Written By: Zolandra Yarbrough

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1 Written By: Zolandra Yarbrough

2 Zolandra yarbrough Buzzworthy Publications Memphis, Tennessee

3 TABLE OF contents Introduction of the eastern-band Cherokee..1 Location.3 Social System 5 Seven Clans.6 Government...8 Religion..9 Important Numbers Food.. 11 Home & Architecture.13 Dressing.. 17 Education 19 Art Timeline Fun Facts. 24

4 Introduction of the Cherokee Picture of a Cherokee man The Cherokee people are the second largest Native American tribe in the United States. They were located in an area of the Southeastern United States, but when Europeans arrived they forced many Native Americans to leave.

5 Map of Trail of Tears This expedition is also known as the Trail of Tears. The Cherokee tribe is important because they are native to the United States. They were the first people to live here along with other native tribes.

6 Location Map of Where Some Cherokee are currently living The Cherokee people lived in an area of the Southeastern United States which today is the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee. Their home today is the 56,000-acre Qualla Boundary in Western North Carolina adjacent to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Cherokee people do not live on a reservation, which is land given to a native American tribe by the federal government. Instead, In the 1800 s, the tribal members purchased 57,000 acres of property.

7 Picture of Cherokee Reservation sign located in North Carolina Qualla Boundary encompasses untouched mountains, rivers, and forests and is located next to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Today, the 12,500 members of the EBCI live principally on the Qualla Boundary in Western North Carolina commonly called the Cherokee Reservation.

8 Social System The Cherokee Nation was comprised of towns and villages situated along the broad river valleys which comprise this region of the southern Appalachian and Blue Ridge Mountains. Headmen and chiefs, who were chosen through a matrilineal social system controlled by the women, governed villages and towns. This social structure consisted of seven clans of familial organization. The clans, Bird, Deer, Wolf, Blue, Long Hair, Wild Potato and Paint, lived in extended family homes.

9 Each clan had a certain job. Members of the Bird Clan were historically known as messengers. Members of the Deer Clan were historically known as fast runners and hunters. The Wolf clan has been known throughout time to be the largest clan. During the time of the Peace Chief and War Chief government setting, the War Chief would come from this clan. The blue clan produced many people who were able to make special medicines for the children. Seven Clans Symbol of seven clans The Long Hair Clan, whose subdivisions are Twister, Wind and Strangers, are known to be a very peaceful clan. The peace chief would come from this clan members of the wild potato clan were known to be 'keepers of the land, and gatherers. the wild potato clan was a main staple of the older Cherokee life back east. Members of the Paint Clan were historically known as a prominent medicine people.

10 The Long Hair Clan, whose subdivisions are Twister, Wind and Strangers, are known to be a very peaceful clan. The peace chief would come from this clan members of the wild potato clan were known to be 'keepers of the land, and gatherers. the wild potato clan was a main staple of the older Cherokee life back east. Members of the Paint Clan were historically known as a prominent medicine people.

11 Government Picture of Hernando de soto At the time of European contact, first by Desoto in 1540, the Cherokee were governed by two distinct administrations, one for war and one for peace. These administrations were kept separate and reflected the religious beliefs of the tribe.

12 ReligioN Log Church that represents what type of buildings the Cherokee constructed after the Trail of Tears to make their new town in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. Cherokee National Museum in Tahlequay, OK. Religion was not seen as a separate entity but rather an important philosophical base for their life ways. Before European contact, they were religious in knowing we had a creator, and worshipped him through song and dance. They prayed to the spirits for good health. They believed everything in nature had a spirit.

13 Important Numbers The main Cherokee numbers, 4 and 7 Certain numbers play an important role in the ceremonies of the Cherokee. The numbers four and seven repeatedly occur in myths, stories and ceremonies. The number four represents all the familiar forces, also represented in the four cardinal directions. These directions are east, west, north and south. Certain colors are also associated with these directions. The number seven represents the seven clans of the Cherokee, and are also associated with directions. In addition to the four cardinal directions, three others exist. Up (the Upper World), down (the Lower World) and center (where we live and where you always are). The number seven also represents the height of purity and sacredness, a difficult level to attain.

14 Food Traditional Cherokee garden of squash, corn and beans in Tennessee. The Cherokee lived off a combination of farming, hunting, and gathering. The women did most of the farming. The men did most of the hunting. They farmed vegetables such as corn, squash, and beans. The three sisters corn, beans, and squash were grown. Wild greens, mushrooms, ramps, nuts, and berries were collected. Deer, bears, birds, native fish, squirrels, groundhogs, and rabbits were all hunted.

15 Traditional Cherokee corn basket used to pick fresh corn that was grown in village gardens. They made the corn into flat breads like tacos and tortillas. They made the beans into soups and stews. In the pre-contact era, many meals were one-pot stews made over an open fire. After contact, the tribe also began to grow fruit like watermelons and peaches and to eat farm animals like chicken, pigs, and cows. The traditions taught you preserve food.

16 Homes and Architecture Cherokee woman dressed in traditional buckskin dress stands in front of a council house at the Cherokee National Museum Indian Village, Tahlequay, OK. The Cherokee Indians lived in villages. they built circular homes made of river cane, sticks, and plaster. They covered the roofs with thatch and left a small hole in the center to let the smoke out. The Cherokees also built larger seven-sided buildings for ceremonial purposes. Hence the fact, they believe seven is a special number.

17 The typical Cherokee town consisted of 30 to 60 houses and a large council house. They built permanent, well-organized villages in the midst of extensive cornfields and gardens throughout the fertile river valleys of the Cherokee country. The size of the townhouse varied, depending on the size of each village, since it had to be large enough for all the people to meet to discuss community matters and hold festivals.

18 Cherokee woman dressed in deerskin clothing stands in front of a traditional summer house at the Cherokee National Museum Indian Village, Tahlequay, OK. Some Cherokees lived in a different style of house in the summer than the winter. Summer houses were in the shape of a square or rectangle. During the winter, some Cherokee lived in a smaller, circular, dome shaped structure that looked like a beehive or an upside-down basket.

19 A Cherokee would live in two houses; one would be his home in the hot summer months with a winter home nearby. The summer home was entirely made of logs. Beaver and Otter of Buffalo skin blankets kept them warm. The weapons would hang from a wall within easy reach, should enemies attack. The winter home called as asi, contained a fire in the center to keep it warm.

20 Dressing Cherokee woman dressed in traditional deerskin clothing demonstrates basket weaving at the Cherokee Indian Village in Tahlequah OK. People of this tribe were slim. The skin color varied from a light tan to a dark tan. They had straight black hair. Women rarely cut their hair, as long hair was considered to be beautiful. Men and boys shaved or plucked their hair leaving a small patch on top.

21 Their clothes were made of animal skin and in winter, they wore animal skins such as bear, panther, and beaver, with the fur on the inside for warmth. They wore moccasins on their feet with long deer skin leggings. Women and girls wore skirts made of buffalo calf-skin with the hair on the inside. They wore deer skin shirts decorated with small turkey feathers. Their jewelry was made from shells, seeds, bone, animal hair, and feathers. When the Cherokee started trading animal skin with the new settlers, they wore clothes made of cloth instead of animal skin.

22 Education The Cherokee alphabet (litho), American School, (19th century), American The Cherokee Syllabary or alphabet was created by Sequoyah. Sequoyah was a Cherokee man that brought literacy to his people. The Cherokee had no written language until A syllabary is an alphabet made up of sets of syllables rather than letters. The Cherokee syllabary has eighty-five characters, each character has a unique sound and once they learned all the characters, they could write anything in Cherokee language.

23 Sequoyah From 'History of The Indian Tribes..', Vol. 1 Thomas Lorraine McKenney Newberry Library, Chicago Painting Details: Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois, USA Artist Details: McKenney, Thomas Lorraine, , Many of the Cherokee people learned to read and write in only few days, with the help of the Cherokee language created by their chief, Sequoya. Cherokee school children learn to speak Cherokee and have lessons in Cherokee lifestyle. There were no formal schools for children, but they learnt the Cherokee history from their parents and relatives. These stories were fun to hear, and taught lessons of good manners and behavior.

24 Art Traditional Cherokee baskets: burden basket, double weave basket, white oak basket. Cherokee art included painted baskets, decorated pots, carvings in wood, carved pipes, and beadwork. The Cherokee were and are still famous for their art. In olden days, their talent was used in making clay pots, carved pipes, canoes, masks, rattles, clothing, baskets, and beads.

25 Cherokee traditional clay pottery on exhibit and for sale during the arts and crafts show at the Red Earth Indian Festival, Oklahoma City OK. The Cherokee dug clay. They used the clay to make handmade pots. While the clay was still wet, they decorated the pots with designs made with sticks and stones. The Cherokee carved pipes from clay, wood, and soapstone. Pipes used in religion ceremonies and peace ceremonies were carefully decorated. Cherokee men carved ferocious masks from wood. They painted them.

26 Timeline

27 Fun Facts They enjoyed playing a stickball game called Anejodi which was similar to lacrosse. There is a Miss Cherokee Contest The clothes were sewn by using sinew of deer as the thread. Clan members are considered to be brother and sisters; it is forbidden for a Cherokee Indian to marry within the same clan Cherokee chose to name their deadly journey trail of tears

28 Copyright 2015 Zolandra Yarbrough

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