1.2 Bonding Overview. 1.1 Bonding Overview. 1.3 Bonding Modes. Ionic bonding: bonds that results from the attraction of oppositely charged ions

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1.2 Bonding Overview. 1.1 Bonding Overview. 1.3 Bonding Modes. Ionic bonding: bonds that results from the attraction of oppositely charged ions"

Transcription

1 1.1 Bonding Overview Chemical bond: attractive force that holds the nuclei (atoms) in compounds together intramolecular force 1. Bonding Overview Ionic bonding: bonds that results from the attraction of oppositely charged ions Intermolecular force: attractive force between molecules Covalent bonding: bonds that result from the sharing of electrons 1.3 Bonding Modes 1.4 Electronegativity Compounds comprised of both metals and nonmetals Usually ionic bonding The ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself Compounds comprised of only non-metals Usually covalent bonding How can we determine/predict the type of bonding occurring between elements? 1

2 1.5 Electronegativity.1 Valence Electrons EN Group Element Electron Configurations for Group 1,, 17 and 18 Elements Atomic Number Electron Configuration Group Element Atomic Number Electron Configuration 1 Li (Lithium) 3 [He]s 1 17 F (Fluorine) 9 [He]s p 5 Na (Sodium) 11 [Ne]3s 1 Cl (Chlorine) 17 [Ne]3s 3p 5 K (Potassium) 19 [Ar]4s 1 Br (Bromine) 35 [Ar]4s 3d 10 4p 5 Rb (Rubidium) 37 [Kr]5s 1 I (Iodine) 53 [Kr]5s 4d 10 5p 5 Cs (Cesium) 55 [Xe]6s 1 Be (Beryllium) 4 [He]s 18 He (Helium) 1s Mg (Magnesium) 1 [Ne]3s Ne (Neon) 10 [He]s p 6 Ca (Calcium) 0 [Ar]4s Ar (Argon) 18 [Ne]3s 3p 6 Sr (Strontium) 38 [Kr]5s Kr (Krypton) 36 [Ar]4s 3d 10 4p 6 Ba (Barium) 56 [Xe]6s Xe (Xenon) 54 [Kr]5s 4d 10 5p 6. Drawing Lewis Symbols.3 Drawing Lewis Symbols Determine the number of valence electrons for a given atom or ion Place one dot around the element s chemical symbol for each valence electron Examples Boron (atomic number 5) Electron configuration: [He]s p 1 Boron has three valence electrons Lewis symbol is.. B. Chlorine (atomic number 17) Electron configuration: [Ne]3s 3p 5 Cl has seven valence electrons Lewis symbol is.. : Cl...

3 .4 Lewis Symbols.5 Lewis Symbols Iodine Bismuth Tin Tellurium Aluminum or aluminium? 3.1 Noble Gas Configurations 3. Noble Gas Configurations Except for He, noble gases have filled valence shells with 8 electrons (ns np 6 ) closed shell configurations Alkali metals have ns 1 valence configurations During chemical reactions, alkali metals typically lose one electron What about He (1s ) Noble gases are usually unreactive Typically found as monoatomic gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, not He, Ne, etc. Halogens have ns np 5 valence configurations During chemical reactions, halogens typically gain one electron 3

4 3.3 Octet Guideline 3.4 Octet Guideline Something special about closed shell configurations? There are exceptions to the eight electron configuration G. N. Lewis and W. Kossel independently proposed the octet rule to describe the prevalence of closed shell compounds Theory: stable compounds form when they attain closed shell valence configurations Octet rule : 4.1 Ionic Bonding 4. Ionic Bonding For some chemical reactions, atoms attain closed shell configurations by transferring electrons from one atom to another The electron transfer converts neutral atoms into ions Positive ion = cation Negative ion = anion Formation of Na + and Cl - ions Resulting ions have an attractive ti force due to their opposite charges = ionic bond Coulomb s Law 4

5 4.3 Ionic Bonding 4.4 Ionic Compounds Metals react with non-metals by transferring electrons from the metal to the non-metal Example Crystal lattice = repeating structure of anions and cations in an ionic compound Compound that forms is an ionic compound Held together by the electrical attraction between cation and anion (Na + Cl ) Attractive force = ionic bond 4.5 Ion Charges 4.6 Ion Charges General Rules Metals lose valence electrons to form cations The number of valence electrons lost rarely exceeds three A metallic main group element loses valence electrons and forms the next lowest noble gas configuration Examples General Rules Nonmetals gain valence electrons to form anions The number of valence electrons gained rarely exceeds three A nonmetallic main group element gains valence electrons to form the next highest noble gas configuration Examples 5

6 4.7 Ion Charges 4.8 Ion Charges Write an equation for the formation of the most stable ion Selenium Hydrogen is peculiar In most reactions it tends to lose one electron to form H + Aluminum Similar to what other group of elements? Strontium However, on occasions it will gain an electron Tin Similar to what other group of elements? 4.9 Common Ions Charges on some common ions Formulas Ions combine in the proper ratio to balance the overall charge on the compound (charges sum to zero) Na + + Cl Mg + + Cl Formulas for ionic compounds N 3- P 3-6

7 4.11 Ionic Compounds 5.1 Naming Compounds Write a formula for the ionic compound that would form in each case. Mg and O K and S Be and F Ca and N Li and P Names of Some Common Anions Element Symbol Name Bromine Br - Bromide Chlorine Cl - Chloride Fluorine F - Fluoride Iodine I - Iodide Nitrogen N 3- Nitride Phosphorus P 3- Phosphide Oxygen O - Oxide Sulfur S - Sulfide 5. Binary Ionic Compounds 5.3 Binary Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds like those in 4.11 are called binary compounds because each contains two different types of atoms Naming binary compounds Name = metal + nonmetal stem + ide Examples Many transition metals form more than one type of charged ion Cu + or Cu + Cr + or Cr 3+ Must indicate which ion is present Cu O is made up of Cu + cations and one O anion Copper(I) oxide ( copper one oxide ) CuO is made up of one Cu + cation and one O anion Copper(II) oxide ( copper two oxide ) 7

8 5.4 Binary Ionic Compounds 5.5 Binary Ionic Compounds How would you name CrCl and FeBr 3? What about Cr 3 N, MgS and MnF 3? 6.1 Polyatomic Ions 6. Polyatomic Ions What is a polyatomic ion? No systematic names they must be memorized Names of Common Polyatomic Ions Name Formula Name Formula Ammonium + NH 4 Nitrate NO 3 Acetate CH 3 COO Nitrite NO Carbonate CO 3 Oxalate C O 4 Hydrogen carbonate HCO 3 Chlorate ClO 3 Chromate CrO 4 Perchlorate ClO4 Dichromate Cr O 7 Permanganate MnO4 Cyanide CN Phosphate 3 PO 4 Hydroxide OH Sulfate SO 4 Hypochlorite OCl Sulfite SO 3 8

9 6.3 Polyatomic Ions - - CO - 3 SO - 4 Atoms covalently bonded Charge is spread over the whole group Atoms usually stay together during reactions 6.4 Compounds with Polyatomic Ions Metal ions and polyatomic ions combine in the proper ratio to balance the overall charge on the compound Cation is listed first followed by anion Parentheses are used around the polyatomic ion (only if more than one is present) Numerical prefixes (di-, tri-) are not used unless they are part of the polyatomic ion s name 6.5 Naming Ionic Compounds 7.1 Structures Write the formulas and names for compounds formed from the following: Potassium ion and sulfate Ammonium and carbonate Lithium ion and phosphate Calcium ion and hydroxide Iron + ion and phosphate Stable form of an ionic compound is not a discrete molecule Rather it exists as a crystal with many ions of opposite charge occupying lattice sites in a rigid, 3-dimensional structure Crystal lattice = rigid 3-dimensional arrangement of particles Lattice sites = locations occupied by a particle in a crystal lattice The particle can be a simple ion (Cl -, Na + ) or a polyatomic ion (SO - 4, NH 4+ ) 9

10 7. Structures 7.3 Structures Example of NaCl Each Na + and Cl - is surrounded by six ions of opposite charge (six nearest neighbors) Each Na + interacts with six neighboring Cl - ZnS and NaCl 7.4 Formula Weight Ionic compounds are not isolated, individual molecules Total mass of all the atoms in the formula of an ionic compound = formula weight Sum of the atomic weights of the atoms present in the simplest formula (unit) for an ionic compound MgCl is an ionic compound. Calculate the formula weight for MgCl 7.5 Ionic Versus Covalent Bonding Ionic compounds are formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another The transfer of electrons forms ions Each ion is isoelectronic with a noble gas Electrostatic force (ionic bond) holds atoms together Covalent bonding involves sharing of electrons to achieve noble gas configurations for the atoms involved Covalent bond = attractive force resulting from atoms attracted to a shared pair of electrons 10

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key 1) How many are there in 24 grams of FeF 3? 1.28 x 10 23 2) How many are there in 450 grams of Na 2 SO 4? 1.91 x 10 24 3) How many grams are there in 2.3

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

Study Guide For Chapter 7

Study Guide For Chapter 7 Name: Class: Date: ID: A Study Guide For Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance

More information

Tutorial 2 FORMULAS, PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION, AND THE MOLE

Tutorial 2 FORMULAS, PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION, AND THE MOLE T-6 Tutorial 2 FORMULAS, PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION, AND THE MOLE FORMULAS: A chemical formula shows the elemental composition of a substance: the chemical symbols show what elements are present and the numerical

More information

The Mole. Chapter 2. Solutions for Practice Problems

The Mole. Chapter 2. Solutions for Practice Problems Chapter 2 The Mole Note to teacher: You will notice that there are two different formats for the Sample Problems in the student textbook. Where appropriate, the Sample Problem contains the full set of

More information

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Calculating Molar Mass of a Compound

Calculating Molar Mass of a Compound Instructions for Conversion Problems For every conversion problem Write the number in the problem down with unit and a multiplication sign Decide which conversion factor you should use, Avagadro s or molar

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

More information

Molecules, Atoms, Grams and Mole Calculation Practice

Molecules, Atoms, Grams and Mole Calculation Practice Molecules, Atoms, Grams and Mole Calculation Practice Helpful HINTS: In these problems look for two things: 1) From what unit to what unit? 2) Does the object stay the same, or does the object change?

More information

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Student: 1. An atom of bromine has a mass about four times greater than that of an atom of neon. Which choice makes the correct comparison of the relative

More information

Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014

Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014 1 2 How do chemists count atoms/formula units/molecules? How do we go from the atomic scale to the scale of everyday measurements (macroscopic scale)? The gateway is the mole! But before we get to the

More information

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent Bonding in Elements and Compounds Structure of solids, liquids and gases Types of bonding between atoms and molecules Ionic Covalent Metallic Many compounds between metals & nonmetals (salts), e.g. Na,

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS

MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS 1 MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS Molecular mass = sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the molecule. Formula mass = sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the formula unit. 2 MOLECULAR MASS AND

More information

Test Review Periodic Trends and The Mole

Test Review Periodic Trends and The Mole Test Review Periodic Trends and The Mole The Mole SHOW ALL WORK ON YOUR OWN PAPER FOR CREDIT!! 1 2 (NH42SO2 %N 24.1 %H 6.9 %S 27.6 %O 41.3 % Al %C 35.3 %H 4.4 %O 47.1 Al(C2H3O23 13.2 3 How many moles are

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

More information

Mole Calculations Multiple Choice Review PSI Chemistry

Mole Calculations Multiple Choice Review PSI Chemistry Mole Calculations Multiple Choice Review PSI Chemistry Name The Mole and Avogadro's Number 1)What is the SI unit for measurement of number of particles in a substance? A) kilogram B) ampere C) candela

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules INTRODUCTION Lewis dot structures are our first tier in drawing molecules and representing bonds between the atoms. The method was first published

More information

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm Page 1 of 14 Amount of Substance Key terms in this chapter are: Element Compound Mixture Atom Molecule Ion Relative Atomic Mass Avogadro constant Mole Isotope Relative Isotopic Mass Relative Molecular

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 9.1 Atomic Mass and Avogadro s Number Refer to the atomic masses in the periodic table inside the front cover of this textbook. State the mass of Avogadro s number of atoms for each of

More information

STOICHIOMETRY UNIT 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES. At the end of this unit students will be expected to:

STOICHIOMETRY UNIT 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES. At the end of this unit students will be expected to: STOICHIOMETRY LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of this unit students will be expected to: UNIT 1 THE MOLE AND MOLAR MASS define molar mass and perform mole-mass inter-conversions for pure substances explain

More information

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS REVIEW 8B Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS 8B READINESS Use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample TEKS_TXT of material. Vocabulary

More information

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V 44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

More information

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3-1 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry In This Chapter As you have learned in previous chapters, much of chemistry involves using macroscopic measurements to deduce what happens between atoms

More information

Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring 8 th Edition. A combination of two or more different elements.

Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring 8 th Edition. A combination of two or more different elements. General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring 8 th Edition Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds Dr. Burak Esat Fatih University Chem 107Fall 2013 1 Compound: A combination of two

More information

Chemical Composition Review Mole Calculations Percent Composition. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 1

Chemical Composition Review Mole Calculations Percent Composition. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 1 Chemical Composition Review Mole Calculations Percent Composition Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 1 QUESTION Suppose you work in a hardware store and a customer wants to purchase 500

More information

English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1.

English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1. 96 Chapter 7: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are written showing a few individual atoms or molecules reacting to form a few atoms or molecules of products.

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

CHAPTER 3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. atoms in a FORMULA UNIT

CHAPTER 3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. atoms in a FORMULA UNIT CHAPTER 3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations MOLECULAR WEIGHT (M. W.) Sum of the Atomic Weights of all atoms in a MOLECULE of a substance. FORMULA WEIGHT (F. W.) Sum of the atomic Weights

More information

Composition of nucleus. Priority Vocabulary: Electron, Proton, Neutron, Nucleus, Isotopes, Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Element, Electron Shell,

Composition of nucleus. Priority Vocabulary: Electron, Proton, Neutron, Nucleus, Isotopes, Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Element, Electron Shell, Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Standard: H1P1 Explain how atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and their position in the Periodic Table. Explain how

More information

Chemistry Final Study Guide

Chemistry Final Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

More information

Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key

Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key Stoichiometry Lecture Examples Answer Key Ex. 1 Balance the following chemical equations: 3 NaBr + 1 H 3 PO 4 3 HBr + 1 Na 3 PO 4 2 C 3 H 5 N 3 O 9 6 CO 2 + 3 N 2 + 5 H 2 O + 9 O 2 2 Ca(OH) 2 + 2 SO 2

More information

Getting the most from this book...4 About this book...5

Getting the most from this book...4 About this book...5 Contents Getting the most from this book...4 About this book....5 Content Guidance Topic 1 Atomic structure and the periodic table...8 Topic 2 Bonding and structure...14 Topic 2A Bonding....14 Topic 2B

More information

Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS

Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS Proton: A positively charged particle in the nucleus Atomic Number: We differentiate all elements by their number

More information

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A line spectrum is produced when an electron moves from one energy

More information

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline 3 Stoichiometry Unit Outline 3.1 The Mole and Molar Mass 3.2 Stoichiometry and Compound Formulas 3.3 Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions 3.4 Stoichiometry and Limiting Reactants 3.5 Chemical Analysis

More information

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is

More information

How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique.

How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique. How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique. What units do we use to define the weight of an atom? amu units of atomic weight. (atomic

More information

Summer Holidays Questions

Summer Holidays Questions Summer Holidays Questions Chapter 1 1) Barium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid. The initial concentration of the 1 st solution its 0.1M and the volume is 100ml. The initial concentration of the

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

Periodic Table Bingo

Periodic Table Bingo Periodic Table Bingo Materials: Periodic Table Bingo Card Periodic Table of Elements Colored pieces of paper or plastic discs Instructions: Print the Periodic Table Bingo Cards (pages 5-44). There are

More information

The Mole. Chapter 10. Dimensional Analysis. The Mole. How much mass is in one atom of carbon-12? Molar Mass of Atoms 3/1/2015

The Mole. Chapter 10. Dimensional Analysis. The Mole. How much mass is in one atom of carbon-12? Molar Mass of Atoms 3/1/2015 The Mole Chapter 10 1 Objectives Use the mole and molar mass to make conversions among moles, mass, and number of particles Determine the percent composition of the components of a compound Calculate empirical

More information

602X10 21 602,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000 6.02X10 23. Pre- AP Chemistry Chemical Quan44es: The Mole. Diatomic Elements

602X10 21 602,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000 6.02X10 23. Pre- AP Chemistry Chemical Quan44es: The Mole. Diatomic Elements Pre- AP Chemistry Chemical Quan44es: The Mole Mole SI unit of measurement that measures the amount of substance. A substance exists as representa9ve par9cles. Representa9ve par9cles can be atoms, molecules,

More information

INCOMPATIBILITY OF COMMON LABORATORY CHEMICALS

INCOMPATIBILITY OF COMMON LABORATORY CHEMICALS INCOMPATIBILITY OF COMMON LABORATORY CHEMICALS When certain hazardous chemicals are stored or mixed together, violent reactions may occur because the chemicals are unsuitable for mixing, or are incompatible.

More information

SOFIA UNIVERSITY ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI Faculty:...Chemistry and Pharmacy... Subject area: (code and name) C H L 3 8 2 4 1 3

SOFIA UNIVERSITY ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI Faculty:...Chemistry and Pharmacy... Subject area: (code and name) C H L 3 8 2 4 1 3 Approved by:.. Dean Date... SOFIA UNIVERSITY ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI Faculty:...Chemistry and Pharmacy... Subject area: (code and name) C H L 3 8 3...Pharmacy... M.Sc. Program: (code and name) C H L 3 8 3...Pharmacy...

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

More information

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296)

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) 10 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) This section defines the mole and explains how the mole is used to measure matter. It also teaches you how to calculate

More information

CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND STOICHIOMETRY

CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND STOICHIOMETRY LOCUS 1 Section - CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND STOICHIOMETRY The language that chemists use to describe the forms of matter and the changes in its composition appears throughout the scientific world. Chemical

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Chapter 7 Answers and Solutions 7 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 7.1 A mole is the amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10 23 items. For example, one mole of water contains 6.02 10 23 molecules

More information

Ch. 10 The Mole I. Molar Conversions

Ch. 10 The Mole I. Molar Conversions Ch. 10 The Mole I. Molar Conversions I II III IV A. What is the Mole? A counting number (like a dozen) Avogadro s number (N A ) 1 mole = 6.022 10 23 representative particles B. Mole/Particle Conversions

More information

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State State the term that applies to each of the following changes of physical state: (a) Snow changes from a solid to a liquid. (b) Gasoline changes from a liquid

More information

University of Pittsburgh Safety Manual Subject: COMBUSTIBLE METALS. EH&S Guideline Number: 02-005. Effective Date 09/10/13.

University of Pittsburgh Safety Manual Subject: COMBUSTIBLE METALS. EH&S Guideline Number: 02-005. Effective Date 09/10/13. Page 1 of 7 These guidelines provide requirements for all University faculty, staff, and students using, handling, or storing combustible metals. These requirements are established to ensure faculty, staff

More information

CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 2. Which of the following compounds has the largest formula mass? A) H2O B) NH3 C) CO D) BeH2

CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 2. Which of the following compounds has the largest formula mass? A) H2O B) NH3 C) CO D) BeH2 CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 1. To determine the formula mass of a compound you should A) add up the atomic masses of all the atoms present. B) add up the atomic masses of all the atoms

More information

Lecture 5, The Mole. What is a mole?

Lecture 5, The Mole. What is a mole? Lecture 5, The Mole What is a mole? Moles Atomic mass unit and the mole amu definition: 12 C = 12 amu. The atomic mass unit is defined this way. 1 amu = 1.6605 x 10-24 g How many 12 C atoms weigh 12 g?

More information

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration LAB 5 PLANT NUTRITION I. General Introduction All living organisms require certain elements for their survival. Plants are known to require carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus

More information

AP Chapter 1, 2, & 3: Atoms, Molecules, and Mass Relationships Name

AP Chapter 1, 2, & 3: Atoms, Molecules, and Mass Relationships Name AP Chapter 1, 2, & 3: Atoms, Molecules, and Mass Relationships Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. AP Chapter 1, 2, & 3: Atoms & Molecules,

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

More information

Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects.

Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Mole-Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. SI def.: the amount of

More information

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu)

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) Micro World atoms & molecules Laboratory scale measurements Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) By definition: 1 atom 12 C weighs 12 amu On this scale 1 H = 1.008 amu 16 O = 16.00

More information

= 16.00 amu. = 39.10 amu

= 16.00 amu. = 39.10 amu Using Chemical Formulas Objective 1: Calculate the formula mass or molar mass of any given compound. The Formula Mass of any molecule, formula unit, or ion is the sum of the average atomic masses of all

More information

EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION E

EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION E EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION E (To save endless repetition, wherever they are included, comments are intended for homeschooling parents who may

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms.

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms. Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions 5.1 The Mole Collection Terms A collection term states a specific number of items. 1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts 1 ream of paper = 500 sheets 1 case = 24 cans 1

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

AP Chemistry 2006 Free-Response Questions

AP Chemistry 2006 Free-Response Questions AP Chemistry 006 Free-Response Questions The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college

More information

Secondary School Students Misconceptions of Covalent Bonding

Secondary School Students Misconceptions of Covalent Bonding TÜRK FEN EĞİTİMİ DERGİSİ Yıl 7, Sayı 2, Haziran 2010 N Journal of TURKISH SCIENCE EDUCATION Volume 7, Issue 2, June 2010 http://www.tused.org Secondary School Students Misconceptions of Covalent Bonding

More information

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Chapter 4 Topics 1. Mole Quantities 2. Moles, Masses, and Particles 3. Determining Empirical Formulas 4. Chemical Composition of Solutions Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

GCE. Moles, Formulae and Equations Edexcel Advanced GCE in Chemistry (9080) Edexcel Advanced GCE in Chemistry (Nuffield) (9086) Issue 3 October 2004

GCE. Moles, Formulae and Equations Edexcel Advanced GCE in Chemistry (9080) Edexcel Advanced GCE in Chemistry (Nuffield) (9086) Issue 3 October 2004 GCE Moles, Formulae and Equations Edexcel Advanced GCE in Chemistry (Nuffield) (9086) Issue 3 October 2004 Workbook for GCE students GCE Moles, Formulae and Equations Edexcel Advanced GCE in Chemistry

More information

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES An introduction Water Water is a liquid. Water is made of water molecules (formula H 2 O). All natural waters contain some foreign substances, usually in small amounts. The water

More information

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,

More information

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements

More information

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e CHM111(M)/Page 1 of 5 INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION SECTION A Answer ALL EIGHT questions. (52 marks) 1. The following is the mass spectrum

More information

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/CHEMISTRY

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/CHEMISTRY TE UNIVERSITY F TE STATE F NEW YRK TE STATE EDUATIN DEPARTMENT ALBANY, NY 34 Reference Tables for Physical Setting/EMISTRY Table A Standard Temperature and Pressure Edition Table D Selected Units Name

More information

4.4 Calculations Involving the Mole Concept

4.4 Calculations Involving the Mole Concept 44 Section 43 Questions 1 Define Avogadro s constant, and explain its significance in quantitative analysis 2 Distinguish between the terms atomic mass and molar mass 3 Calculate the mass of a molecule

More information

Solutions to Supplementary Check for Understanding Problems

Solutions to Supplementary Check for Understanding Problems Chapter 5 s to Supplementary Check for Understanding Problems Moles and Molar Mass 1. Indicate the appropriate quantity for each of the following. a) A mole of N atoms contains atoms. b) A mole of N molecules

More information

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu Calculations and Chemical Equations Atomic mass: Mass of an atom of an element, expressed in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit (amu): 1.661 x 10-24 g Atomic weight: Average mass of all isotopes of a given

More information

Chapter 6. Oxidation- Review Skills

Chapter 6. Oxidation- Review Skills Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions n many important chemical reactions, electrons are transferred from atom to atom. We are surrounded by these reactions, commonly called oxidation reduction (or redox)

More information

Ch. 6 Chemical Composition and Stoichiometry

Ch. 6 Chemical Composition and Stoichiometry Ch. 6 Chemical Composition and Stoichiometry The Mole Concept [6.2, 6.3] Conversions between g mol atoms [6.3, 6.4, 6.5] Mass Percent [6.6, 6.7] Empirical and Molecular Formula [6.8, 6.9] Bring your calculators!

More information

U.S. ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT CENTER AND SCHOOL FORT SAM HOUSTON, TEXAS 78234-6100 GENERAL CHEMISTRY SUBCOURSE MD0803 EDITION 100

U.S. ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT CENTER AND SCHOOL FORT SAM HOUSTON, TEXAS 78234-6100 GENERAL CHEMISTRY SUBCOURSE MD0803 EDITION 100 U.S. ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT CENTER AND SCHOOL FORT SAM HOUSTON, TEXAS 78234-6100 GENERAL CHEMISTRY SUBCOURSE MD0803 EDITION 100 DEVELOPMENT This subcourse is approved for resident and correspondence course

More information

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds ATOMS AND BONDS Atoms of elements are the simplest units of organization in the natural world. Atoms consist of protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral charge) and electrons (negative charge). The

More information

Solubility of Salts - Ksp. Ksp Solubility

Solubility of Salts - Ksp. Ksp Solubility Solubility of Salts - Ksp We now focus on another aqueous equilibrium system, slightly soluble salts. These salts have a Solubility Product Constant, K sp. (We saw this in 1B with the sodium tetraborate

More information

Sample Exercise 3.1 Interpreting and Balancing Chemical Equations

Sample Exercise 3.1 Interpreting and Balancing Chemical Equations Sample Exercise 3.1 Interpreting and Balancing Chemical Equations The following diagram represents a chemical reaction in which the red spheres are oxygen atoms and the blue spheres are nitrogen atoms.

More information

A dozen. Molar Mass. Mass of atoms

A dozen. Molar Mass. Mass of atoms A dozen Molar Mass Science 10 is a number of objects. A dozen eggs, a dozen cars, and a dozen people are all 12 objects. But a dozen cars has a much greater mass than a dozen eggs because the mass of each

More information

THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY

THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY 1 THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY ***A mole is 6.0 x 10 items.*** 1 mole = 6.0 x 10 items 1 mole = 60, 00, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 items Analogy #1 1 dozen = 1 items 18 eggs = 1.5 dz. - to convert

More information

Formulas, Equations and Moles

Formulas, Equations and Moles Chapter 3 Formulas, Equations and Moles Interpreting Chemical Equations You can interpret a balanced chemical equation in many ways. On a microscopic level, two molecules of H 2 react with one molecule

More information

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound INTRODUCTION Chemical formulas indicate the composition of compounds. A formula that gives only the simplest ratio of the relative number of atoms in a compound

More information

Ch. 9 - Electron Organization. The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7]

Ch. 9 - Electron Organization. The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7] Ch. 9 - Electron Organization The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7] Predicting ion charges from electron configurations. CHEM 100 F07 1 Organization of Electrons

More information

Lecture Topics Atomic weight, Mole, Molecular Mass, Derivation of Formulas, Percent Composition

Lecture Topics Atomic weight, Mole, Molecular Mass, Derivation of Formulas, Percent Composition Mole Calculations Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry Lecture Topics Atomic weight, Mole, Molecular Mass, Derivation of Formulas, Percent Composition Chemical Equations and Problems Based on Miscellaneous

More information

Chapter 2: Atoms and Molecules

Chapter 2: Atoms and Molecules hapter 2: Atoms and Molecules HAPTER OUTLINE 2.1 Symbols and Formulas 2.2 Inside the Atom 2. Isotopes 2.4 Relative Masses of Atoms and Molecules 2.5 Isotopes and Atomic Weights 2.6 Avogadro s Number: The

More information

Chemistry 65 Chapter 6 THE MOLE CONCEPT

Chemistry 65 Chapter 6 THE MOLE CONCEPT THE MOLE CONCEPT Chemists find it more convenient to use mass relationships in the laboratory, while chemical reactions depend on the number of atoms present. In order to relate the mass and number of

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information