CLIMATE INFLUENCES ON THE MECHANICAL SYSTEM OF A PASSIVE HOUSE

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1 7 th Annual North American Passive House Conference September 27-30, 2012 Denver CO CLIMATE INFLUENCES ON THE MECHANICAL SYSTEM OF A PASSIVE HOUSE Kara M McKernan PE, CEM, LEED AP, CPHC Associated Design Group, Inc. Boise, ID

2 7 th Annual North American Passive House Conference September 27-30, 2012 Denver CO Session Learning Objectives: Review the boundaries and differences in climate zones in the United States Review insulation values at a city in each climate zone for certification as a Passive House Review mechanical system deviations based on climate Discuss obstacles in each climate zone for mechanical system/building envelope

3 2009 IECC Climate Zone Map Source: International Energy Conservation Code.

4 City In Each Climate Zone Zone 1A Miami, FL Zone 2A New Orleans, LA Zone 3B San Jose, CA Zone 4C Portland, OR Zone 5B Boise, ID Zone 6A Minneapolis, MN Zone 7B Jackson, WY Zone 8 Fairbanks, AK Source: ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard

5 2009 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals (IP) Design Conditions for Selected Locations Source: ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC Fundamentals.

6 PHPP Climate Data Weather 1: Cold, sunny day Weather 2: Cool, overcast day

7 Floor Plan Upper Level: 620 sf Main Level: 593 sf Lower Level: 479 sf Source: By permission from Gilday Architects

8 Source: By permission from Gilday Architects Sections

9 Elevations Source: By permission from Gilday Architects

10 Miami, FL New Orleans, LA San Jose, CA Portland, OR Boise, ID Minneapolis, MN Jackson, WY Fairbanks, AK Final Insulation Values for PH Certificate Wall Above Grade R-24.3 R-31.5 R-24.3 R-38.0 R-43.8 R-60.4 R-67.7 R-212 Wall Below Grade R-13.3 R-19.8 R-13.3 R-13.3 R-23.6 R-42.9 R-55.0 R-140 Basement Slab R-34.4 R-26.1 R-34.4 R-34.4 R-42.6 R-75.7 R-83.9 R-141 Ceiling R-28.3 R-48.4 R-28.3 R-48.4 R-53.0 R R R-246 PHPP Heating DB ( F) * Fairbanks is limited on the solar heat gain available in the winter due to low solar radiation numbers in the climate data set. Without the solar heat gain, it is extremely challenging to pass in that climate.

11 Solar Radiation Comparison

12 Solar Intensity Map for the United States Source: Myth-4.aspx

13 Base Design Glazing Modified Glazing to Pass Necessary Glazing Modifications North Elevation modeled in Miami, FL & Minneapolis, MN South Elevation modeled in Miami, FL Fairbanks: all windows deleted on N, W & E elevations with large window on upper and main level to remain.

14 Specific Space Heating Load ASHRAE Fundamentals PHPP Heating Load Heating DB (99%) Heating DB Miami, FL 95btuh 51.7 F 57.3 F New Orleans, LA 5,719btuh 35.4 F 34.8 F San Jose, CA 4,339btuh 37.8 F 44.5 F Portland, OR 6,771btuh 28.6 F 32.1 F Boise, ID 8,161btuh 10.5 F 12.7 F Minneapolis, MN 11,902btuh -7.6 F F Jackson, WY 8,886btuh -9.0 F -5.8 F Fairbanks, AK 6022btuh F F

15 Leaving Air Temperature (LAT) from Heat Recovery Ventilator (Winter) ϑ 2, F ϑ 3, F Supply Air Leaving Exhaust Air Entering Outside Air Entering Exhaust Air Leaving ϑ 1, F ϑ 4, F ϑ 2 = ϑ 1 - Ф HR * (ϑ 1 ϑ 3 )) ϑ 1 = 99% Heating DB from ASHRAE Ф HR = HRV efficiency ϑ 3 = Room Temperature (68 F in PHPP) City ϑ 1 Ф HR ϑ 3 ϑ 2 Miami, FL New Orleans, LA San Jose, CA Portland, OR Boise, ID Minneapolis, MN Jackson, WY Fairbanks, AK

16 Equation Explanation - LAT Required To Provide Heating Load Through HRV P H = 60 * V * ρc p * (ϑ LAT - ϑ 2 ) rework to solve for ϑ LAT ϑ LAT = ϑ 2 + [P H / (60 * V * ρc p )] P H = Heating Load (PHPP), btuh 60 = 60min/hr V = the volumentric flow rate of the air to air system, ft 3 /min (cfm) at external static pressure (ESP) calculated ρ = density of air, lb m /ft 3 (0.075 lb m /ft 3 at sea level, varies by feet above sea level) c p = specific heat of air, Btu/lbm F (0.24 Btu/lb m F at 70F and atmospheric pressure, 14.7 psia) ϑ LAT = Leaving air temperature required to provide heating load from PHPP, F ϑ 2 = Leaving air temperature from heat transfer through air to air heat recovery ventilator, F

17 Supply Air Temperature Required To Provide Heating Load Through HRV ϑ LAT = ϑ 2 + [P H / (60 * V * ρc p )] City ϑ 2 F Heating Load (PHPP), P H Btuh/kW V cfm ρ lb m /ft 3 C p Btu/lb F Supply Air Temp. to provide heating load, ϑ LAT F Miami, FL / New Orleans, LA / San Jose, CA / Portland, OR / Boise, ID / Minneapolis, MN / Jackson, WY / Fairbanks, AK /

18 Heating With HRV City Heating Load (PHPP), P H Btuh/kW Optional integrated 800W modulating preheater Supply Air Temp. to provide heating load, ϑ LAT F Miami, FL 95/ Yes/No New Orleans, LA 5719/ Yes/Yes San Jose, CA 4339/ Yes/Yes Portland, OR 6771/ Yes/Yes Can heating be provided by HRV? Is an electric duct heater necessary? Boise, ID 9161/ No/Yes (preheat) Minneapolis, MN 11902/ No/Yes (preheat) Jackson, WY 8886/ No/Yes (preheat) Fairbanks, AK 6022/ Yes/Yes 1kW and 2.5kW duct heaters that can be modulated with the ComfoAir controls

19 Heating Options For Heating Dominated Climates

20 Tankless Hot Water Heater for DHW & Radiant Heat Piping Schematic

21 Specific Space Cooling Load ASHRAE Fundamentals Cooling Load Cooling DB/MCWB/RH PHPP (1%) Cooling DB Miami, FL 5,454btuh 90.7 F/77.5 F/56% 91.4 F New Orleans, LA 6,638btuh 91.9 F/77.7 F/53% 87.8 F San Jose, CA 0btuh 88.6 F/66.2 F/30% 75.2 F Portland, OR 3,537btuh 87.1 F/66.5 F/34% 82.4 F Boise, ID 1,966btuh 95.0 F/63.1 F/16% 85.1 F Minneapolis, MN 6,296btuh 87.9 F/72.3 F/48% 87.8 F Jackson, WY 0btuh 81.4 F/54.5 F/19% 69.5 F Fairbanks, AK 0btuh 78.0 F/59.8 F/34% 64.2 F

22 Supply Air Humidity (RH 2 ) from Energy Recovery Ventilator (Summer) ϑ 2, F RH 2, % ϑ 3, F RH 3, % Supply Air Leaving Room Air Entering Outside Air Entering Exhaust Air Leaving Energy Recovery Ventilator ϑ 1, F RH 1, % ϑ 4, F RH 4, % Most Humid City Modeled (Miami) ϑ 1 = outside air from climate data, F WB 1 = outside air wet bulb, F WB 3 = room air wet bulb (61), F Ф HRS = ERV sensible efficiency (84), % ϑ 3 = indoor air temp (68), F ϑ 2 = ϑ 1 - Ф HRS * (ϑ 1 ϑ 3 )), F ϑ 4 = ϑ 3 + Ф HRS * (ϑ 1 ϑ 3 )), F w = humidity ratio, lbs moisture/lb dry air Ф HRL = ERV latent efficiency (60), % w 2 = w 1 - Ф HRL * (w 1 w 3 )), lb/lb w 4 = w 3 + Ф HRL * (w 1 w 3 )), lb/lb City ϑ 1 WB 1 ϑ 3 WB 3 Ф HRS Ф HRL ϑ 2 ϑ 4 RH 1 RH 2 RH 3 RH 4 Miami, FL * These calculations don t use ASHRAE cooling dry bulb and mean coincidence wet bulb since this isn t always the worst case. The calculations should be performed and reviewed for multiple outdoor air conditions since conditions are always changing.

23 Miami Monthly Weather Data from Elite Software Psychrometric Analysis

24 Calculations to Determine Mini-split Moisture Removal Calculations performed using Elite Software Psychrometric Analysis and Design Software and Psychrometric Charts MSZ-FE12NA

25 Miami - Elite Software Psychrometric Analysis

26 Miami Psychrometric Chart for Mini-Split Latent Space Load: 1,817btuh Latent Heat Removal Potential of ERV & Mini-split: 2,604btuh Therefore, two minisplits in Miami will provide adequate moisture removal for comfort

27 Cooling Options For Cooling Dominated Climates * Zehnder is working on a dehumidification option to add to their ERV

28 Systems Chosen for Miami, FL Heating Load: 95btuh/0.03kW Cooling Load: 5,454btuh Air to air heat exchanger with ERV core and integral 800 watt modulating pre-heater Cooling only with two 9,000 btuh wall mounted indoor units in Kitchen/Living/Dining 205 & Master Bedroom 303

29 Systems Chosen for New Orleans, LA Heating Load: 5,719btuh/1.7kW Cooling Load: 6,638btuh Air to air heat exchanger with ERV core and 2.5 kw duct heater Inline dehumidification on ventilation system with filter removed Cooling only with two 9,000 btuh wall mounted indoor units in Kitchen/Living/Dining 205 & Master Bedroom 303

30 Systems Chosen for San Jose, CA Heating Load: 4,339btuh/1.3kW Cooling Load: 0btuh Air to air heat exchanger with ERV core and 2.5 kw duct heater Cooling and heating with 9,000 btuh wall mounted indoor unit in Kitchen/Living/Dining

31 Systems Chosen for Portland, OR Heating Load: 6,771btuh/2.0kW Cooling Load: 3,537btuh Air to air heat exchanger with ERV core and 2.5 kw duct heater Cooling and heating with 9,000 btuh wall mounted indoor unit in Kitchen/Living/Dining

32 Systems Chosen for Boise, ID Heating Load: 9,161btuh/2.7kW Cooling Load: 1,966btuh Air to air heat exchanger with ERV core and 800W preheater Cooling with a 9,000 btuh wall mounted indoor unit in Kitchen/Living/Dining

33 Systems Chosen for Minneapolis, MN Heating Load: 11,902btuh/3.5kW Cooling Load: 6,296btuh Air to air heat exchanger with ERV core and 800W preheater Cooling with a 9,000 btuh wall mounted indoor unit in Kitchen/Living/Dining

34 Systems Chosen for Jackson, WY Heating Load: 8,886btuh/2.6kW Cooling Load: 0btuh Air to air heat exchanger with ERV core and 800W preheater

35 Systems Chosen for Fairbanks, AK Heating Load: 6,022btuh/1.8kW Cooling Load: 0btuh Air to air heat exchanger with ERV core and 2.5kW duct heater

36 Summary Passive House works in all climates, but may not be cost effective in extreme climates There will be less artistic freedom in extreme climates due to building envelope and mechanical system requirements to pass Changes in each component in the PHPP modeling software will affect other system components Utilizing a whole-system design strategy can help eliminate time spent on one aspect without reviewing every component, streamline the process and save the client money

37 Thank You! Questions? Kara M. McKernan PE, CEM, LEED AP, CPHC

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