1.2 Bonding Overview. 1.1 Bonding Overview. 1.3 Bonding Modes. Ionic bonding: bonds that results from the attraction of oppositely charged ions

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1 1.1 Bonding Overview Chemical bond: attractive force that holds the nuclei (atoms) in compounds together intramolecular force 1. Bonding Overview Ionic bonding: bonds that results from the attraction of oppositely charged ions Intermolecular force: attractive force between molecules Covalent bonding: bonds that result from the sharing of electrons 1.3 Bonding Modes 1.4 Electronegativity Compounds comprised of both metals and nonmetals Usually ionic bonding The ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself Compounds comprised of only non-metals Usually covalent bonding How can we determine/predict the type of bonding occurring between elements? 1

2 1.5 Electronegativity.1 Valence Electrons EN Group Element Electron Configurations for Group 1,, 17 and 18 Elements Atomic Number Electron Configuration Group Element Atomic Number Electron Configuration 1 Li (Lithium) 3 [He]s 1 17 F (Fluorine) 9 [He]s p 5 Na (Sodium) 11 [Ne]3s 1 Cl (Chlorine) 17 [Ne]3s 3p 5 K (Potassium) 19 [Ar]4s 1 Br (Bromine) 35 [Ar]4s 3d 10 4p 5 Rb (Rubidium) 37 [Kr]5s 1 I (Iodine) 53 [Kr]5s 4d 10 5p 5 Cs (Cesium) 55 [Xe]6s 1 Be (Beryllium) 4 [He]s 18 He (Helium) 1s Mg (Magnesium) 1 [Ne]3s Ne (Neon) 10 [He]s p 6 Ca (Calcium) 0 [Ar]4s Ar (Argon) 18 [Ne]3s 3p 6 Sr (Strontium) 38 [Kr]5s Kr (Krypton) 36 [Ar]4s 3d 10 4p 6 Ba (Barium) 56 [Xe]6s Xe (Xenon) 54 [Kr]5s 4d 10 5p 6. Drawing Lewis Symbols.3 Drawing Lewis Symbols Determine the number of valence electrons for a given atom or ion Place one dot around the element s chemical symbol for each valence electron Examples Boron (atomic number 5) Electron configuration: [He]s p 1 Boron has three valence electrons Lewis symbol is.. B. Chlorine (atomic number 17) Electron configuration: [Ne]3s 3p 5 Cl has seven valence electrons Lewis symbol is.. : Cl...

3 .4 Lewis Symbols.5 Lewis Symbols Iodine Bismuth Tin Tellurium Aluminum or aluminium? 3.1 Noble Gas Configurations 3. Noble Gas Configurations Except for He, noble gases have filled valence shells with 8 electrons (ns np 6 ) closed shell configurations Alkali metals have ns 1 valence configurations During chemical reactions, alkali metals typically lose one electron What about He (1s ) Noble gases are usually unreactive Typically found as monoatomic gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, not He, Ne, etc. Halogens have ns np 5 valence configurations During chemical reactions, halogens typically gain one electron 3

4 3.3 Octet Guideline 3.4 Octet Guideline Something special about closed shell configurations? There are exceptions to the eight electron configuration G. N. Lewis and W. Kossel independently proposed the octet rule to describe the prevalence of closed shell compounds Theory: stable compounds form when they attain closed shell valence configurations Octet rule : 4.1 Ionic Bonding 4. Ionic Bonding For some chemical reactions, atoms attain closed shell configurations by transferring electrons from one atom to another The electron transfer converts neutral atoms into ions Positive ion = cation Negative ion = anion Formation of Na + and Cl - ions Resulting ions have an attractive ti force due to their opposite charges = ionic bond Coulomb s Law 4

5 4.3 Ionic Bonding 4.4 Ionic Compounds Metals react with non-metals by transferring electrons from the metal to the non-metal Example Crystal lattice = repeating structure of anions and cations in an ionic compound Compound that forms is an ionic compound Held together by the electrical attraction between cation and anion (Na + Cl ) Attractive force = ionic bond 4.5 Ion Charges 4.6 Ion Charges General Rules Metals lose valence electrons to form cations The number of valence electrons lost rarely exceeds three A metallic main group element loses valence electrons and forms the next lowest noble gas configuration Examples General Rules Nonmetals gain valence electrons to form anions The number of valence electrons gained rarely exceeds three A nonmetallic main group element gains valence electrons to form the next highest noble gas configuration Examples 5

6 4.7 Ion Charges 4.8 Ion Charges Write an equation for the formation of the most stable ion Selenium Hydrogen is peculiar In most reactions it tends to lose one electron to form H + Aluminum Similar to what other group of elements? Strontium However, on occasions it will gain an electron Tin Similar to what other group of elements? 4.9 Common Ions Charges on some common ions Formulas Ions combine in the proper ratio to balance the overall charge on the compound (charges sum to zero) Na + + Cl Mg + + Cl Formulas for ionic compounds N 3- P 3-6

7 4.11 Ionic Compounds 5.1 Naming Compounds Write a formula for the ionic compound that would form in each case. Mg and O K and S Be and F Ca and N Li and P Names of Some Common Anions Element Symbol Name Bromine Br - Bromide Chlorine Cl - Chloride Fluorine F - Fluoride Iodine I - Iodide Nitrogen N 3- Nitride Phosphorus P 3- Phosphide Oxygen O - Oxide Sulfur S - Sulfide 5. Binary Ionic Compounds 5.3 Binary Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds like those in 4.11 are called binary compounds because each contains two different types of atoms Naming binary compounds Name = metal + nonmetal stem + ide Examples Many transition metals form more than one type of charged ion Cu + or Cu + Cr + or Cr 3+ Must indicate which ion is present Cu O is made up of Cu + cations and one O anion Copper(I) oxide ( copper one oxide ) CuO is made up of one Cu + cation and one O anion Copper(II) oxide ( copper two oxide ) 7

8 5.4 Binary Ionic Compounds 5.5 Binary Ionic Compounds How would you name CrCl and FeBr 3? What about Cr 3 N, MgS and MnF 3? 6.1 Polyatomic Ions 6. Polyatomic Ions What is a polyatomic ion? No systematic names they must be memorized Names of Common Polyatomic Ions Name Formula Name Formula Ammonium + NH 4 Nitrate NO 3 Acetate CH 3 COO Nitrite NO Carbonate CO 3 Oxalate C O 4 Hydrogen carbonate HCO 3 Chlorate ClO 3 Chromate CrO 4 Perchlorate ClO4 Dichromate Cr O 7 Permanganate MnO4 Cyanide CN Phosphate 3 PO 4 Hydroxide OH Sulfate SO 4 Hypochlorite OCl Sulfite SO 3 8

9 6.3 Polyatomic Ions - - CO - 3 SO - 4 Atoms covalently bonded Charge is spread over the whole group Atoms usually stay together during reactions 6.4 Compounds with Polyatomic Ions Metal ions and polyatomic ions combine in the proper ratio to balance the overall charge on the compound Cation is listed first followed by anion Parentheses are used around the polyatomic ion (only if more than one is present) Numerical prefixes (di-, tri-) are not used unless they are part of the polyatomic ion s name 6.5 Naming Ionic Compounds 7.1 Structures Write the formulas and names for compounds formed from the following: Potassium ion and sulfate Ammonium and carbonate Lithium ion and phosphate Calcium ion and hydroxide Iron + ion and phosphate Stable form of an ionic compound is not a discrete molecule Rather it exists as a crystal with many ions of opposite charge occupying lattice sites in a rigid, 3-dimensional structure Crystal lattice = rigid 3-dimensional arrangement of particles Lattice sites = locations occupied by a particle in a crystal lattice The particle can be a simple ion (Cl -, Na + ) or a polyatomic ion (SO - 4, NH 4+ ) 9

10 7. Structures 7.3 Structures Example of NaCl Each Na + and Cl - is surrounded by six ions of opposite charge (six nearest neighbors) Each Na + interacts with six neighboring Cl - ZnS and NaCl 7.4 Formula Weight Ionic compounds are not isolated, individual molecules Total mass of all the atoms in the formula of an ionic compound = formula weight Sum of the atomic weights of the atoms present in the simplest formula (unit) for an ionic compound MgCl is an ionic compound. Calculate the formula weight for MgCl 7.5 Ionic Versus Covalent Bonding Ionic compounds are formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another The transfer of electrons forms ions Each ion is isoelectronic with a noble gas Electrostatic force (ionic bond) holds atoms together Covalent bonding involves sharing of electrons to achieve noble gas configurations for the atoms involved Covalent bond = attractive force resulting from atoms attracted to a shared pair of electrons 10

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