Humid Air. Water vapor in air. Trace Glasses 1% Argon (A) Water vapor (H 2

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1 Humid Air Water vapor in air Oxygen 21% Trace Glasses 1% Argon (A) Water vapor (H 2 O) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Neon (Ne) Helium (He) Krypton (Kr) Hydrogen (H) Ozone (O 3 ) Nitrogen 78%

2 Humid Air Water vapor in air saturation humidity (SH) (= max AH) moisture content (absolute humidity AH) = kg vapor / kg dry air (partial) vapor pressure [Pa] relative humidity (RH) wet-and-dry bulb psychrometer GAZE ETHER

3 Humid Air Water vapor in air saturation humidity (SH) (= max AH) moisture content (absolute humidity AH) = kg vapor / kg dry air (partial) vapor pressure [Pa] relative humidity (RH) in [%] wet-and-dry bulb psychrometer enthalpy (H) in [kj/kg] Sensible heat vs. Latent heat specific volume

4 (kj/kg) P Humid Air Absolute humidity (g/kg) % 8% 6% % %.9 (m3/kg) Psychrometric chart absolute humidity AH and saturation line relative humidity RH Saturation line wet bulb temperature enthalpy specific volume Dry bulb temperature ( C) (kj/kg) Wet bulb temperature( C) Dry bulb temperature ( C)

5 Humid Air Psychrometric processes heating and cooling dew-point then condensation (de)humidification (adiabatic) Dew Point P Dew Point Temperature Moisture removed by sorbent or added by evaporation Humidity Increase Latent Heat Content Increase Amount of condensation enthalpy increase Dehumidification Relative Humidity Absolute Humidity (Humidity Ratio) Pounds of Moisture Per Pound of Dry Air % Total Heat (Enthalpy) BTU Per Pound of Dry Air % % Cooling P Heating 6% % No Change in Total Heat Less Sensible Heat More Latent Heat Less Latent Heat More Sensible Heat No Change in Total Heat Temperature o F Temperature Increase (Vapor to Liquid) or Decrease (Liquid Vapor)

6 Feeling comfortable Noise Bruits Couleur Color Eclairage Lighting Pureté Air de purity l'air Humidité Air humidity de l'air Rayonnement Solar radiation solaire Courants Drafts d'air mpérature Surfaces temperature des surfaces Température Air temperature de l'air 1 2 3

7 Factors of thermal comfort Air temperature (sensitive to ΔT > 1 C) Heat flux (W) Radiation Conduction Convection Evaporation Temperature ( o C)

8 Factors of thermal comfort Air temperature ΔT between air and building surfaces (MRT) (keep < 3 C) Direct Sunlight Thermal Discomfort Radiant Energy Exchange Direct Sunlight Glare Cold Drafts

9 Factors of thermal comfort Air temperature ΔT between air and building surfaces (MRT) Air movement (keep < 1.5 m/s unless overheated)

10 Factors of thermal comfort Air temperature ΔT between air and building surfaces (MRT) Air movement Relative humidity (% to 65%)

11 Comfort zone Standard Effective Temperature (SET) SET isotherms on psychrometric chart neutral temperature Tn = x Tmonth (±2.5 C for comfort) % 85 AH DBT ( o C) HOT AND HUMID 65 COLD AND HUMID COLD AND DRY 15 COMFORT ZONE HOT AND DRY 5 DRY

12 Comfort zone Standard Effective Temperature (SET) SET isotherms on psychrometric chart neutral temperature Tn = x Tmonth comfort zone depends on climate (±2.5 C for comfort) Darwin % - o C Budapest g/kg g/kg ET ET 25 SET SET 35 % % ET % g/kg 5 - o C C Images by MIT OCW.

13 Comfort zone Standard Effective Temperature (SET) SET isotherms on psychrometric chart neutral temperature Tn = x Tmonth comfort zone depends on climate (±2.5 C for comfort) WINTER 75 SUMMER 8 % Temperature o F 85 8% 68 o F WET BULB 64 o F WET BULB 85 Relative Humidity 9 6% % % % Absolute Humidity (Humidity Ratio) Pounds of Moisture Per Pound of Dry Air

14 Comfort zone Standard Effective Temperature (SET) SET isotherms on psychrometric chart neutral temperature Tn = x Tmonth comfort zone depends on climate shift with MRT and air movement (±2.5 C for comfort) % Temperature o 8 F 85 8% 85 Relative Humidity 6% % % Absolute Humidity (Humidity Ratio) Pounds of Moisture Per Pound of Dry Air Original Location Original Location % % Temperature o 8 85 F 8 % 85 8% Relative Humidity 6% % % Absolute Humidity (Humidity Ratio)

15 Humid Air, Thermal Comfort Reading assignment from Textbook: Introduction to Architectural Science by Szokolay: Additional readings relevant to lecture topics: "How Buildings Work" by Allen: Chap 7 + pp in Chap 8 "Heating Cooling Lighting" by Lechner: Chap 4

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