Interwar Period: United States

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1 Interwar Period: United States

2 Objectives Comprehend the factors that contributed to United States national security and foreign policy during the interwar years. Describe the factors that influenced United States military doctrine during the interwar period

3 Roaring Twenties The powerful economy might of America from 1920 to October 1929 is frequently overlooked or simply submerged by the more exciting topics such as Prohibition and the gangsters, the Jazz Age, etc. However, the strength of America was generated and driven by its vast economic power.

4 American Foreign Policy (1920s) Isolationism belief that the U.S. was falsely drawn into WWI Demobilization of Armed Forces Minimize Foreign Entanglements that lead to WWI League of Nations World Court Promote Free Trade -- Economic Prosperity would influence international relations in preventing conflict and war

5 Diplomacy of Peace Washington Conference (1921) Naval disarmament effort among Britain, Japan and the United States Good Neighbor Policy (1933) Policy of U.S. non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. The United States would be a good neighbor and engage in reciprocal exchanges with Latin American countries Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Treaty between the United States and other Powers providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy. Signed in 1929 by: United States, Australia, Dominion of Canada, Czechoslovkia, Germany, Great Britain, India, Irish Free State, Italy, New Zealand, and Union of South Africa, Poland, Belgium, by France and Japan

6 The Great Depression Signaled by the catastrophic collapse of stock-market prices on the New York Stock Exchange in October million people out of work 12,000 newly unemployed every day 20,000 companies filed bankruptcy 1616 banks filed bankruptcy 1 farmer in 20 evicted 23,000 people committed suicide in one year - the highest ever

7 The New Deal Among the New Deal measures in 1933: Emergency Banking Act: Provided the president with the means to reopen viable banks and regulate banking; Economy Act: Cut federal costs through reorganization of and cuts in salaries and veterans' pensions; Civilian Conservation Corps Act : Three million young men, between the ages of 18 to 25, found work in road building, forestry labor, etc. Federal Emergency Relief Act: distributed $500 million to states and localities for relief Tennessee Valley Authority Act: Allowed government to build dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley, coupled with agricultural and industrial planning, to generate and sell the power, and to engage in area development.

8 U.S. Foreign Policy in the 1930 s Nation still struggling out of the Great Depression Isolationism and Peace Movements remain popular in American public thought Journey to The Arsenal of Democracy Neutrality Act (1935): Designed to keep the United States out of a possible European war by banning shipment of war materiel to belligerents Cash and Carry (1939) The revision allowed the sale of materiel to belligerents, as long as the recipients arranged for the transport using their own ships and paid immediately in cash Lend lease (1940) European allies didn't have to pay cash or arrange transportation any longer. Instead, the U.S. would demand payment at a later time.

9 Interwar Defense Policy Demobilization Army from Division to Brigades Defense policy strongly influenced by: National Strategy: Isolationism and diplomacy first Budgetary constraints Navy or Air Force Airmen begin an aggressive fight for budgetary survival and institutional existence Capture the public eye and interest

10 Air Corps Tactical School (ACTS) Arguably one of the most advanced schools on airpower theory during the interwar years Strong zealotry for airpower for defense, but more importantly for strategic bombing. Established a fundamental doctrine: Modern great powers rely on industry and economic centers for survival Disruption or paralysis of these systems destroys the enemy s capability and will to fight Target select is vital: US industrial studies by ACTS in 1930s. US Navy reaction

11 Fight for Independence While ACTS fought US Navy for dwindling defense budget during the interwar period, it also fought it own service the US Army Army leadership very skeptical of ACTS claims, but airpower was also drawing in defense spending Court Marshall of Col Billy Mitchell (1925) Chief ACTS concerns: Failure to understand strategic bombing Inadequate equipment/training Penny packing use of airplanes General Hap Arnold 8:30-10:45

12 War Plan Development In late 1940, President Roosevelt tasks the armed services to develop a series of war plans against the Axis Powers. The United States developed a series of plans, called Rainbow Plans, that addressed array of potential adversaries. The primary war planning institutions were the war colleges of the US Army and US Navy (Joint Planning Board). Assumption of a defensive posture by the U.S. Provision of support for the British Commonwealth and China. Implementation of Rainbow 4 actions for defense of the hemisphere. Cooperation with certain South American countries. Undertaking of "progressive" mobilization including a draft and other measures to accelerate production of war material and training of personnel. Beginning of preparations for the "almost inevitable conflict" with totalitarian powers.

13 War Plan Development Army Air Corps General Staff and ACTS slip into the annex of the US Army s plan, Air War Plan Directive 1 (AWPD-1). AWPD-1 while agrees to provide an air defense and support of land forces in case of an invasion, it is largely a detailed blueprint of daylight precision bombing. The Army s overall War Plan is approved (as is the AWPD-1 annex). AWPD-1 becomes the US air war strategy for WWII.

14 Interwar Period: United States X Battle proven Joint Operations / Planning X Adequate Defense Budget Adaptive to new technology Consistency of command and organization Technologically advanced defense industry Industrial Capacity X Military Readiness? Political Unity

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