CRITICAL COOLING FOR DATA CENTERS

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1 IDEA 100 th Annual Conference & Trade Show CRITICAL COOLING FOR DATA CENTERS Presented by Ron Johanning, PE, LEED AP Mission Critical Market Leader

2 Agenda EPA Report Data Center Energy Trends IT Best Practice Recommendations ASHRAE Environmental Operating Changes HVAC System Optimization Techniques Air Side Economization Water Side Economization Combined Heat & Power

3 Projected Energy Use Trends Source: Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Efficiency Public Law

4 Power Consumption Power Consumption: 100 W System Load Total 275W Load 100W Room cooling system 70W UPS +PDU 20W Server fans 15W PSU 50W VR 20W Source: Intel Corporation

5 Energy System Flow 205W UPS PDU 185W IT 16W 4 W 185 W 275 W 70W Chiller 205W Cooling Coil HEAT

6 Best Practice IT Revisions Turn off unused servers Avg. $400/year/server Virtualize computer applications onto a common server Turn on energy management software, allow processor speed to ramp down when not needed ~ $80 - $120/yr/server

7 Best Practices HVAC Revisions Optimize air flow CFD analysis Improve air flow management hot air containment Variable speed chillers/fans/pumps Optimize cooling systems Environmental set point revisions

8 Typical Data Center HVAC Layout

9 Rear Hot Air Containment

10 Total Hot Air Containment Systems Containment Concept Neutralizes hot air by preventing exhaust air from mixing with cool air Neutralized ambienttemperature air returns to room Equipment racks take in ambient air from front All hot exhaust air is captured within chamber and neutralized

11 Energy Economization Techniques Air side economizers Water side economizers Adiabatic humidified/cooling air side economizers Absorption cooling

12 Class 1 & 2 Recommended Operating Environment (2008) (2004) Temp: 18 C (64.4 F) 20 C (68 F) 27 C (80.6 F) 25 C (77 F) Humidity: 5.5 C (41.9 F) DP 40% RH 59% RH, 15 C 55% RH (59 F) DP New Class 1&2 Allowable Range

13 Air Side Economizers Takes advantage of wider ASHRAE operating ranges Bring in outside air to central AHU to provide cool air to equipment reducing use of mechanical cooling Applicable where geographical and climate conditions allow

14 Region IIA 100% Outside Air Partial Refrigerator Dehumidification Region IV Min. Outside Air Refrigeration (Sensible & Latent Cooling) Region IA Modulating Outside Air Dehumidification Region I Modulate Outside Air No Refrigeration Region II 100% Outside Air Partial Refrigeration/ Humidification Region III Min. Outside Air Refrigeration & Humidification

15 Region IIA 100% Outside Air Partial Refrigerator Dehumidification Region IV Min. Outside Air Refrigeration (Sensible & Latent Cooling) Region IA Modulating Outside Air Dehumidification Region I Modulate Outside Air No Refrigeration Region II 100% Outside Air Partial Refrigeration/ Humidification Region III Min. Outside Air Refrigeration & Humidification

16 Air Side Economizer Hours Without Mechanical Cooling Los Angeles San Jose Denver Chicago Boston Atlanta Seattle Outdoor Air Dry Bulb Bin, o F ( o C) Supply Air Temp o F ( o C) 69 (21) 70 (21) 86% 80% 82% 80% 83% 65% 65% 63 ( 17) 64 ( 17) 59% 64% 72% 70% 71% 51% 51% 57 (14) 58 (14) 32% 39% 61% 62% 61% 41% 41% 51 (11) 52 (11) 6% 18% 51% 52% 50% 29% 29% ASHRAE BIN Data

17 Air Side Economizer Hours Without Mechanical Cooling Los Angeles San Jose Denver Chicago Boston Atlanta Seattle Outdoor Air Dry Bulb Bin, o F ( o C) Supply Air Temp o F ( o C) 69 (21) 70 (21) 86% 80% 82% 80% 83% 65% 65% 63 ( 17) 64 ( 17) 59% 64% 72% 70% 71% 51% 51% 57 (14) 58 (14) 32% 39% 61% 62% 61% 41% 41% 51 (11) 52 (11) 6% 18% 51% 52% 50% 29% 29% ASHRAE BIN Data

18 Water Side Economizers Uses cool outdoor dry-bulb or wet bulb conditions to generate condenser water that can partially or fully meet cooling needs Either direct or indirect free cooling

19 Water Side Economizer Hours Without Mechanical Cooling Los Angeles San Jose Denver Chicago Boston Atlanta Seattle Outdoor Air Dry Bulb Bin, o F ( o C) CWS o F ( o C) Supply Air Temp o F ( o C) 59 (15) 66 (19) 70 (21) 68% 78% 93% 75% 75% 66% 90% 53 (12) 60 (16) 64 ( 17) 36% 46% 77% 64% 63% 44% 68% 47 (8) 54 (12) 58 (14) 13% 21% 63% 55% 52% 33% 45% 41 (5) 48 (9) 52 (11) 3% 6% 51% 46% 41% 22% 21% ASHRAE BIN Data

20 Water Side Economizer Hours Without Mechanical Cooling Los Angeles San Jose Denver Chicago Boston Atlanta Seattle Outdoor Air Dry Bulb Bin, o F ( o C) CWS o F ( o C) Supply Air Temp o F ( o C) 59 (15) 66 (19) 70 (21) 68% 78% 93% 75% 75% 66% 90% 53 (12) 60 (16) 64 ( 17) 36% 46% 77% 64% 63% 44% 68% 47 (8) 54 (12) 58 (14) 13% 21% 63% 55% 52% 33% 45% 41 (5) 48 (9) 52 (11) 3% 6% 51% 46% 41% 22% 21% ASHRAE BIN Data

21 Adiabatic Humidified/Cooled Air Side Economizer Hours Without Mechanical Cooling Los Angeles San Jose Denver Chicago Boston Atlanta Seattle Outdoor Air Dry Bulb Bin, o F ( o C) Supply Air Temp o F ( o C) 69 (21) 70 (21) 99% 100% 100% 93% 95% 82% 100% 63 (17) 64 ( 17) 87% 93% 99% 83% 85% 65% 98% 57 (14) 58 (14) 53% 70% 89% 71% 72% 51% 85% 51 (11) 52 (11) 23% 39% 73% 60% 60% 39% 62% ASHRAE BIN Data

22 Adiabatic Humidified/Cooled Air Side Economizer Hours Without Mechanical Cooling Los Angeles San Jose Denver Chicago Boston Atlanta Seattle Outdoor Air Dry Bulb Bin, o F ( o C) Supply Air Temp o F ( o C) 69 (21) 70 (21) 99% 100% 100% 93% 95% 82% 100% 63 (17) 64 ( 17) 87% 93% 99% 83% 85% 65% 98% 57 (14) 58 (14) 53% 70% 89% 71% 72% 51% 85% 51 (11) 52 (11) 23% 39% 73% 60% 60% 39% 62% ASHRAE BIN Data

23 CHP for Data Centers Electricity and Absorption Cooling Reduced energy costs Increased reliability Facility expansion Increased energy efficiency Emissions benefits

24 Reduced Energy Costs CHP System Capacity KW Heat Rate BTU/k Wh Capital Costs O&M costs Annual Gas Cost Annual Avoided Electricity Savings Payback in years Microturbine / Chiller Pkg Gas Turbine Chiller ,300 $817,600 $36,617 $178,507 $354, ,364 13,930 $7,778,200 $615,895 $2,924,767 $5,153, Based on gas prices of $7.50MMBtu and electricity prices of $0.13kWh, reflective of California and Northeast energy costs

25 Increased Reliability Distributed Generation (DG) systems typically support the need for grid power beyond UPS and batteries Systems always running eliminates failure to start during grid power outage Continuous operation reduces battery backup time for UPS systems Continuous operation DG can smooth out voltage sags and power quality disturbances

26 System Availability Availability factor is important component Reciprocating engines ~ 96-98% Gas turbines ~ % Fuel cells ~? But combined with grid sources can reach % availability

27 Facility Expansion Grid capacity may limit data center expansion Small scale CHP may allow for flexibility to create multiple power and cooling sources Minimize additional utility infrastructure

28 Emissions Benefits Combined Heat and Power Central Power Capacity, kw Heat Rate, Btu/kWh Microturbine / Chiller Pkg Gas Turbine / Chiller U.S Fossil Fuel Power Average* CHP Emissions Factors ( for generated electricity minus avoided air conditioning emissions) NO x lb. MWh NA SO 2 lb. MWh NA CO 2 lb. MWh NA Annual Emissions (Based on 8760 hours) NO x lb./ MW-year 2, ,725 SO 2 lb / MW-year ,501 CO 2 lb / MW-year 4,103 4,103 6,899 * Based on 2000 egrid emission data

29 Recommendations Reduce IT load turn off unused equipment Make existing distribution more efficient Change the environmental conditions Optimize the cooling systems Look at CHP for redundant and efficient power and cooling capacity

30 Questions

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