Chapter 11 - Blood! Chapter 11 - Blood! Cardiovascular System! Parts:! Fluid! " Blood, a fluid CT! Pump! " " Heart! Conduits! " " Blood vessels!

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1 Chapter 11 - Blood! 1! Cardiovascular System! Parts:! Fluid! " Blood, a fluid CT! Pump! " " Heart! Conduits! " " Blood vessels! 2! 1!

2 Functions of Blood - 1! 1. Transportation of:! Dissolved gases! Nutrients! Hormones! Metabolic wastes! Heat! 2. Regulation of ph and ion composition of ECF! Contains buffers (Chapter 2)! Diffusion eliminates differences between blood and ECF! 3! Functions of Blood - 2! 3. "Hemostasis blood clotting minimizes fluid loss at injuries! 4. Defense against pathogens, toxins! White blood cells! 5. Body temperature regulation! Redistributes heat! Facilitates heat loss or heat gain! 4! 2!

3 Composition of Whole Blood " " Figure 11.1! 5! Composition of Whole Blood! 1. Plasma is the fluid portion of blood! 2. Formed elements in blood! Red blood cells (erythrocytes)! White blood cells (leukocytes)! Platelets (thrombocytes)! Hemo- or hematopoiesis = blood cell formation! 6! 3!

4 Characteristics of Normal Whole Blood! 1. Temperature about 38 C! 2. Viscosity = stickiness, cohesiveness! 5 times more viscous than water"! 3. ph: (normal)! 4. Blood volume! Adult male: 5-6 liters! Adult female: 4-5 liters! 7! Composition of Plasma! Composition:! A. 92% water! B. 7% plasma proteins! "Albumins, globulins, fibrinogen! Much higher [protein] (5X) than ECF! Proteins too large to leave vessels! Osmotic pressure, clotting, immune responses, etc.! C. 1% other solutes! Electrolytes, organic nutrients/wastes, etc.! 8! 4!

5 Red Blood Cells - Erythrocytes! Contain hemoglobin carry O 2 and CO 2! 99% of formed elements are RBCs! Hematocrit = % of whole blood that is cells" Average male: 46%! Average female: 42%! Plasma! WBCs in buffy layer! RBCs! 9! RBC Structure! Biconcave discs - about 8 µm in diameter! No nucleus or most other organelles! No nucleus limited lifespan! No mitochondria (why?)! About 3 million new RBCs produced per second in red bone marrow!!! Table 11.1! 10! 5!

6 Hemoglobin (Hb) Structure! Hb Structure:! 4 polypeptides and 4 heme groups! Heme = iron-containing pigment! O 2 reversibly binds to iron in heme! In adults:! 2 α and 2 β chains (4 polypeptides, 4 hemes)! Each Hb molecule can therefore carry 4 O 2! Oxyhemoglobin abbreviation: HbO 2! 11! Hemoglobin Structure " " " Figure 11.5! -globin means globular protein! 12! 6!

7 Stimulus for RBC Production! Stimulus = hypoxia = low tissue O 2! Causes erythropoietin (EPO) release from kidneys! Causes of tissue hypoxia! Anemia:! Decreased hematocrit or [Hb]! Low blood flow to kidneys! Decreased O 2 content of air (e.g. high altitude)! Lung damage! 13! RBC Production " "Figure 11.6! Hypoxia! 14! 7!

8 Blood Typing! Antigen = a substance that triggers an immune response! Antibody = globular protein that binds antigen! RBC membranes may or may not have glycolipid or glycoprotein surface antigens (agglutinogens)! Plasma may or may not contain antibodies (agglutinins)! Binding of antibodies to antigens causes:! ü Agglutination (clumping)! ü Hemolysis (rupture of RBCs)! 15! ABO Blood Groups" " " " Table 11.2! You should be able to figure this out.".fyi only... 16! 8!

9 !! Chapter 11 - Blood! The Bottom Line on Transfusion Reactions! The bottom line question to ask is:"!! Does the recipient s blood have antibodies that can attack antigens on the donated blood cells? If Yes - Major Bummer L! If No - Theoretically O.K. J! 17! Transfusion Example #1! (Assume Rh factor (later) is compatible.)! Recipient (large volume) Donor (small volume) Type RBC antigens Plasma antibodies A A Anti-b B B Anti-a Will this transfusion be successful?! I.e. will a transfusion reaction occur?! Why or why not?! 18! 9!

10 Transfusion Example 2 (Assume Rh factor (later) is compatible)! Recipient (large volume) Donor (small volume) Type RBC antigens Plasma antibodies AB AB None A A Anti-b Will this transfusion be successful?! Why or why not?! 19! Rh Factor! Rh comes from Rhesus monkey in which this was first studied! Also called D antigens! Person with Rh antigens on RBCs is Rh + " Person without Rh antigens on RBCs is Rh -" E.g. AB + has A, B and Rh antigens on RBCs" Major difference from ABO grouping:! A Rh - person who has never been exposed to Rh + blood DOES NOT have anti-rh antibodies.! 20! 10!

11 Importance of Rh Factor - 1! 1. Rh - person (male or female) receives Rh + blood (proper ABO match) transfusion! First transfusion O.K. (mild or no reaction)! But recipient now begins making antibodies against Rh factor! Second transfusion now a potential problem! 21! Importance of Rh Factor - 2! 2. Pregnant female:! "Rh - mother and Rh + father Rh + fetus (by chance )! A. First pregnancy probably O.K., but! During delivery, maternal and fetal blood may mix! Mother makes anti-rh antibodies! B. Next pregnancy with Rh + fetus:! Maternal antibodies may cross placenta! Produce hemolytic disease of the newborn! " "(a.k.a. erythroblastosis fetalis)! 22! 11!

12 Rh Factors and Pregnancy! First pregnancy with Rh + fetus! Second pregnancy with Rh + fetus! Rh + fetus! RhoGam:" Anti-Rh antibodies" Destroy fetal Rh + " RBCs before " mother s " body makes " antibodies against " them" Generally given " last trimester and" delivery" 23! White Blood Cells (WBCs or Leukocytes)! Have a nucleus, unlike RBCs! About 1% of all formed elements! Circulate in blood for limited times! Migrate to connective tissues of body! Granulocytes:! Neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils! Agranulocytes:! Monocytes, lymphocytes! 24! 12!

13 White Blood Cells (WBCs) = Leukocytes! Table 11.1!.FYI only... 25! 1. Neutrophils! Normally the most numerous WBC! Functions:! First line of defense! Phagocytize pathogens! Release chemicals that! "attract other WBCs! 26! 13!

14 2. Eosinophils! Normally rare" Functions:! Phagocytize antigenantibody complexes! Attack some parasitic worms! Release antihistamine! Turns off inflammation response! (No, they don t always look like E.T.)! 27! 3. Basophils! Normally extremely rare" Intensify inflammation:! Release histamine" Dilates small vessels! Increases capillary permeability! 28! 14!

15 4. Monocytes Become Macrophages! Normally <10% of WBCs! Functions:! Phagocytic! Act as antigenpresenting cells! Call other WBCs to infection site! 29! 5. Lymphocytes! 20-30% of WBCs in blood! But most lymphocytes are in the tissues and lymphatic organs at any one time (i.e. not in the blood).! 30! 15!

16 Lymphocyte Types and General Functions - 1! A. B cells attack a specific antigen! Differentiate into plasma cells which:! Secrete antibodies! (Label invader for destruction)! Act as antigen-presenting cells! B. T cells attack a specific antigen! Attack virus-infected and cancerous cells, transplanted tissues! Cytotoxic (Killer) T cells! Helper T cells! Suppressor T cells! 31! Lymphocyte General Functions - 2! C. Natural Killer (NK) cells perform immune surveillance! Function:! Each can attack a variety of antigens" "(B and T cells are much more specific)! Kill microbes, cancerous cells! 32! 16!

17 ! Chapter 11 - Blood! Platelets (Thrombocytes)! Fragments of megakaryocytes! (i.e. are not really cells)! Very small compared to RBC! Function in blood clotting! 33! Hemostasis! Hemostasis = stoppage of bleeding! Three phases:! 1. Vascular phase (vascular spasm)! 2. Platelet phase (platelet plug formation)! 3. Coagulation phase (blood clotting)!...fyi only... 34! 17!

18 Platelet and Clotting Phases " Figure 11.9! (Factor X)" (Prothrombinase)" Inactive blood protein = Factor X" Prothrombin activator = Prothrombinase" 35! 18!

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