1 Official Basketball Rules 2010 Referees Manual Three-Person Officiating As approved by FIBA Central Board San Juan, Puerto Rico, 17 th April 2010 Valid as of 1 st October 2010
2 April 2010 Page 2 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING
3 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Table of contents April 2010 Page 3 of Introduction Important terms Start of the game Observation of pre-game and half-time warm-ups General floor position Jump ball to begin the game Jump ball to begin the game play goes to referee's right Jump ball to begin the game play goes to referee's left Positioning and playing court coverage by officials Basic playing court coverage Basic coverage Officials working area Primary coverage when the ball is in the frontcourt (table-side or opposite side) Basic movement when the ball is passed or dribbled from one side to the other (rotation) Basic movement when the ball goes toward the basket Basic movement when the ball goes from the backcourt to the frontcourt (transition) Basic movement during pressing defence Throw-in situations Throw-in coverage Throw-in from endline when the ball goes to frontcourt Throw-in from sideline when the ball goes or remains in frontcourt Throw-in from endline when the ball remains in frontcourt Shooting situations Shot for a field goal and rebound coverage Responsibility for out-of-bounds coverage and resulting throw-ins Signals and procedures Procedure when a foul is called Switching positions after a foul is called, ball remains in the frontcourt Switching positions after a foul is called, ball goes to new frontcourt Free-throw situations Free-throw administration Administration of technical, unsportsmanlike and disqualifying foul penalties Time-outs and substitutions Time-outs Three-point field goal coverage... 29
4 April 2010 Page 4 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Introduction Referees Manual Three-person officiating Throughout the Referees Manual - Three-person officiating, all references made to a player, coach, official, etc., in the male gender also apply to the female gender. It must be understood that this is done for practical reasons only. 1. Introduction 1.1 Important terms Ball-Side: Officials: This refers to the position of the ball. When the playing court is divided by an imaginary line extending from basket to basket, the side of the playing court on which the ball is located is called the "ball-side". The L (lead) official is the official who is positioned at the endline. The C (centre) official is the official who is positioned on the opposite side of the frontcourt from the L (usually opposite ball-side), approximately two steps towards the basket beyond the free-throw line extended. Depending on the location of the ball, C may be on either side of the frontcourt. The T (trail) official is the official who is positioned approximately at the edge of the team bench area nearer to the centre line and on the same side as the L (ball-side). The L and the T are on the same side of the playing court while the C is on the opposite side. Opposite Side: This refers to the side of the playing court which is furthest away from the scorer's table. Rotation: Strong Side: Switch: Weak Side: This refers to a live ball situation when the movement/location of the ball causes the L to initiate a change of position or "rotation" relative to the ball's position (table-side or opposite side) in the frontcourt. A change in position by L affects changes in position by C and T. During normal play, rotations are controlled by L and, in principle, it begins when the ball moves to the ball-side or when the ball penetrates beyond the free-throw line towards the basket. However, if the L or the C wish to observe a developing play/press situation above the free-throw line they may move and initiate a rotation. The side of the playing court in which the L is located. This refers to a dead ball situation when the calling of a foul necessitates a switch in position by the officials. The official who calls the foul always moves to the opposite side after reporting the foul to the scorer s table. Whenever there is a throw-in situation, two officials are always on the ball-side. The side of the frontcourt in which L is not located.
5 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Start of the game April 2010 Page 5 of Start of the game 2.1 Observation of pre-game and half-time warm-ups Diagram 1 Pre-game and half-time warm-up position A. Referee and both umpires take positions at sideline opposite the scorer's table. B. Referee stands at the intersection of the centre line and the sideline. C. U1 (Umpire 1) takes a position approximately three (3) metres to the left of the referee and observes the team at that end of the playing court during its warm-up. D. U2 (Umpire 2) takes a position approximately three (3) metres to the right of the referee and observes the team at that end of the playing court during its warm-up. E. Ten (10) minutes before the game is scheduled to begin, the referee shall go to the scorer's table to see that team lists and the starting five (5) players have been properly entered in the scoresheet and he returns to the opposite the scorer s table. F. If appropriate, six (6) minutes before the game, the referee blows his whistle and ensures that all players return to team bench areas for the introduction of the teams. G. After the introduction of the teams, the referee blows his whistle and signals three (3) minutes remain prior to the start of the game. H. Two (2) minutes before the game, the referee and the umpires shall move to tableside of the playing court. I. One minute and thirty seconds (1:30) remaining before the game, the referee blows his whistle and ensures that all players return to their respective team bench areas immediately. J. During the half-time warm-up, the officials shall assume the same positions as for the pre-game warm-up.
6 April 2010 Page 6 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Start of the game 2.2 General floor position In three-person officiating, the officials should attempt, at all times, to maintain a position relative to each other resembling a wide triangle. As the ball moves to various positions on the playing court, or when there is a change of possession, the officials should strive to preserve this triangle as they too move to new positions on the playing court. 2.3 Jump ball to begin the game Diagram 2 Jump ball A. The referee is responsible for tossing the jump ball from a position facing the scorer's table. B. The umpires take positions on opposite sidelines. U1 is table-side, between the edge of the team bench area and the centre line; U2 is opposite side level with the edge of team bench area. C. U1 responsibilities: 1. Calling for a re-jump on a poor toss or a jumper violation. 2. Giving the time-in signal to start the game clock when ball is legally tapped. D. U2 responsibility: observing the eight (8) non-jumpers.
7 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Start of the game April 2010 Page 7 of Jump ball to begin the game play goes to referee's right Diagram 3 Jump ball play goes to referee's right A. U2 becomes L. B. U1 becomes C. C. The referee moves to the sideline where U2 was positioned during the jump ball and becomes T. 2.5 Jump ball to begin the game play goes to referee's left Diagram 4 Jump ball - play goes to referee's left A. U1 becomes L. B. U2 becomes C. C. The referee moves to the sideline where U1 was positioned during the jump ball and becomes T.
8 April 2010 Page 8 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Positioning and playing court coverage by officials 3. Positioning and playing court coverage by officials 3.1 Basic playing court coverage Diagram 5 Basic playing court coverage 3.2 Basic coverage A. Play around ball when it is in the area of that official (on-the ball coverage). B. Players away from the ball in the area of that official, when the ball is in another official's area (off-the ball coverage). C. C stands two (2) metres beyond the free-throw line extended towards the basket on the sideline. If necessary he moves onto the playing court or down the sideline towards the basket. D. T takes his initial position at the edge of the team bench area. If necessary he moves onto the playing court or down the sideline towards the basket. E. In a throw-in situation, before handing the ball to the player taking the throw-in, the administering official verifies that the two (2) officials (L and T) are on the same side as the ball.
9 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Positioning and playing court coverage by officials April 2010 Page 9 of Officials working area Diagram 6 Ball table-side Diagram 7 Ball opposite side A. The working areas of the officials when the ball is table-side (Diagram 6). B. The working areas of the officials when the ball is opposite side (Diagram 7). In principle, the officials will be working in the designated working areas. However, whenever necessary, the officials may move to positions outside their respective working areas for better coverage of the specific game situations.
10 April 2010 Page 10 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Positioning and playing court coverage by officials 3.4 Primary coverage when the ball is in the frontcourt (table-side or opposite side) Diagram 8 Ball table-side (Example) Diagram 9 Ball opposite side (Example) A. Each official is responsible for an area of primary coverage. B. When the ball is in an official's primary coverage area, that official has responsibility for fouls and violations in the vicinity of the ball (on-the ball coverage). C. When the ball is not in an official's primary coverage area, that official is responsible for all players who are in that area (off-the ball coverage). D. Areas of dual coverage exist between the L and T only.
11 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Positioning and playing court coverage by officials April 2010 Page 11 of Basic movement when the ball is passed or dribbled from one side to the other (rotation) Diagram 10 Ball moves to opposite side Diagram 11 Ball moves to table-side A. L moves to the ball-side when the ball is passed to a player on the other side or when the ball penetrates beyond the free-throw line extended nearest C. An exception to this movement would be during a quick shot or a drive directly to the basket. B. The rotation of the officials in the frontcourt shall never increase the size of the triangle. C. L is responsible for initiating the rotation and continues to have responsibility for the players in the post position, even while moving across the endline. C shall hold position until L arrives and has the play covered. D. T then moves to the centre position. E. C is the last to move to his new trail position. F. Eye contact is very important. C and T shall be alert and aware of changing positions when a rotation is initiated by L.
12 April 2010 Page 12 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Positioning and playing court coverage by officials 3.6 Basic movement when the ball goes toward the basket Diagram 12 Normal play Diagram 13 Drive to the basket When a drive occurs to the basket: A. L moves with the ball. B. C stands two (2) metres from the free-throw line extended towards the basket. C. T moves down towards the basket. D. The triangle between the officials becomes smaller.
13 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Positioning and playing court coverage by officials April 2010 Page 13 of Basic movement when the ball goes from the backcourt to the frontcourt (transition) Diagram 14 Transition movement Diagram 15 Transition movement after rotation A. T becomes the new L and is responsible for: 1. Endline coverage. 2. The play coming towards him. 3. Post players, even when they are moving across the restricted area. 4. Dictating rotation. B. C continues to be C in transition (7-10 metres from the new T) and is responsible for: 1. All violations and fouls in the area between the tops of the two (2) free-throw semi-circles on his side. 2. On fast break passes, following the play quickly to assist the new L with his responsibility for ball coverage. 3. For ball coverage, if the ball goes to the basket on his side. C. L becomes the new T and is responsible for: 1. Determining new sideline responsibility. 2. Coverage of the game behind the fast break. 3. All the players in the backcourt until they move into the frontcourt.
14 April 2010 Page 14 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Positioning and playing court coverage by officials 3.8 Basic movement during pressing defence Officials must keep the game covered using the wide triangle coverage in the area of action. T is responsible for the eight-second count in the backcourt and will cover the playing action, always respecting the possibility of a quick turnover. C and T move with the speed of the ball. C should be in position to assist T with centre line violations. L, who is positioned near the centre line, will cover the fast break or long pass down the playing court. All officials must keep moving and be alert to avoid being blocked out. Diagram 16 All players in backcourt Diagram 17 Players in frontcourt and backcourt All players in backcourt A. C and T cover the playing action in the backcourt. B. L takes position near the centre line, keeping all players in view Players in frontcourt and backcourt A. C and T cover the playing action in the backcourt. B. L takes position where he can observe the players in frontcourt. C. If a press defence occurs on the weak-side, C may rotate down towards the centre line in order to cover the play.
15 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Throw-in situations April 2010 Page 15 of Throw-in situations 4.1 Throw-in coverage A. L shall have responsibility for the endline in the frontcourt. B. C shall have responsibility for the sideline on his side of the playing court. C. T shall have responsibility for the sideline on his side of the playing court, as well as for the endline in the backcourt. 4.2 Throw-in from endline when the ball goes to frontcourt Diagram 18 Table-side Diagram 19 Opposite side A. T administers the throw-in. If the throw-in is to take place on the table-side of the endline, T takes a position between the ball and the sideline on the table-side. If the throw-in is to take place on the opposite side, T takes a position between the ball and the sideline on the opposite side. T and L are always on the same side as the ball. B. C takes a position 7-10 metres from T and is ready to adjust to the movement of the players on the inbounds pass. C is always on the side opposite T and L. C. L takes a position at the free-throw line extended in the frontcourt and is ready to adjust to the movement of the players. D. L is not required to move to ball-side until the ball and all the players have moved into the frontcourt.
16 April 2010 Page 16 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Throw-in situations 4.3 Throw-in from sideline when the ball goes or remains in frontcourt Diagram 20 Table-side Diagram 21 Opposite side A. T administers the throw-in and remains T. B. C takes a position 7-10 metres from T and is ready to adjust to the movement of the players on the inbounds pass while remaining C. C. L takes a position at the free-throw line extended in the frontcourt and is ready to adjust to the movement of the players. D. If, as a result of the throw-in, the ball goes out-of-bounds on the side of T, backcourt or frontcourt, then T continues in that position and administers the throw-in. E. L is not required to move to the ball-side until the ball and all the players have moved into the frontcourt.
17 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Throw-in situations April 2010 Page 17 of 30 Diagram 22 Opposite side Diagram 23 Opposite side A. C calls the out-of-bounds violation, moves to the throw-in place to administer the throw-in and becomes new T. B. T moves to the new centre position. C. L moves to the ball-side.
18 April 2010 Page 18 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Throw-in situations 4.4 Throw-in from endline when the ball remains in frontcourt Diagram 24 Table-side Diagram 25 Opposite side A. L administers the throw-in from a position between the player taking the throw-in and the basket. B. C takes a position two (2) metres beyond the free-throw line extended on the appropriate side of the playing court. C. T takes his position at the edge of the team bench area.
19 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Shooting situations April 2010 Page 19 of Shooting situations 5.1 Shot for a field goal and rebound coverage Diagram 26 Shots from perimeter A. C is primarily responsible for all field goal attempts taken from within the freethrow semi-circle. B. T is responsible for helping with shots for a field goal from within the free-throw semi-circle on the side of T. Diagram 27 Shots from table-side
20 April 2010 Page 20 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Shooting situations Diagram 28 Shots from opposite side On field goal attempts from strong side, responsibilities shall be as follows: A. L is responsible for the shooter as well as ball-side rebounds. B. C is primarily responsible for goaltending and interference violations, with a secondary responsibility for weak side rebounds. C. T is responsible for goaltending and interference violations as well as perimeter rebounds.
21 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Shooting situations April 2010 Page 21 of Responsibility for out-of-bounds coverage and resulting throwins Diagram 29 Throw-in responsibilities Each official shall have responsibility for out-of-bounds coverage for the sideline or endline in his floor area. If that official is in doubt as to who caused the ball to go outof-bounds, then he shall look to his partners for help. The same applies for the ball returns to the backcourt violation at the centre line.
22 April 2010 Page 22 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Signals and procedures 6. Signals and procedures 6.1 Procedure when a foul is called A. The official who calls the foul: 1. Identifies the player who committed the foul and runs to a spot clear of the players, coming to a stop in order to report the foul to the scorer s table. 2. Moves to the opposite side of the playing court. B. The officials not calling the foul: 1. Freeze and observe all players until the reporting has begun and then move to their new positions while continuing to observe the players. 2. If the official on the table-side is not calling the foul, he remains table-side. 3. The official closest to the table is responsible for administering all requests for time-outs and substitutions. C. The official who calls the offensive foul on: 1. Table-side becomes the new C on opposite side. 2. Opposite side returns to the opposite side. D. Free throws: 1. The new L always administers all free throws from the opposite side. 2. Before entering the restricted area for the administration of a free throw(s), L checks the scorer s table for late requests for time-outs or substitutions. 3. C positions himself at the level of the free-throw line table-side. 4. T positions himself at the level of the team bench area line opposite side. In case of a throw-in after the free throws at the centre line extended, opposite the scorer s table, he steps down to the centre line to administer the throw-in.
23 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Signals and procedures April 2010 Page 23 of Switching positions after a foul is called, ball remains in the frontcourt Diagram 30 C calls defensive foul Diagram 31 L calls defensive foul
24 April 2010 Page 24 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Signals and procedures Diagram 32 T calls defensive foul A. The official who called the foul reports the foul to the scorer's table and moves to the opposite side of the playing court. B. The other officials freeze and observe all players until the reporting has begun and then move to their new positions while continuing to observe the players. 6.3 Switching positions after a foul is called, ball goes to new frontcourt Diagram 33 C calls offensive foul
25 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Signals and procedures April 2010 Page 25 of 30 Diagram 34 L calls offensive foul Diagram 35 T calls offensive foul A. The official who called the foul reports the foul to the scorer's table and moves to the opposite side of the playing court. B. The other officials freeze and observe all players until the reporting has begun and then move to their new positions while continuing to observe the players.
26 April 2010 Page 26 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Free-throw situations 7. Free-throw situations 7.1 Free-throw administration A. L's responsibilities (opposite side): 1. Retrieving the ball and administering all free throws by signalling the number of free throws and bounce-passing the ball to the free-throw shooter. 2. Watching the players along the opposite side of the restricted area. 3. After the successful last or only free throw, signalling the starting of the game clock. B. C's responsibilities (table-side): 1. Signalling the number of free throws. 2. Watching the players along the opposite side of the restricted area. 3. Observing the feet of the free-throw shooter. C. T s responsibilities (opposite side): 1. Helping with free-throw violations where necessary. 2. Administers the throw-in at the centre line extended, opposite the scorer s table when required. All officials ensure the correct player is attempting the free throws. Diagram 36 Free-throw administration
27 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Free-throw situations April 2010 Page 27 of Administration of technical, unsportsmanlike and disqualifying foul penalties A. The official who calls the technical, unsportsmanlike or disqualifying foul reports the foul and then becomes the new T (opposite side). B. The L (opposite side) administers all free throws by signalling the number of free throws and bounce-passing the ball to the free-throw shooter. C. The C (table side) positions himself at the free-throw line extended, while the free throws are being administered. D. After the last or only free throw the L passes or rolls the ball to the T for administration of the throw-in at the centre line extended, opposite the scorer s table. E. C maintains his normal centre position. Diagram 37 Administration of the throw-in at the centre line extended, opposite the scorer s table
28 April 2010 Page 28 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Time-outs and substitutions 8. Time-outs and substitutions 8.1 Time-outs A. At the appropriate time, the scorer indicates to the officials, by sounding his signal, that a request for a time-out or substitution has been made. The official nearest the scorer s table then blows his whistle and gives the time-out or substitution signal. In the case that the table-side official has called a foul, the request for time-out and/or substitution will be granted by the official who replaces him on the table-side. B. All officials take the position similar to the pre-game position. The official who has awarded the time-out becomes the C and stands straddling the centre line opposite the scorer s table. The other officials stand on his left and right side. If the game is to resume with a free throw, then the L holds the ball; if the game is to resume with a throw-in, then the official with responsibility for the sideline or endline where the throw-in will take place holds the ball. C. At the fifty (50) second signal, the officials ensure that all the players return to the playing court, after which the officials move to their normal free-throw or throw-in positions. Diagram 38 During time-out
29 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Three-point field goal coverage April 2010 Page 29 of Three-point field goal coverage A. When a three-point field goal attempt is anticipated, the officials should adjust their positions to judge the attempt clearly. B. When a player attempts a three-point field goal, the official whose area the player is in will signal the attempt by extending one arm above his head with three (3) fingers extended. C. When a three-point field goal is successful, the covering official will signal by fully extending both arms above his head with three (3) fingers extended. D. When T signals a successful three-point field goal, C must mirror the signal and when C signals a successful three-point field goal, T must mirror the signal. E. From the free-throw line extended to the top of the free-throw semi-circle on both sides, T and C share responsibility for a three-point field goal attempt. F. L will have responsibility to assist on a three-point field goal attempt on a fast break on transition, when C and T cannot get into a position to see the attempt. G. Officials must not turn their backs on the players or playing court when signalling. Officials must anticipate a quick fast break immediately after a successful threepoint attempt and be ready to officiate the following play. Diagram 39 Three-point field goal coverage
30 April 2010 Page 30 of 30 THREE-PERSON OFFICIATING Three-point field goal coverage Diagram 40 Three-point field goal coverage
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A five on four power play in their zone can be organized into a two on one on one of the corners of their box formation by our positioning and puck movement, pressuring one of their players to choose which