZONES The objective of this lab is to familiarize the student with the various climates around the world and the climate controls that influence these climates. Students
Weather: Air Patterns Weather: Air Patterns Weather results from global patterns in the atmosphere interacting with local conditions. You have probably experienced seasonal shifts, such as winter in New
The 2016 Wet/Hurricane Season CariCOF Caribbean Climate Outlook Key Messages 1. 2015-2016 drought: 2015 driest year on record in many places, with the drought persisting. Drought impacts similar to major
Weather Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Meteorology the scientific study of the atmosphere They focus on physical characteristics and motion and how it relates to chemical,
OBSERVED CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE CARIBBEAN: CURRENT STATUS AND PAST STUDIES Climate Studies Group, Mona Department of Physics University of the West Indies, Mona Climate change is an issue of our times one
The La Niña of 2010-2011 and its impact on Australia Nicholas Klingaman NCAS-Climate and Walker Institute University of Reading 2011 www.reading.ac.uk Introduction and Outline Review of the extreme weather
Supported by A seven part series exploring the fantastic world of science. Find out about different climates in different parts of the World. The only animal capable of surviving the harsh conditions in
ENSO and Tropical Cyclones Tropical Cyclones Huge rotating masses of low pressure Strong winds, torrential rain Classified by maximum sustained wind speed Atlantic & Eastern North Pacific: Hurricanes Western
Temperature, Dew Point, and Wind Activities Using Davis Instruments Lessons for Grades 3-5: Teacher's Notes Part I: Graphing the Temperature and Dew Point The student will use temperatures and dew points
The Changing Climate of Mauritius By SureshYadowsun Boodhoo, Director, Meteorological services Introduction Human-induced climate change is probably becoming the most debated topics as the impacts gradually
The Climate of Johnston County Johnston County is part of the Crosstimbers, which is a transition region from the Central Great Plains. Average annual precipitation ranges from about 39 inches in extreme
Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE ASL720: Satellite Meteorology and Remote Sensing TERM PAPER TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION Group Members: Anil Kumar (2010ME10649) Mayank
Extreme summer conditions in Japan in 2013 - Summary of analysis by the TCC Advisory Panel on Extreme Climatic Events - 2 September 2013 Tokyo Climate Center (TCC), Japan Meteorological Agency http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/tcc/tcc/index.html
Geography 1001: Climate & Vegetation Agenda for Lecture 11: T Oct 2 nd Logistics 1 st Exam in 9 days! Take advantage of my office hours Students with documented excuses, please email me this week Review
Section 2 Currents and Climate Key Concept Ocean currents transport energy, affect climate and weather, and distribute nutrients. What You Will Learn Surface currents affect climate by distributing energy
Climate of Jaipur Ajit Tyagi,O.P.Singh,S.S.Singh & Surender Kumar Meteorological Centre, Jaipur India Meteorological Department Ministry of Earth Sciences Government of India 0 Preface Climate and weather
Local Communities: Planning for Climate Change Minister s foreword Climate change is a reality. It s up to all New Zealanders to help reduce the effects of climate change and keep our communities safe.
Chapter 3 World Climate Regions Defining a Climate Region The two most significant factors in defining different climates are temperature and precipitation. A place s location on a continent, its topography,
Weather and Climate Key Concepts: Greenhouse Gas Anomaly Atmospheric pressure Climate Precipitation Relative humidity Temperature Weather WHAT YOU WILL LEARN 1. You will learn the difference between weather
August 2008 Weather drivers in Western Australia Key facts Major weather drivers in Western Australia are: frontal systems cut-off lows west coast trough blocking highs Southern Annular Mode Indian Ocean
Name: Class: Date: Meteorology Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement
Climate Guide Las Cruces, 1892-2000 Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 749 College of Agriculture and Home Economics CONTENTS Area and Station Description... 1 Soil Temperatures... 3 Climate
Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is
Temperature Topics 1. Energy & Temperature 2. Controls on Air Temperature 3. Geographic Controls a. Latitude b. Land vs. Water c. Ocean Currents d. Altitude and Elevation e. Relative Geographic Position
January coincides with the peak of the rainy season in Seychelles. It is an extremely wet and humid month with occasional outbreaks of showers day or night with a slight preference for rain in the late
Drought History for the Southwestern Mountains of New Mexico Prepared by the South Central Climate Science Center in Norman, Oklahoma May 28, 2013 southcentralclimate.org firstname.lastname@example.org (This
Climate change adaptation initiatives in Kerala (India) under the humid tropics G. S. L. H. V. Prasada Rao Associate Director of Research Centre for Climate Change Research Kerala Agricultural University
COMPARISON OF FIXED & VARIABLE RATES (25 YEARS) 2 Fixed Rates Variable Rates FIXED RATES OF THE PAST 25 YEARS AVERAGE RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE LENDING RATE - 5 YEAR* (Per cent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
COMPARISON OF FIXED & VARIABLE RATES (25 YEARS) 2 Fixed Rates Variable Rates FIXED RATES OF THE PAST 25 YEARS AVERAGE RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE LENDING RATE - 5 YEAR* (Per cent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
Climate Change A n o t h e r F a c t o r i n M a n a g i n g S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a s W a t e r R e s o u r c e s Lauma M. Jurkevics - DWR, Southern Region Senior Environmental Scientist USEPA-Region
sample The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events 2 Impacts
Short description of UAE climate NCMS - UAE Geographic & Topographic features of the UAE UAE. UAE is a Gulf country located between latitudes 22.5-26 north and longitudes 51 51-56 56 east. east The UAE
Monthly Long Range Weather Commentary Issued: JANUARY 18, 2017 Steven A. Root, CCM, Chief Analytics Officer, Sr. VP, email@example.com DECEMBER 2016 Climate Highlights The Month in Review The average
TEKS measure and record changes in weather and make predictions using weather maps, weather symbols, and a map key Weather Maps and Making Predictions What Is Weather? Weather is the state of the atmosphere
Marlborough Meteorological Services Agnew R, Raw V. July 2010 A publication prepared for: Marlborough Research Centre Trust Agnew R, Raw V. Plant & Food Research, Marlborough SPTS No. 4362 PFR Contract
Agro-meteorological Indicators of Climate Change 2 nd Ed. 1 st Rev. (Galashiels) for Climate Change Opportunity or Threat? event in St Boswells, 4 th May 27 LADSS Research Project (www.macaulay.ac.uk/ladss),
Climate Change and its Possible Impact on Aviation - What are the Consequences (Threats)? - Uwe Wienert Deutscher Wetterdienst International Air Safety & Climate Change Conference, 08-09 Sept. 2010, Cologne
The Climate of Eastern Colorado Nolan J. Doesken Colorado Climate Center Presented to Flagler Conservation District, 2005 Annual Meeting, January 20, 2005 Prepared by Odie Bliss Flagler Temperature Averages
UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles Dominican Republic C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1 1. School of Geography and Environment, University of Oxford. 2. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research
Name: Date: LAB: Climate Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc Introduction: Climatology is concerned with long-term patterns of weather. Climate
Grantham Briefing Note 5 September 2013 The changing water cycle DR SIMON BUCKLE AND DR FLORA MACTAVISH Overview Water vapour is the main component of the Earth s natural greenhouse effect, which keeps
Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group I Contents 1. Greenhouse gas concentrations have continued to increase 2. Anthropogenic aerosols tend to produce negative radiative