Flexibility, Efficiency In San Antonio Arena

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Flexibility, Efficiency In San Antonio Arena"

Transcription

1 2005, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). Reprinted by permission from ASHRAE Journal, (Vol. 47, No. 9, September 2005). This article may not be copied nor distributed in either paper or digital form without ASHRAE s permission. Flexibility, Efficiency In San Antonio Arena By Jeffrey L. Ewens, P.E., Member ASHRAE, and Blake E. Ellis, P.E., Member ASHRAE T he state-of-the-art SBC Center in San Antonio is an 18,500- Tseat, multipurpose arena designed to host basketball games, rodeos, ice events, concerts, and a variety of other attractions. Key design components of the building s HVAC systems include fl exibility to address the building s multifunctionality and the ability to handle the harsh Texas heat and humidity. However, an equally diffi cult challenge was the design of the smoke control system to meet the requirements of the San Antonio Fire Department. The design team overcame these challenges with a unique HVAC design that accomplishes the goals of comfort, life safety and adaptability. Arena Bowl System Description A typical HVAC distribution configuration for an National Basketball Association (NBA) arena is to divide the bowl into four equal-sized quadrants. The SBC Center follows this fashion, and each quadrant is served by identical air-handling systems. Each quadrant contains three variable-air-volume (VAV) modular package air-handling units (AHUs). Two of the AHUs serve the seating bowl, producing 45,000 cfm ( L/s) of supply air each for a total of 90,000 cfm ( L/s) supplied to each quadrant of the bowl. The other AHU produces 27,500 cfm ( L/s) and serves the concourse spaces such as concessions, suites, toilets, public areas, and exterior envelope loads. Air is relieved from the building through four mixed flow fans (one per quadrant), each moving 72,500 cfm ( L/s) and configured for relief/ex- haust (Figure 1 ). The distribution system for the seating bowl connects the two seating bowl AHUs before supplying air into three zones in each quadrant. The three zones are the upper seating deck, the lower seating deck and the arena ice floor. The ductwork system has motorized dampers to close off airflow to each of the zoned areas when they are not being used. The main concourse, upper concourse and suite level concourse are served by the four quadrant concourse AHUs with a mixture About the Authors Jeffrey L. Ewens, P.E., is a mechanical engineer with Henderson Engineers, in Lenexa, Kan. Blake E. Ellis, P.E., is a project manager with Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, Mo. The authors received a 2005 ASHRAE Technology Award honorable mention for Public Assembly (New). 1 8 A S H R A E J o u r n a l a s h r a e. o r g S e p t e m b e r

2 The SBC Center in San Antonio is the home of the NBA s San Antonio Spurs and the San Antonio Livestock Expedition, as well as host for ice events, concerts, and more. of standard single duct VAV and fan-powered VAV terminal boxes providing temperature control. Ventilation Control Ventilation is a major component of any HVAC system design, but in a facility that can accommodate up to 18,500 spectators, its significance is amplified. While a large occupancy load drove the complexity of the system design, the use of the building also contributed to the challenge of proper ventilation. The SBC Center was designed as a multipurpose venue to host a variety of events, including ice shows. Most events can be held in a 75 F (24 C) space temperature environment. However, ice events require the indoor conditions to be maintained at 70 F (21 C) and 50% relative humidity (RH) or drier to prevent fogging near the ice surface. When the space humidity requirements for ice events are coupled with the high quantity of building occupants (18,500 people), the proper implementation of the applicable ventilation standard (ANSI/ASHRAE Standard , Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality) was critical. Therefore, the HVAC design needed to provide acceptable indoor air quality and humidity control with widely varying occupancy levels and event durations while minimizing the amount of the hot and humid outside air brought into the facility that would require cooling and dehumidification. Many of the typical events such as sporting events have peak occupancies of less than three hours. Moreover, the arena seating bowl has an extremely large volume in comparison with the occupancy. These two conditions provided the opportunity for a more in-depth analysis of the outside air quantity required for a typical event. This analysis revealed that approximately 45 minutes of lag time was acceptable per Standard This lag time was determined using the 10 million ft 3 ( m 3 ) of air within the arena volume. However, instead of lagging the operation of the ventilation system behind occupancy, the outside air is provided to the space both prior to and during the time people occupy the space. The result of the calculation shown in Table 1 indicates that the ventilation rate effectively could be reduced to 7.33 cfm/person (3.46 L/s per person), although the design team reduced the rate quantity by only 50% (7.5 cfm/person [3.5 L/s per person]). 2 This value was used and resulted in a dramatic reduction (600 tons [2110 kw]) in the size of the building cooling system, thus offering significant first cost savings. (Note: using the current ventilation rate procedure described in Addendum n of Standard results in a ventilation rate of less than 6 cfm/person [2.8 L/s per person].) Most events held in the arena fall into the category of short duration peak occupancy. However, because the possibility exists that an event might last longer than three hours, and people (vs. other contaminant sources such as off-gassing of materials) by far are the main contributor to poor indoor air quality in this situation, the system design allows the outside air level in the seating bowl to be raised or lowered in response to multiple CO 2 sensors located in the seating bowl. This ventilation override ensures good air quality. Moisture Control The SBC Center has a 200 ft (61 m) long by 85 ft (26 m) wide ice floor to accommodate hockey and ice show events. Design- S e p t e m b e r A S H R A E J o u r n a l 1 9

3 ing the arena HVAC systems to control and maintain proper temperature and humidity levels was critically important due to the condensation issues resulting from the ice surface. Conditions in the seating bowl must be controlled to 70 F (21 C) and 50% relative humidity to prevent fogging. The major sources of moisture are infiltration through the building envelope, through open doors before an event, ventilation air, and latent heat generated by people. Determining effects of the first two is fairly straightforward, but predicting moisture generated by people is more challenging. For example, the seating bowl is to be maintained at 70 F (21 C), and the moisture generation figures in ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 3 are based on a space temperature of 75 F (24 C). Also, the activity levels of the people within the arena vary from the extremely active athlete to a seated spectator. To determine the appropriate moisture generation rate, a model occupancy group of seated, standing and active people was created. Using a chart that provides the moisture load from people at various space temperatures and activity levels 4 (i.e., seated, standing, light activity, and high activity), the latent heat generation of the model occupancy group was obtained for the 70 F (21 C) space temperature. Once the amount of moisture was calculated, different supply air temperatures were analyzed to determine the optimal way to achieve the 70 F (21 C), 50% RH design condition. Complicating this analysis was the fact that if a National Hockey League (NHL) team was to occupy the facility, the conditions would need to be maintained at a very cool and dry 65 F (18 C) and 45% to 50% RH. The study revealed that 320,000 cfm ( L/s) of 45 F (7 C) air would meet the 70 F (21 C), 50% RH requirement for a basketball game. However, at a 50 F (10 C) supply air temperature, nearly 1.1 million cfm ( L/s) of air was needed to meet the NHL hockey condition. To balance the two competing needs, 360,000 cfm ( L/s) of 45 F (7 C) air serves the seating bowl with heating water reheat to control the humidity levels to 50% to 60% RH for basketball games and 45% to 50% RH for ice events. To address future NHL needs, space is reserved in the mechanical rooms for four future active desiccant dehumidification units. These units will allow the HVAC system to meet the 65 F (18 C), 45% RH requirement without excessive airflow rates and without increasing the demand on the heating water reheat system. Smoke Control In a facility that accommodates 18,500 occupants, life safety is at the forefront of many design decisions. For this project, the need for a mechanical smoke control system arose from a desire to reduce exit widths by nearly 50% under a provision in the building code for smoke-protected seating assemblies. This 2 0 A S H R A E J o u r n a l a s h r a e. o r g S e p t e m b e r

4 decision allowed the same amount of seats to be installed in less area, thus providing two positive results: a lower first cost and a more intimate seating bowl. Due to the desire to minimize first costs, the smoke control system was integrated with the bowl and concourse HVAC systems. Coordination with the local fire officials resulted in a requirement for nine independent smoke control zones, more than three times a typical arena. The smoke-protected areas within these zones are the main concourse, the upper concourse, and the arena bowl. The end result of the analysis was a requirement for the four zones on the main concourse to exhaust a minimum of 20,762 cfm (9798 L/s) each, the four zones on the upper concourse to exhaust a minimum of 33,492 cfm ( L/s) each, and the single zone in the seating bowl to exhaust a minimum of 579,524 cfm ( L/s). To integrate the supply air system with the smoke exhaust system, the distribution shafts were strategically located to allow s Elec. Elev. Equip. s Relief/Exhaust Fans (In Vertical) system operation in two directions (see Figure 2 for a flow diagram). By opening and closing the dampers at the top of the shaft and at the concourse return Arena AHU Figure 1: Plan view of a quadrant mechanical room. Future Desiccant Connection 32/32 Concourse AHU air grilles, air can be directed to allow the relief fans to function as exhaust fans in both the concourse exhaust and bowl exhaust modes. The AHUs also provide the required makeup air in both concourse and bowl exhaust modes. It was a challenge, with the bowl and the concourse AHUs discharging only 470,000 cfm ( L/s) of the total exhaust flow rate of 580,000 cfm ( L/s) at design capacity. However, a desire to limit the differential pressure across the exterior walls and egress doors to 0.10 in. w.g. (25 Pa) (keeping the door opening force below 30 lb f /6.7 N) resulted in an infiltration of 60,000 cfm ( L/s) with the doors closed. That reduced the total makeup air requirement to 520,000 cfm ( L/s), but the HVAC systems were still 50,000 cfm ( L/s) short. To eliminate an additional makeup air fan, ductwork, and louvers, the bowl units operate at 111% of design flow rate and the concourse units operate at 109% of their design flow rate through variable speed drives (VSDs) in the smoke control modes. This made up the additional 50,000 cfm ( L/s), keeping the interior/exterior differential pressure below the 0.10 in. w.g. (25 Pa). Energy Efficiency In a building with a peak occupancy of only four to six hours per week, under- S e p t e m b e r A S H R A E J o u r n a l 2 1 s Arena AHU

5 standing how the building operates and designing for the HVAC systems to be shutoff when unoccupied is essential for energy conservation. In the seating bowl, this is accomplished on the supply air side by using three different zones where airflow can be shut-off completely. Using a 45 F (7 C) supply air temperature in the seating bowl instead of the more traditional 55 F (13 C) supply air temperature allows for a reduction in total airflow rates and reduces fan energy by 33% from a standard system. This concept was also used on the concourses with a 50 F (10 C) supply air temperature, which decreases airflow rates and fan energy by 20% over a traditional 55 F (13 C) supply air system. The seating bowl distribution system is served by dual VAV AHUs with VSDs. During low load conditions, such as when the upper seating bowl is unoccupied, this configuration requires only one unit to operate. Thus, fan energy consumption is reduced by only running one fan more efficiently during low load times. Building pressure is maintained at slightly positive pressure with respect to the exterior through the use of differential pressure sensors located at the peak of the roof where wind-tunnel results indicated no effect on the sensor reading based upon the wind direction. These sensors control relief fans equipped with VSDs for speed control. This allows the amount of relief from the building to adjust for the 24 concession stands with independently controlled exhaust (cumulative total of 60,960 cfm [ L/s] of kitchen exhaust) and the 40,000 cfm [ L/s] of toilet exhaust, all of which draw their makeup air from the seating bowl system and may or may not be operating during an event. Periphery components of the airside HVAC systems are the waterside systems that serve them. The heating water system uses a 30 F (17 C) temperature differential to reduce pumping Average Occupancy for Event Duration Outdoor Air Per Person (Required) Table 1: Seating bowl outdoor air requirements. 14,307 people 12.6 cfm/person Volume of Outdoor Air (Required) 40,559,400 ft 3 (Duration: 3 hrs., 45 min.) Acceptable Air in Arena (45 min. lag time) 10,489,500 ft 3 Arena Volume 10,069,000 ft 3 Minimum Value 10,069,000 ft 3 (min. of two above values) Amount of Outdoor Air to Add 30,490,400 ft 3 Flow Rate of Outdoor Air Outdoor Air at Peak Occupancy 135,513 cfm (Duration: 3 hrs., 45 min) 7.33 cfm/person energy in addition to the constant-primary, variable-secondary heating water pump arrangement. The chilled water system uses a constant-primary, variable-secondary pump arrangement with a 16 F (9 C) temperature differential to reduce system flow rates and pumping energy. The chilled water system also considered the environmental impact by incorporating HFC chillers with VSDs on the compressors to closely match the system load and increase chiller efficiency. In fact, the chillers for this building were selected based upon their efficiency in the September through May time frame while using reduced condenser water supply temperatures. This time frame was used because very few full-occupancy events are scheduled in arenas during the summer months. This technique allowed the most efficient chiller selection for how the building was going to realistically operate, not just 2 2 A S H R A E J o u r n a l a s h r a e. o r g S e p t e m b e r

6 at peak capacity or a more traditional part load factor, such as non-standard part-load value (NPLV). For the condenser water system, six cooling towers use twospeed fans for capacity control. With a total of 12 fans (two per cell), the airflow rate can be adjusted in 4% increments without the cost of adding VSDs. Roof Typical Long Throw Duct Typical Upper Seating Runout SP Typical Arena Lower Seating Arena Bowl Mechanical Room Arena Return Exhaust Plenum Conclusion Controlling temperature and humidity within a space with 18,500 people is difficult in the harsh south Texas environment. When the HVAC design also needs to address life-safety concerns with a mechanical smoke control system, the difficulty is compounded. Creating nine independent smoke control zones without adding any capital costs was challenging, but the HVAC systems in the Center meet the challenge with effective results. The systems were designed to address occupant comfort, to provide an acceptable indoor environment, to efficiently use construction funds, and to be energy efficient while having the ability to meet facility life-safety needs if called upon. References 1. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard , Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Section , Figure ANSI/ASHRAE Standard , Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. par Mechanical Level Arena Seating Bowl Arena AHUs Suite/ Concourse AHU Upper Concourse Level Suite Level SP Main Concourse Level Figure 2: Quadrant airflow diagram ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals, Chapter 28, Table Harriman, L.G. III, ed The Dehumidification Handbook 2 nd ed. Concord, NH: New Hampshire Bindery. p S e p t e m b e r A S H R A E J o u r n a l 2 3

Efficient Space Humidity Control With Active Chilled Beam Systems

Efficient Space Humidity Control With Active Chilled Beam Systems This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, January 2012. Copyright 2012 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org. This article may not

More information

CASE STUDY: NEW NCAA DIV. I COLLEGE BASKETBALL ARENA

CASE STUDY: NEW NCAA DIV. I COLLEGE BASKETBALL ARENA CASE STUDY: NEW NCAA DIV. I COLLEGE BASKETBALL ARENA Stephen W. Duda, PE LEED AP Director, Mech Engineering Ross & Baruzzini, Inc. sduda@rossbar.com Acknowledgements: Ellerbe Becket, Architects, Kansas

More information

Presentation Outline. Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks. Links. Plant Level Building Blocks. Air Distribution Building Blocks

Presentation Outline. Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks. Links. Plant Level Building Blocks. Air Distribution Building Blocks Presentation Outline Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks Plant Level Building Blocks Description / Application Data Green opportunities Selection Criteria Air Distribution Building Blocks same

More information

Venice Library Humidity Study. for Williams Building Diagnostics, LLC 305 15 th Street West Bradenton, FL 34205. Report April 13, 2015

Venice Library Humidity Study. for Williams Building Diagnostics, LLC 305 15 th Street West Bradenton, FL 34205. Report April 13, 2015 for Williams Building Diagnostics, LLC 305 15 th Street West Bradenton, FL 34205 Report April 13, 2015 Moses & Associates, Inc. 2209 NW 40 th Terrace, Suite A Gainesville, FL 32605 FL License EB-0003097

More information

Advanced Energy Design Guide LEED Strategies for Schools. and High Performance Buildings

Advanced Energy Design Guide LEED Strategies for Schools. and High Performance Buildings Advanced Energy Design Guide LEED Strategies for Schools and High Performance Buildings Today s Presenters Stephen Koontz, LEED AP Energy Services Leader Tampa Bay Trane Allen Irvine General Sales Manager

More information

AIR COOLED CHILLER CHILLED WATER PUMP CONTROL: The chilled water pump with the lowest runtime will automatically start when the outside air temperature rises above the system enable setpoint. When the

More information

Element D Services Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

Element D Services Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Load Calculation Criteria PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 OVERVIEW A. This section includes requirements for calculating HVAC cooling and heating loads. B. Load calculations must be performed in accordance with

More information

Keys to Efficient Dehumidification

Keys to Efficient Dehumidification Keys to Efficient Dehumidification Jeff Ihnen for Engineered Systems Magazine, May 2009 p 608.785.1900 400 Main Street, Suite 200 La Crosse, WI 54601 Contents Keys to efficient dehumidification... 1 Relative

More information

HVAC Systems: Overview

HVAC Systems: Overview HVAC Systems: Overview Michael J. Brandemuehl, Ph.D, P.E. University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA Overview System Description Secondary HVAC Systems Air distribution Room diffusers and air terminals Duct

More information

APPLICATION GUIDE. Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application

APPLICATION GUIDE. Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application APPLICATION GUIDE Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application Section Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Introduction Most commercial HVAC systems

More information

HVACPowDen.xls An Easy-to-Use Tool for Recognizing Energy Efficient Buildings and HVAC Systems

HVACPowDen.xls An Easy-to-Use Tool for Recognizing Energy Efficient Buildings and HVAC Systems HVACPowDen.xls An Easy-to-Use Tool for Recognizing Energy Efficient Buildings and HVAC Systems Fundamental Principles of Environmentally Responsible, Energy Efficient Buildings 1. Energy efficiency is

More information

UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI 23 0000 - Heating Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) March 2015.01

UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI 23 0000 - Heating Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) March 2015.01 GENERAL: This section provides general standards for overall sizing and design of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. Other sections contain specific standards for each system per

More information

Building Energy Systems. - HVAC: Heating, Distribution -

Building Energy Systems. - HVAC: Heating, Distribution - * Some of the images used in these slides are taken from the internet for instructional purposes only Building Energy Systems - HVAC: Heating, Distribution - Bryan Eisenhower Associate Director Center

More information

Makeup Air For Exhaust Systems In Tight Houses. Tony Jellen Engineering Projects

Makeup Air For Exhaust Systems In Tight Houses. Tony Jellen Engineering Projects Makeup Air For Exhaust Systems In Tight Houses Tony Jellen Engineering Projects PA Housing & Land Development Conference February 23, 2012 Effects of Kitchen Ventilation on Residential Dwellings Anthony

More information

Example Retrocommissioning Measure: Opening Throttled Discharge Valves

Example Retrocommissioning Measure: Opening Throttled Discharge Valves Opening Throttled Discharge Valves This 21-story building, constructed in 1997, is located in Oregon and contains 589,000 gross square feet of mostly office occupancy. The HVAC system includes six large

More information

HVAC Checklist - Long Form

HVAC Checklist - Long Form HVAC Checklist - Long Form Page 1 of 14 Appendix B discusses HVAC system components in relation to indoor air quality. utside Air Intake Location pen during occupied hours? Unobstructed? Standing water,

More information

Enclosed Football Stadium Design History and Lessons Learned

Enclosed Football Stadium Design History and Lessons Learned Enclosed Football Stadium Design History and Lessons Learned Robert L. Towell, P.E., LEED AP, QCxP btowell@cxegroup.com CxE Group LLC St. Louis, Missouri 314-436-6543 With thanks to the St. Louis Convention

More information

DATA CENTER COOLING INNOVATIVE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR DATA CENTER

DATA CENTER COOLING INNOVATIVE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR DATA CENTER DATA CENTER COOLING INNOVATIVE COOLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR DATA CENTER DATA CENTERS 2009 IT Emissions = Aviation Industry Emissions Nations Largest Commercial Consumers of Electric Power Greenpeace estimates

More information

CURBING THE COST OF DATA CENTER COOLING. Charles B. Kensky, PE, LEED AP BD+C, CEA Executive Vice President Bala Consulting Engineers

CURBING THE COST OF DATA CENTER COOLING. Charles B. Kensky, PE, LEED AP BD+C, CEA Executive Vice President Bala Consulting Engineers CURBING THE COST OF DATA CENTER COOLING Charles B. Kensky, PE, LEED AP BD+C, CEA Executive Vice President Bala Consulting Engineers OVERVIEW Compare Cooling Strategies in Free- Standing and In-Building

More information

Return Fan and Exhaust Fan Economizers and Building Pressurization APPLICATION GUIDE OUTSIDE AIR

Return Fan and Exhaust Fan Economizers and Building Pressurization APPLICATION GUIDE OUTSIDE AIR Return Fan and Exhaust Fan Economizers and Building Pressurization APPLICATION GUIDE Supersedes: Nothing Form 100.00-AG3 (104) OUTSIDE AIR One of the primary functions of a packaged rooftop unit (RTU)

More information

ENHANCED LABORATORY HVAC SYSTEM

ENHANCED LABORATORY HVAC SYSTEM ENHANCED LABORATORY HVAC SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Since the early 1980's the attention to more energy efficient laboratory designs has been on the rise due to the increase in energy cost and the emergence of

More information

Creating Efficient HVAC Systems

Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Heating and Cooling Fundamentals for Commercial Buildings Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for nearly half of the energy used in a typical

More information

Causes of High Relative Humidity Inside Air Conditioned Buildings. Roger G.Morse AIA, Paul Haas CSP, CIH Morse Zehnter Associates

Causes of High Relative Humidity Inside Air Conditioned Buildings. Roger G.Morse AIA, Paul Haas CSP, CIH Morse Zehnter Associates Causes of High Relative Humidity Inside Air Conditioned Buildings Roger G.Morse AIA, Paul Haas CSP, CIH Morse Zehnter Associates S. FLORIDA AVE. AMBIENT 91 F db / 78 F wb 16,000 HOURS ANNUALLY THAT wb

More information

APPLICATION GUIDE. Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems

APPLICATION GUIDE. Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems APPLICATION GUIDE Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems Contents Introduction 3 WBCS Concept 3 Condensation 4 Moisture Sources in the Space 4 Impact of a High Moisture Load 5 Designing to Manage

More information

HVAC Processes. Lecture 7

HVAC Processes. Lecture 7 HVAC Processes Lecture 7 Targets of Lecture General understanding about HVAC systems: Typical HVAC processes Air handling units, fan coil units, exhaust fans Typical plumbing systems Transfer pumps, sump

More information

HYDRONIC RADIANT CEILINGS and CHILLED BEAMS. Low Mass Heating and Cooling

HYDRONIC RADIANT CEILINGS and CHILLED BEAMS. Low Mass Heating and Cooling HYDRONIC RADIANT CEILINGS and CHILLED BEAMS Low Mass Heating and Cooling Learning Objectives How does radiant heating and cooling work how does low mass differ from high? What are hydronic radiant panels?

More information

2 STEPS TO CONDUCTING YOUR HVAC ASSESSMENT

2 STEPS TO CONDUCTING YOUR HVAC ASSESSMENT Presentation Synopsis Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Building Condition Assessment Vancouver, B.C. Prepared for: EPIC Prepared by: Douglas Spratt, P.Eng Douglas Spratt & Associates Ltd. www.dspratt-associates.com

More information

Pool Dehumidification Basics

Pool Dehumidification Basics Copyright 2009 Wescor. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for personal and educational use only. When energy costs were low, many pool owners considered only first cost when choosing

More information

VAV BOX REHEAT SELECTION

VAV BOX REHEAT SELECTION VAV BOX REHEAT SELECTION KRUEGER EXCELLENCE IN AIR DISTRIBUTION Page # 1 VAV terminals provide a measured quantity of conditioned air to a space, in response to a control signal from a thermostat or room

More information

HVAC Sequences of Operation. Stanford SEQ2 Environment and Energy Building

HVAC Sequences of Operation. Stanford SEQ2 Environment and Energy Building HVAC Sequences of Operation Stanford SEQ2 Environment and Energy Building Revision Revision Description Date Issued A Draft 10-27-2006 0 Issue for Construction 12-19-2006 1 Incorporate Alarm & Rev 0 Comments

More information

Dehumidification Design

Dehumidification Design Dehumidification Design Using Data-Center Heat Utilizing free heat from a server room was the concept behind an air-handling system in a college-campus building Considerable energy savings are possible

More information

Design Guide. Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues

Design Guide. Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues Design Guide Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are major energy consumers in live performance venues. For this reason,

More information

SPECIAL ISSUE: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WORKSHOP

SPECIAL ISSUE: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WORKSHOP research journal 2013 / VOL 05.01 www.perkinswill.com SPECIAL ISSUE: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WORKSHOP ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING OF SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS Current Trends in Low-Energy HVAC Design

More information

Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida

Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida Optimizing 100% Outside Air Systems with Heat Pipes Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida Introduction To meet increasingly rigorous building codes

More information

Using Time-of-Day Scheduling To Save Energy

Using Time-of-Day Scheduling To Save Energy The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, May 29. Copyright 29 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes only.

More information

3/29/2012 INTRODUCTION HVAC BASICS

3/29/2012 INTRODUCTION HVAC BASICS INTRODUCTION HVAC BASICS AND HVAC SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT SECTION O HVAC systems or Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning systems control the environment for people and equipment in our facilities.

More information

School HVAC. Design Manual. Application Guide AG 31-004. Air Cooled Chiller. Chilled Water Pumps. Expansion Tank CHWR CHWS. Make up Water Line Boiler

School HVAC. Design Manual. Application Guide AG 31-004. Air Cooled Chiller. Chilled Water Pumps. Expansion Tank CHWR CHWS. Make up Water Line Boiler Application Guide AG 31-004 School HVAC Design Manual Chilled Water Pumps Air Cooled Chiller CHWR HWR Make up Water Line Boiler Expansion Tank CHWS Hot Water Pumps CHWR HWR CHWS HWS CHWR HWR CHWS Unit

More information

Dual Maximum VAV Box Control Logic

Dual Maximum VAV Box Control Logic This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, December 212. Copyright 212 ASHRAE. Posted at www.ashrae.org. This article may not be copied and/or distributed electronically or in paper form without permission

More information

Designing and Testing Demand Controlled Ventilation Strategies

Designing and Testing Demand Controlled Ventilation Strategies Designing and Testing Demand Controlled Ventilation Strategies Erik Jeannette and Tracy Phillips Architectural Energy Corporation Synopsis Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) based Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV)

More information

HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation. Richard Lord Carrier Fellow

HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation. Richard Lord Carrier Fellow HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation Richard Lord Carrier Fellow HVAC Industry Challenges and Issues Ozone Deletion Global Warming

More information

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE Overview of Design Conditions: Air conditioning system consumes most of the energy that a building needs in its operation. In order to reduce energy consumption

More information

New Equipment for Old Plant Rooms

New Equipment for Old Plant Rooms Agenda New Equipment for Old Plant Rooms Peter Logovik Mechanical Engineer Ashburner Francis 1. VRF 2. Heat Exchanger 3. Desiccant Pre conditioners 4. New Chiller application 5. Pumps Inline vs. traditional

More information

Preliminary Final Proposal

Preliminary Final Proposal 1 Butler Memorial Hospital New Inpatient Tower Senior Capstone Project Mechanical Option Preliminary Final Proposal Mechanical System Re-design and Breadth Topics Butler Memorial Hospital New Inpatient

More information

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE Overview of Design Conditions: Air conditioning system consumes most of the energy that a building needs in its operation. In order to reduce

More information

ASHRAE STANDARD 90.1, HVAC System Requirements for Reducing Energy Consumption in Commercial Buildings

ASHRAE STANDARD 90.1, HVAC System Requirements for Reducing Energy Consumption in Commercial Buildings ASHRAE STANDARD 90.1, 2013 HVAC System Requirements for Reducing Energy Consumption in Commercial Buildings ASHRAE Past President s Luncheon, December 3, 2014 SEAN BEILMAN, P.E., HBDP, LEED AP BD+C 12

More information

ASHRAE Standards 15 and 34 Considerations for VRV/VRF Systems RESIDENTIAL LIGHT COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL

ASHRAE Standards 15 and 34 Considerations for VRV/VRF Systems RESIDENTIAL LIGHT COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL ASHRAE Standards 15 and 34 Considerations for VRV/VRF Systems RESIDENTIAL LIGHT COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL Technical Article May 2013 ASHRAE Standards 15 and 34 Considerations for VRV/VRF Systems Executive

More information

Innovent LASER Packaged Fresh Air Conditioning Units

Innovent LASER Packaged Fresh Air Conditioning Units LASER Latent And Sensible Energy Reduction Latent And Sensible Energy Reduction For Outside Air Innovent LASER Packaged Fresh Air Conditioning Units Innovent LASER units provide both sensible and latent

More information

SAM HOUSTON STATE UNIVERSITY

SAM HOUSTON STATE UNIVERSITY PART 1: GENERAL 1.01 General Requirements A. This standard is intended to provide useful information to the Professional Service Provider (PSP) to establish a basis of design. The responsibility of the

More information

KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM

KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM KU DESIGN GUIDELINES APPENDIX XVI RECOMMENDED BAS I/O CONTROL POINTS BY EQUIPMENT / SYSTEM AIR HANDLING UNITS... 1 CHILLERS... 2 COOLING TOWERS... 2 CLOSED LOOP COOLERS... 2 MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLY FANS...

More information

MULTIZONE APPLICATION OF SOLUTION UNITS

MULTIZONE APPLICATION OF SOLUTION UNITS MULTIZONE APPLICATION OF SOLUTION UNITS APPLICATION GUIDE Supersedes: 102.20-AG12 (206) Form: 102.20-AG12 (307) GENERAL Multi-zone heating and air conditioning units offer design and application advantages

More information

Engineers Newsletter. Understanding Single-Zone VAV Systems. providing insights for today s hvac system designer. volume 42 2

Engineers Newsletter. Understanding Single-Zone VAV Systems. providing insights for today s hvac system designer. volume 42 2 providing insights for today s hvac system designer Engineers Newsletter volume 42 2 Understanding Single-Zone VAV Systems Single-zone variable-air-volume (VAV) is not a new concept, but due to new energy

More information

Second Place: Industrial Facilities or Processes, New

Second Place: Industrial Facilities or Processes, New Second Place: Industrial Facilities or Processes, New Photo: Paul Howell Texas Medical Center in Houston is the largest medical center in North America. It has a chilled water system of 160,000 tons. Big

More information

Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms

Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Air Change: Unlike re-circulated air, this is the total air required to completely replace the air in a room or building. Air Conditioner: Equipment

More information

Element D Services Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

Element D Services Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning PART 1 - GENERAL 1.01 OVERVIEW A. This section supplements Design Guideline Element D3041 on air handling distribution with specific criteria for projects involving design of a Data Center spaces B. Refer

More information

Residential HVAC Load Sizing Training October 14, 2015. David Kaiser Green Code Plan Reviewer

Residential HVAC Load Sizing Training October 14, 2015. David Kaiser Green Code Plan Reviewer Residential HVAC Load Sizing Training October 14, 2015 David Kaiser Green Code Plan Reviewer DCRA - Green Building Division Regulations of green codes including: Green Building Act Green Construction Code

More information

newsletter Let s take a high-level look at airside economizing: what it is, what it requires, and how it s done. How does economizer cooling work?

newsletter Let s take a high-level look at airside economizing: what it is, what it requires, and how it s done. How does economizer cooling work? engineers volume 35 2 newsletter providing insights for today s hvac system designer keeping cool with outdoor air Airside Economizers from the editor For the denizens of commercial buildings, comfort

More information

Methods for Effective Room Air Distribution. Dan Int-Hout Chief Engineer, Krueger Richardson, Texas

Methods for Effective Room Air Distribution. Dan Int-Hout Chief Engineer, Krueger Richardson, Texas Methods for Effective Room Air Distribution Dan Int-Hout Chief Engineer, Krueger Richardson, Texas Agenda Overview LEED issues and Update Perimeter Acoustics Thermal Comfort IAQ / Standard 62.1 Update

More information

Impacts of Static Pressure Set Level on the HVAC Energy Consumption and Indoor Conditions

Impacts of Static Pressure Set Level on the HVAC Energy Consumption and Indoor Conditions Impacts of Static Pressure Set Level on the HVAC Energy Consumption and Indoor Conditions M. Liu, Y. Zhu, D. E. Claridge Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University Ed. White Energy Management Operation

More information

HVAC Simplified Approach Option

HVAC Simplified Approach Option HVAC Simplified Approach Option Part I Project Address: City: HVAC System Designer of Record: Date: Zip: Qualification The building is 2 stories or less in height and has a gross floor area is less than

More information

SECTION 140.4 PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

SECTION 140.4 PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING SYSTEMS 2013 Building Energy Efficiency Standards Page 162 SECTION 140.4 PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR SPACE CONDITIONING SYSTEMS A building complies with this section by being designed with and having constructed

More information

REAL OPERATING COST SAVINGS FROM RETRO- COMMISSIONING OPPORTUNITIES FOR SAVINGS IN ACADEMIC MEDICAL CENTERS

REAL OPERATING COST SAVINGS FROM RETRO- COMMISSIONING OPPORTUNITIES FOR SAVINGS IN ACADEMIC MEDICAL CENTERS REAL OPERATING COST SAVINGS FROM RETRO- COMMISSIONING OPPORTUNITIES FOR SAVINGS IN ACADEMIC MEDICAL CENTERS Ken L. Hansen P.E. University of Nebraska Medical Center hansenkl@unmc.edu 402-559- 5301 402-630-

More information

Design Options For HVAC Distribution System

Design Options For HVAC Distribution System PDHonline Course M147 (4 PDH) Design Options For HVAC Distribution System Instructor: A. Bhatia, B.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088

More information

HVAC Simplified Approach Option

HVAC Simplified Approach Option HVAC Simplified Approach Option Part I Project Address: City: HVAC System Designer of Record: Date: Zip: Qualification The building is 2 stories or less in height and has a gross floor area is less than

More information

Data Center Design Guide featuring Water-Side Economizer Solutions. with Dynamic Economizer Cooling

Data Center Design Guide featuring Water-Side Economizer Solutions. with Dynamic Economizer Cooling Data Center Design Guide featuring Water-Side Economizer Solutions with Dynamic Economizer Cooling Presenter: Jason Koo, P.Eng Sr. Field Applications Engineer STULZ Air Technology Systems jkoo@stulz ats.com

More information

Comparing Energy Savings of Different VAV Systems

Comparing Energy Savings of Different VAV Systems Comparing Energy Savings of Different VAV Systems Prepared By: Martyn Dodd mart@energysoft.com EnergySoft LLC 1025 5th Street, Suite A Novato, CA 94945 415-897-6400 www.energysoft.com Last Modified: March

More information

By Tom Brooke PE, CEM

By Tom Brooke PE, CEM Air conditioning applications can be broadly categorized as either standard or critical. The former, often called comfort cooling, traditionally just controlled to maintain a zone setpoint dry bulb temperature

More information

Design Options for HVAC Distribution Systems

Design Options for HVAC Distribution Systems Design Options for HVAC Distribution Systems Course No: M06-017 Credit: 6 PDH A. Bhatia Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877)

More information

Selecting the Supply Air Conditions for a Dedicated Outdoor Air System Working in Parallel with Distributed Sensible Cooling Terminal Equipment

Selecting the Supply Air Conditions for a Dedicated Outdoor Air System Working in Parallel with Distributed Sensible Cooling Terminal Equipment AT-01-7-3 Selecting the Supply Air Conditions for a Dedicated Outdoor Air System Working in Parallel with Distributed Sensible Cooling Terminal Equipment Kurt M. Shank Student Member ASHRAE Stanley A.

More information

Defining Quality. Building Comfort. Precision. Air Conditioning

Defining Quality. Building Comfort. Precision. Air Conditioning Defining Quality. Building Comfort. Precision Air Conditioning Today s technology rooms require precise, stable environments in order for sensitive electronics to operate optimally. Standard comfort air

More information

CO2-based demand-controlled

CO2-based demand-controlled Trying to serve the twin masters of ASHRAE 62 and optimal system efficiency, the author examines DCV in both general and more nuanced terms. That overview leads to a comparison with the performance of

More information

Demand Controlled Ventilation. Demand Controlled Ventilation DCV. What is it? Topics. Designing and Testing Demand Controlled Ventilation Strategies

Demand Controlled Ventilation. Demand Controlled Ventilation DCV. What is it? Topics. Designing and Testing Demand Controlled Ventilation Strategies Designing and Testing Demand Controlled Ventilation Strategies Erik Jeannette, P.E. Co-Author Tracy Phillips Architectural Energy Corporation 1 Demand Controlled Ventilation Topics Defining Demand Controlled

More information

Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC Systems

Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC Systems Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC Systems Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) constitutes up to 35 percent of energy used in manufacturing facilities. This fact sheet is geared towards

More information

Energy Efficient Humidity Control in Older Schools

Energy Efficient Humidity Control in Older Schools Energy Efficient Humidity Control in Older Schools James BAILEY 1, Rick MEETRE 1, and Ed LIGHT 1 1 Building Dynamics, LLC, Ashton MD, USA * Corresponding email: ELight@Building-Dynamics.com Keywords: Humidity,

More information

The main steam enters the building in the basement mechanical room; this is where the condensate line also leaves the building.

The main steam enters the building in the basement mechanical room; this is where the condensate line also leaves the building. MSV: Square Footage: 24,844 No. of Floors: 1 Year Built: 1963 Type of Use: Lounge and dining area open all night for snacks Steam Water-cooled condenser, 50-Ton York unit with a 6 cylinder-reciprocating

More information

Ventilation Standard For Health Care Facilities

Ventilation Standard For Health Care Facilities The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, October 2008. Copyright 2008 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes

More information

newsletter engineers understanding Chilled Beam Systems volume 38 4 providing insights for today s hvac system designer

newsletter engineers understanding Chilled Beam Systems volume 38 4 providing insights for today s hvac system designer engineers volume 38 4 newsletter providing insights for today s hvac system designer understanding Chilled Beam Systems Although chilled beam systems have been used in Europe and Australia for many years,

More information

Data Centers WHAT S ONTHEHORIZON FOR NR HVAC IN TITLE 24 2013? SLIDE 1

Data Centers WHAT S ONTHEHORIZON FOR NR HVAC IN TITLE 24 2013? SLIDE 1 WHAT S ONTHEHORIZON FOR NR HVAC IN TITLE 24 2013? SLIDE 1 Data Center CASE Scope Existing Title 24 2008 Scope Current scope ( 100 T24-2008) exempts process space from many of the requirements, however

More information

Role of Economizers in Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems

Role of Economizers in Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems Introduction: Role of Economizers in Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems A question that frequently arises when a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) (Mumma, 2001) is discussed, particularly when the parallel

More information

HVAC Systems in Schools & Commercial Buildings and Radon

HVAC Systems in Schools & Commercial Buildings and Radon HVAC Systems in Schools & Commercial Buildings and Radon References US EPA Radon Prevention in the Design and Construction of Schools and Other Large Buildings http://www.epa.gov/ordntrnt/ord/nrmrl/pubs/1993/air/

More information

After an Outside Contaminant Release

After an Outside Contaminant Release The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, April 27. Copyright 27 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes only.

More information

Kitchen Ventilation Systems: Part 2 Providing Adequate Makeup Air

Kitchen Ventilation Systems: Part 2 Providing Adequate Makeup Air The Pennsylvania Housing Research Center Kitchen Ventilation Systems: Part 2 Providing Adequate Makeup Air Builder Brief: April 2012 Anthony C. Jellen, PE & Brian M. Wolfgang, EIT, Michael A. Turns, MS

More information

Mechanical Systems Proposal revised

Mechanical Systems Proposal revised Mechanical Systems Proposal revised Prepared for: Dr. William Bahnfleth, Professor The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Architectural Engineering Prepared by: Chris Nicolais Mechanical Option

More information

Hourly Analysis Program v.4.1 Page 1 of 1

Hourly Analysis Program v.4.1 Page 1 of 1 Air System Design Load Summary for Zona 9 DESIGN COOLING DESIGN HEATING COOLING DATA AT Feb 1800 HEATING DATA AT DES HTG COOLING OA DB / WB 32.4 C / 23.1 C HEATING OA DB / WB -0.6 C / -3.2 C Sensible Latent

More information

Guidelines for Design and Construction of Energy Efficient County Government Facilities and Schools

Guidelines for Design and Construction of Energy Efficient County Government Facilities and Schools E. ENERGY-EFFICIENT MECHANICAL AND VENTILATION SYSTEMS 1. General a. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are typically responsible for 35% 50% of the energy consumed in buildings.

More information

6 MECHANICAL HVAC SYSTEMS

6 MECHANICAL HVAC SYSTEMS Conventional Facilities Chapter 6: HVAC Systems 6-1 6 MECHANICAL HVAC SYSTEMS 6.1 Design Criteria 6.1.1 Codes and Standards The latest edition of the codes, standards, orders, and guides referred to in

More information

Verifying & Measuring Ventilation Systems

Verifying & Measuring Ventilation Systems Verifying & Measuring Ventilation Systems Chip Henderson, AIA, CEM, LEED-Faculty 2012 RESNET Conference Austin, Texas Indoor Air Quality Intent Ventilation System designed to meet ASHRAE 62.2-2007 ASHRAE

More information

SYNOPSIS. Improve Indoor Air Quality and Reduce Costs With Demand Controlled Ventilation. In this issue...

SYNOPSIS. Improve Indoor Air Quality and Reduce Costs With Demand Controlled Ventilation. In this issue... VOLUME THREE NUMBER FOUR SYNOPSIS A N H V A C N E W S L E T T E R F O R B U I L D I N G O W N E R S A N D M A N A G E R S In this issue... Demand Controlled Ventilation How CO2-based DCV effectively maintains

More information

Benefits of Incorporating Retro- Commissioning In An ESPC Project

Benefits of Incorporating Retro- Commissioning In An ESPC Project Benefits of Incorporating Retro- Commissioning In An ESPC Project Presented To: NAESCO 24 th Annual Conference Presented By: Nick Malik, PE Sebesta Blomberg October 24, 2007 Overview of Presentation What

More information

Whole House Dehumidification for Occupant Comfort and Energy Savings

Whole House Dehumidification for Occupant Comfort and Energy Savings Downloaded from www.rsrews.com. Since 1968, RS Andrews has proudly served Atlanta's Heating, Air Conditioning & Plumbing Needs. Whole House Dehumidification for Occupant Comfort Energy Savings June 2009

More information

newsletter engineers energy-saving strategies for Water-Source Heat Pump Systems volume 36 2 providing insights for today s hvac system designer

newsletter engineers energy-saving strategies for Water-Source Heat Pump Systems volume 36 2 providing insights for today s hvac system designer engineers volume 36 2 newsletter providing insights for today s hvac system designer energy-saving strategies for Water-Source Heat Pump Systems from the editor... Water-source heat pump (WSHP) systems

More information

DEHUMIDIFICATION: Supermarket Humidity Control Design Guide

DEHUMIDIFICATION: Supermarket Humidity Control Design Guide DEHUMIDIFICATION: Supermarket Humidity Control Design Guide The Humidity Expert Supermarket Humidity Control Design Guide A Supermarket environment is one of the most unique in the commercial arena. The

More information

Ventilation and Air Leakage

Ventilation and Air Leakage building science.com 2008 Building Science Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Ventilation and Air Leakage Research Report - 0303 November-2003 Andrew C. Åsk, PE Abstract: Buildings

More information

Data Realty Colocation Data Center Ignition Park, South Bend, IN. Owner: Data Realty Engineer: ESD Architect: BSA LifeStructures

Data Realty Colocation Data Center Ignition Park, South Bend, IN. Owner: Data Realty Engineer: ESD Architect: BSA LifeStructures Data Realty Colocation Data Center Ignition Park, South Bend, IN Owner: Data Realty Engineer: ESD Architect: BSA LifeStructures Project Overview Data Realty is a data center service provider for middle

More information

HVAC Systems and Indoor Air Quality. Douglas K. Spratt, M.Sc., P.Eng.

HVAC Systems and Indoor Air Quality. Douglas K. Spratt, M.Sc., P.Eng. HVAC Systems and Indoor Air Quality Douglas K. Spratt, M.Sc., P.Eng. The 5 Senses Architecture Electrical Structural Mechanical Hearing Seeing Smelling Feeling Tasting HVAC Systems are Dynamic Heat Gains

More information

for Plans Examiners and Building Inspectors

for Plans Examiners and Building Inspectors Building Technologies Program HVAC Controls Guide for Plans Examiners and Building Inspectors September 2011 Authors: Eric Makela, PNNL James Russell, PECI Sarah Fujita, PECI Cindy Strecker, PECI Prepared

More information

The Need for Ventilation and Moisture Control for Health, Comfort and Sustainability Nikki Kruger Industry Manager

The Need for Ventilation and Moisture Control for Health, Comfort and Sustainability Nikki Kruger Industry Manager The Need for Ventilation and Moisture Control for Health, Comfort and Sustainability Nikki Kruger Industry Manager ANTITRUST POLICY STATEMENT FOR SPRAY POLYURETHANE FOAM ALLIANCE MEETINGS It is and shall

More information

) and the maximum airflow setpoint (V max

) and the maximum airflow setpoint (V max The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, March 004. Copyright 004 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes

More information

Glossary of HVAC Terms

Glossary of HVAC Terms Glossary of HVAC Terms Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major sub- discipline of mechanical engineering. The goal of HVAC design is to balance indoor environmental comfort with other

More information

Greenhouse Gas Implications of HVAC Upgrades in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings

Greenhouse Gas Implications of HVAC Upgrades in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings Greenhouse Gas Implications of HVAC Upgrades in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings J A NUARY 2015 INTRODUCTION This Research Report explores best practices and approaches for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG)

More information