Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations - Volume I

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1 Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations - Volume I Table of Contents... Page 1....NEED FOR A PILE MANUAL Scope of Manual Information Sources OVERVIEW OF PILE FOUNDATION AND DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design of Pile Foundations Construction of Pile Foundations Foundation Specialist Involvement in Pile Foundation Projects Driven Pile Design-Construction Process Communication References ECONOMICS OF FOUNDATIONS FOR HIGHWAY STRUCTURES Foundation Alternatives Examples of Cost Savings by Utilizing Modern Design and Construction Control Practices Definition of Foundation Support Cost Cost Optimization for One Pile Section Cost Optimization for Multiple Pile Types and/or Pile Sections Use of Value Engineering Proposals Design Build Contracts References SUBSURFACE EXPLORATIONS Subsurface Properties for Pile Design Subsurface Exploration Phases Planning the Exploration Program (office work) Field Reconnaissance Survey Detailed Site Exploration Guidelines for Minimum Structure Exploration Programs Methods of Subsurface Exploration Soil and Rock Sampling Disturbed Soil Samplers Undisturbed Soil Samplers Rock Core Samplers Ground Water Monitoring vii

2 Table of Contents... Page Summarization and Interpretation of Subsurface Profile Additional Subsurface Explorations References IN-SITU TESTING Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and (CPTu) Equipment Description and Operation Interpretation of CPT/CPTu Test Results Advantages and Disadvantages of CPT/CPTu Tests Pressuremeter Test - (PMT) Dilatometer Test - (DMT) Vane Shear Test Dynamic Cone Test References LABORATORY TESTING Types of Tests Classification and Index Tests Shear Strength Tests Consolidation Tests Electro Chemical Classification Tests Laboratory Testing for Pile Driveability Considerations References FOUNDATION DESIGN PROCEDURE Foundation Design Approach Consideration of Spread Footing Foundation Establishment of a Need for a Deep Foundation References PILE TYPES FOR FURTHER EVALUATION Overview of Typical Pile Types Timber Piles Steel H-Piles Steel Pipe Piles Precast Concrete Piles Prestressed Concrete Piles Reinforced Concrete Piles Spun-Cast Concrete Cylinder Piles viii

3 Table of Contents... Page Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles Cased Driven Shell Concrete Piles Uncased Concrete Piles Composite Piles Precast Concrete - Steel Piles Wood Composite Piles Tapertube Pile Pipe Corrugated Shell Piles Composite Tapered Precast Tip - (TPT) Design Considerations in Aggressive Subsurface Environments Corrosion of Steel Piles Sulfate and Chloride Attack on Concrete Piles Insects and Marine Borers Attack on Timber Piles Design Options for Piles Subject to Degradation or Abrasion Selection of Pile Type and Size for Further Evaluation References STATIC ANALYSIS METHODS Basics of Static Analysis Events During and After Pile Driving Cohesionless Soils Cohesive Soils Load Transfer Effective Overburden Pressure Considerations in Selection of Design Soil Strength Parameters Factors of Safety Design of Single Piles Ultimate Capacity of Single Piles Bearing Capacity of Piles In Cohesionless Soils a..Meyerhof Method Based on Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Data b..Brown Method c Nordlund Method Ultimate Capacity of Piles in Cohesive Soils a..Total Stress - α-method Effective Stress Method Ultimate Capacity of Piles in Layered Soils ix

4 Table of Contents... Page The DRIVEN Computer Program Ultimate Capacity of Piles on Rock Methods Based on Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Data a..Elsami and Fellenius Method b..Nottingham and Schmertmann Method c..Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussees (LPC) Uplift Capacity of Single Piles Ultimate Lateral Capacity of Single Piles Lateral Capacity Design Methods Broms' Method Reese's LPILE Method Design of Pile Groups Axial Compression Capacity of Pile Groups Pile Group Capacity in Cohesionless Soils Pile Group Capacity in Cohesive Soils Block Failure of Pile Groups Settlement of Pile Groups Elastic Compression of Piles Settlements of Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soils a..Method Based on SPT Test Data b..Method Based on CPT Test Data Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils Time Rate of Settlement in Cohesive Soils Settlement of Pile Groups in Layered Soils Settlement of Pile Groups Using the Janbu Tangent Modulus Approach Settlement of Pile Groups Using the Neutral Plane Method Uplift Capacity of Pile Groups Group Uplift Capacity by AASHTO Code Tomlinson Group Uplift Method Lateral Capacity of Pile Groups Special Design Considerations Negative Shaft Resistance or Downdrag Methods for Determining Negative Shaft Resistance x

5 Table of Contents... Page a..Traditional Approach to Negative Shaft Resistance b..Alternative Approach to Negative Shaft. Resistance Methods for Reducing Negative Shaft Resistance Forces Vertical Ground Movements from Swelling Soils Lateral Squeeze of Foundation Soil Solutions to Prevent Tilting Ultimate Capacity of Piles in Soils Subject to Scour Soil and Pile Heave Seismic Considerations Additional Design and Construction Considerations Time Effects on Pile Capacity Soil Setup Relaxation Estimation of Pore Pressures During Driving Effects of Predrilling, Jetting and Vibratory Installation on Pile Capacity Effects of Site Dewatering on Pile Capacity and Adjacent Structures Densification Effects on Pile Capacity and Installation Conditions Plugging of Open Pile Sections Design Considerations Due to Pile Driving Induced Vibrations Design Considerations Due to Pile Driving Noise Pile Driveability Factors Affecting Driveability Methods for Determining Pile Driveability Driveability Versus Pile Type References STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATIONS Driving Stresses Factors Affecting Allowable Design Stresses AASHTO Allowable Design and Driving Stresses Steel H-piles Steel Pipe Piles (unfilled) xi

6 Table of Contents... Page Steel Pipe Piles (top driven and concrete filled) Precast, Prestressed Concrete Piles Conventionally Reinforced Concrete Piles Timber Piles Geotechnical and Structural Loads Layout of Pile Groups Preliminary Design of Pile Caps Structural Properties of Piles Design of Piles for Combined Axial and Lateral Loads Structural Design of Driven Piles for Axial Loads by ASD Structural Design of Driven Piles for Combined Axial and. Lateral Loads by ASD Timber Piles Steel Piles Prestressed Concrete Piles Concrete Pile Interaction Analysis Unsupported Length and Buckling Timber Piles Steel Piles Prestressed Concrete Piles References CONTRACT DOCUMENTS Overview of Plan and Specification Requirements Background and Reasons For Specification Improvement Generic Driven Pile Specification References PILE FOUNDATION DESIGN SUMMARY Introduction Block 1 - Establish Global Project Performance Block 2 Define Project Geotechnical Site Conditions Block 3 Determine Preliminary Foundation Loads at. the Substructure Level Block 4 - Develop and Execute Subsurface Exploration Program for Feasible Foundation Systems Block 5 - Evaluate Information and Select Candidate Foundation Systems for Further Evaluation Block 6 - Deep Foundation Type xii

7 Table of Contents... Page Block 7 Select Candidate Driven Pile Types and. Sections for Further Study Block 8 - Select Static Analysis Method and Calculate. Ultimate Capacity Versus Depth Block 9 - Identify Most Economical Candidate Pile Types. and/or Sections Block 10 Calculate Driveability of Candidate Pile Types Block 11 Select 1 to 2 Final Candidate Pile Types for Trial. Group Sizing Block 12 Evaluate Capacity, Settlement, and Performance of. Trial Pile Groups Block 13 Size and Estimate Pile Cap Cost for Trial Pile Groups Block 14 Summarize Total Cost of Final Candidate Piles Block 15 Select and Optimize Final Pile Type, Capacity. And Group Configuration Single Pile Capacity Pile Group Capacity Group Settlement Calculations Lateral Pile Capacity Analysis Uplift Capacity Calculations Negative Shaft Resistance Lateral Squeeze Evaluation Group Lateral Response Evaluation Block 16 Does Optimized Design Meet all Requirements? Block 17 Prepare Plans and Specifications, Set Field. Capacity Determination Procedure Block 18 Contractor Selection Block 19 Perform Wave Equation Analysis of Contractor s. Equipment Submission Block 20 Set Preliminary Driving Criteria Block 21 Drive Test Pile and Evaluate Capacity Block 22 Adjust Driving Criteria or Design Block 23 Construction Control Block 24 Post Construction Evaluation and Review FOUNDATION DESIGN REPORT PREPARATION Guidelines for Foundation Design Report Preparation Parts of a Foundation Design Report Geotechnical Report Reviews xiii

8 Table of Contents... Page Information Made Available to Bidders References xiv

9 Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations- Volume II Table of Contents... Page 14 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION MONITORING The Role of Construction Monitoring Selection of Factor of Safety Driving Criteria Communication References DYNAMIC FORMULAS FOR STATIC CAPACITY DETERMINATION Accuracy of Dynamic Formulas Problems with Dynamic Formulas Dynamic Formulas Alternatives to Use of Dynamic Formulas Dynamic Formula Case Histories Case History Case History Case History References DYNAMIC ANALYSIS BY WAVE EQUATION Introduction Wave Propagation Wave Equation Methodology Wave Equation Applications Wave Equation Examples Example 1 General Bearing Graph Example 2 Constant Capacity / Variable Stroke Option Example 3 Tension and Compression Stress Control Example 4 Use of Soil Setup Example 5 Driveability Studies Example 6 Driving System Characteristics Example 7 Assessment of Pile Damage Example 8 Selection of Wall Thickness Example 9 Evaluation of Vibratory Driving Analysis Decisions for Wave Equation Problems Selecting the Proper Approach vii

10 Table of Contents... Page Hammer Data Input, External Combustion Hammers Hammer Data Input, Diesel Hammers Cushion Input Soil Parameter Selection Comparison with Dynamic Measurements Wave Equation Input Parameters Other GRLWEAP Options GRLWEAP Output Plotting of GRLWEAP Results Suggestions for Problem Solving References DYNAMIC PILE TESTING AND ANALYSIS Background Applications for Dynamic Testing Methods Static Pile Capacity Hammer and Driving System Performance Driving Stresses and Pile Integrity Dynamic Testing Equipment Basic Wave Mechanics Dynamic Testing Methodology Case Method Capacity Energy Transfer Driving Stresses and Integrity The CAPWAP Method (CAse Pile Wave Analysis Program) Usage of Dynamic Testing Methods Presentation and Interpretation of Dynamic Testing Results Advantages Disadvantages Case History Low Strain Integrity Testing Methods Pulse Echo Method Transient Response Method (TRM) Low Strain Applications to Unknown Foundations Limitations and Conclusions of Low Strain Methods References viii

11 Table of Contents... Page 18 STATIC PILE LOAD TESTING Reasons for Load Testing Prerequisites for Load Testing Developing a Static Load Test Program Advantages of Static Load Testing When to Load Test Effective use of Load Tests Design State Construction Stage Compression Load Tests Compression Test Equipment Recommended Compression Test Loading Method Presentation and Interpretation of Compression Test Results Plotting the Load-Movement Curve Determination of the Ultimate Load Determination of the Allowable Load Load Transfer Evaluations Limitations of Compression Load Tests Tensile Load Tests Tension Test Equipment Tension Test Loading Methods Presentation and Interpretation of Tension Test Results Lateral Load Tests Lateral Load Test Equipment Lateral Test Loading Methods Presentation and Interpretation of Lateral Test Results References THE OSTERBERG CELL METHOD Osterberg Cell Background Test Equipment Interpretation of Test Results Applications Advantages Disadvantages Case Histories References ix

12 Table of Contents... Page 20 THE STATNAMIC METHOD Statnamic Background Test Equipment Test Interpretation Unloading Point Method Modified Unloading Point Method Segmental Unloading Point Method Loading Rate Reduction Factors Applications Case History Advantages Disadvantages References PILE DRIVING EQUIPMENT Leads Templates Helmets Hammer Cushions Pile Cushions Hammers Hammer Energy Concepts Drop Hammers Single Acting Air/Steam Hammers Double Acting Air/Steam Hammers Differential Acting Air/Steam Hammers Single Acting (Open End) Diesel Hammers Double Acting (Closed End) Diesel Hammer Hydraulic Hammers Vibratory Hammers Hammer Size Selection Hammer Kinetic Energy Monitoring Noise Suppression Equipment Followers Jetting Predrilling Spudding Bubble Curtains x

13 Table of Contents... Page Representative List of U.S.A. Hammer Manufacturers and Suppliers Useful Hammer Information Web Addresses References ACCESSORIES FOR PILE INSTALLATION Timber Piles Pile Toe Attachments Attachment at Pile Head Splices Steel H-Piles Pile Toe Attachments Splices Accessories for Steel Pipe Piles Pile Toe Attachments Splices Precast Concrete Piles Pile Toe Attachments Splices A List of Manufacturers and Suppliers of Pile Accessories References INSPECTION OF PILE INSTALLATION Items to be Inspected Review of Project Plans and Specifications Inspector s Tools Inspection of Piles Prior to and During Installation Timber Piles Precast Concrete Piles Steel H-Piles Steel Pipe Piles Inspection of Driving Equipment Inspection of Driving Equipment During Installation Drop Hammers Single Acting Air/Steam Hammers Double Acting or Differential Air/Steam Hammers Single Acting Diesel Hammers Double Acting Diesel Hammers Hydraulic Hammers xi

14 Table of Contents... Page Vibratory Hammers Inspection of Test or Indicator Piles Inspection of Production Piles Driving Records and Reports Safety References xii

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