geography on cultural development

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1 Grade 6 th Grade social studies Lesson: Affects of physical geography on cultural development Reference to English Interconnections Lesson Mesopotamia p. 65 Science Standard(s): Standard 1 Objective 3 Content Objective(s): Teacher objective Students will be able to explain the causes and effects of physical geography on cultural development by filling in an exit ticket. Student objective [posted] I will be able to explain the causes and effects of physical geography on cultural development by filling in an exit ticket. Essential Questions: How did geography impact the development of early civilizations? Language Objective(s): Teacher objective Students will be able to use required vocabulary in sentence frames to discuss the causes and effects of physical geography on cultural development by playing numbered heads in small groups. Student objective [posted] I will be able to use required vocabulary in sentence frames to discuss the causes and effects of physical geography on cultural development by playing numbered heads in small groups. Required Academic Vocabulary for Word Wall: Listen: food surplus, cause and effect, One thing leads to another, the Ice Age, migration, migrate, hunting and gathering, specialized jobs, government and laws, writing systems, agriculture, surplus of food, trade, inventions, goods, ancestors, sea level, under water, exposed, dry land, nomads, roam/roaming, permanent, to keep order, cuneiform, herders, invade Speak: food surplus, the Ice Age, migration, migrate, hunting and gathering, specialized jobs, government and laws, writing systems, agriculture, surplus of food, trade, dry land, nomads, roam/roaming, permanent, to keep order, herders, invade Read: food surplus, the Ice Age, migration, migrate, hunting and gathering, specialized jobs, government and laws, writing systems, agriculture, surplus of food, trade, inventions, goods, ancestors, sea level, under water, exposed, dry land, nomads, roam/roaming, permanent, to keep order, cuneiform, herders, invade Write: food surplus, the Ice Age, migration, migrate, hunting and gathering, jobs, government and laws, writing systems, agriculture, surplus of food, trade, inventions, goods, ancestors, sea level, under water, exposed, dry land, nomads, roam/roaming, permanent, to keep order, herders, invade Sentence Frames: search for for food. People who were called means that. means. A includes and. They needed because.

2 In (year) began to, so causing to and. developed and that allowed people to. Because, they needed so. From, learned of and then. This led to Materials: Mesopotamia video in Spanish produced by Editorial Sol 90, PpMI&feature=autoplay&list=PLE7DEBE2CCD9AC44A&playnext=3 A large pictorial timeline displayed around the room. It must be long enough to plot all the dates with pictures from the Sumerians to the Cold War Cause and Effect picture Graphic organizer(with lines under the pictures to write cause and effect statements) An enlarges or projected Cause and Effect picture Graphic organizer(with lines under the pictures to write cause and effect statements) Exit ticket with 2 sentence frames. World history Atlas or maps of the ancient Middle East Additional Lesson Vocabulary: Abundant, hospitable, triangular reeds, clay tablets, pens, craft, shelter, vulnerable, efficiency Review: impact, physical features, snow- melt, flood waters, Sumer, Sumerian, Akkadian empire, Persian Gulf, Mediterranean Sea, crops, harvest, berries, nuts, share responsibility Lesson: Instructional Time: 40 minutes Opening: ( 7 minutes) Post the phrase One thing leads to another (or the equivalent in each language) T: I d like everyone to think silently for one minute about what this phrase means and try to think of an example from your own life. Think! As you say think do a gesture to indicate they may not talk and should think. T: After one minute, Talk to two other people and share your examples with them. Wait one minute. Who can tell me one example you heard? List the relevant examples on the board that illustrate cause and effect. If they are having trouble, offer your own example. T: Let s look at these examples and let s try to find the pattern here. In John s example, he says it didn t snow much last season so he didn t ski, instead he learned how to play chess. Now he has new friends from the chess club. In Marta s example, she says her mother got a new job so she has to ride her bike to school so now her legs are stronger and she is a better soccer player. Read through the other examples. T: What pattern do we see here? Wait for answers. Yes! These are all examples of cause and effect. Turn to your partner and identify which parts of the examples are causes and which parts are effects. Give them a minute to discuss. T: Good I heard you saying the cause was it didn t snow and the effect was john made new friends. Identify all causes and effects in the examples and record them on an enlarged version of the Herringbone graphic organizer. T: Read the objectives turn to a partner and tell them in your own words what we will learn today Wait 30 seconds T: Who can tell the class in your own words what you will be able to do at the end of the lesson?

3 Ask 1-3 students to answer. Introduction to New Material (Direct Instruction): (8 minutes) Use a World History Atlas and/or show a series of maps that illustrate the changes to the coastline and the amount of land caused by the Ice Age, migration, the development or farming and cities. If you choose to show a video, be sure to stop the video, re- state and ask comprehension questions. T: Today we re going to examine how the physical features in ancient civilizations like Mesopotamia started a pattern of one thing leading to another or cause and effect. Let s watch this short video about the development of Ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia. Show video Or briefly explain using visuals or a series of maps/charts from World History Atlas books. Here is the sequence of events to highlight in the introduction: o The impact of the Ice Age on migration o Migration changed the hunting and gathering lifestyle to farming (importance of mountains and rivers) o Farming created communities of people who lived in the area permanently and had specialized jobs o People living together created a need for government and laws which led to the first form of written language o Success with agriculture caused a surplus of food which led to trade o A need for efficiency led to inventions like the wheel for transporting goods Guided Practice: (20 minutes) T: Let s examine more closely how the physical features in ancient civilizations like Mesopotamia started a pattern of one thing leading to another or cause and effect. As we practice today, we will be playing numbered heads. You are in groups of four and each group has a number. Everyone in group 1 raise your hands. Wait and check that they understand. Repeat with the other 6 groups T: L ook at the number on your chair, this is your personal number. For example, Paul is in group 2 and is sitting in seat 3. I am going to ask a question, after I ask the question, I ll roll the dice. If I roll a 2 and a 3, Paul will answer the question. Everyone look at his or her chairs. If you are in seat 1 raise your hand. Wait and check that they understand. Repeat with the other 3 seats. T: We know that our earliest ancestors were hunters and gatherers. Post a picture of hunting and gathering and the words hunting and gathering. Hunters search for animals or prey and kill them for food. Gatherers search for food like berries, plants and nuts. Hold up the picture of the hunters and gatherers and tell your group what it means. Scan the room to be sure they have the correct picture. Wait 30 seconds T: What does it mean to be a hunter and gatherer? Discuss it in your groups using the sentence frames. Wait for them to discuss it, roll the dice, and call on the group and seat number to answer. T: Glue the first picture of hunters and gatherers on your cause and effect graphic organizer. Like this. As they glue the picture, glue the picture on an enlarged graphic organizer in the front of the room. T: In 100,000 B.C., the earth s temperature began to fall; rivers froze so water could not flow back to the sea. The sea level dropped and areas that were under water were exposed as dry land. This made it easier for people to migrate to better climates. Hold up the picture of a chart of the changes that have occurred to the sea level from 100,000B.C. to present day. Scan the room to be sure they have the correct picture. Wait 30 seconds T: Why was it easier to migrate? Discuss it in your groups using the sentence frames. Wait for them to discuss it, roll the dice, and call on the group and seat number to answer. T: Glue the second picture of the Sea level changes on your cause and effect graphic organizer. As they glue the picture, glue the picture on an enlarged graphic organizer in the front of the room.

4 T: People who move from place to place were called Nomads. Hold up the picture of nomads. Tell your group what it means. Wait for them to discuss it, roll the dice, and call on the group and seat number to answer. T: Glue the picture on your cause and effect graphic organizer. As they glue the third picture, glue the picture on an enlarged graphic organizer in the front of the room. T: Eventually, people found regions that were more hospitable than others. Meaning, It was easier for them to live in areas where there was access to natural resources like water, food and materials to build shelters. So, they settled down and stopped roaming or traveling. Hold up the picture of a place with abundant natural resources. Tell your group what it means. Scan the room, wait until everyone holds up a picture, then hold up the correct picture. T: Glue the picture of a place rich in natural resources on your cause and effect graphic organizer. As they glue the picture, glue the picture on an enlarged graphic organizer in the front of the room. T: Look at this cause and effect statement and read along as I read aloud. Nomads roamed the lands and hunted and gathered their food to survive. In 100,000B.C. the earth s temperature began to fall, so less water flowed into the ocean causing the sea level to drop and exposing dry land. People began to migrate to regions that had plenty of food and comfortable climates. Write this under the pictures you glued on your graphic organizer. Wait as they write. T: Group 3 seat 2. Oh, that s Kathy. Read the cause from the sentences we just wrote. T: Group 1, seat 1, Oh Bob, read the effect from the sentences we just wrote. T: Check your group members answers on their papers and make sure it matches the example I have written in the front of the room. T: As we learned in our last lesson the mountains provided protection from harsh winds and collected snow, which melts and then flows into the rivers. The floodwaters deliver soil and minerals creating fertile lands where plants grow. People began to grow and harvest crops. These crops provided food for animals so people began to keep wild animals in pens for food. People became farmers. Agriculture, or growing plants and raising animals for food changed human society. Hold up the picture that represents agriculture. T: Tell your group what agriculture means. Using your sentence stems. Wait 10 seconds. Glue this picture on your cause and effect graphic organizer. T: Let s look at this example. The mountains and rivers created fertile lands so people began to grow crops and stopped hunting and gathering food to survive. Label your cause and effect graphic organizer on the line provided under the pictures as I label the enlarged graphic organizer. Write the sentence on the graphic organizer as they write it on their paper. T: Check your group members answers and make sure it matches the example I have written in the front of the room.

5 T: Since people were not roaming anymore, they built more permanent homes out of materials that were available. As more people moved into the area, they formed city- states, which includes a city and the surrounding countryside. In 8,000 B.C. 1,000 people lived in Jericho, one of the world s oldest cities. Hold up the picture of the ancient city. T: Tell your group what a city- state is. T: Glue the picture of the ancient city onto your organizer. T: The farming communities produced a surplus of food or more food than they could eat which allowed people to specialize and work in other jobs like tool making. Hold up the picture that shows the surplus of food. T: Tell your group what a surplus of food means. T: Glue the picture of the surplus of food onto your organizer. T: Hold up the picture that shows the variety of jobs people had. T: Glue the picture of the various jobs onto your organizer. T: Let s look at this example. City- states developed and produced a surplus of food that allowed people to specialize and work other jobs. Label your cause and effect graphic organizer on the line provided under the pictures as I label the enlarged graphic organizer. Write the sentence on the graphic organizer as they write it on their paper. T: Group 4 seat 4. Oh, that s Sean. Read the cause from the sentences we just wrote. T: Group 3, seat 1, Oh Tom, read the effect from the sentences we just wrote. T: Check your group members answers. T: Now that people had specific jobs or specialized in a craft, the community worked as a team and each person shared the responsibilities for the community. To keep order, government and laws were established. Each Sumerian city- state was independent and governed by its own ruler, special god and had its own army. Hold up the picture that shows the government and laws. T: Tell your group why they needed government and laws using your new vocabulary words. T: Glue the picture of the government and laws onto your organizer. T: Label your cause and effect graphic organizer on the line provided under the pictures as I label the enlarged graphic organizer. Because a community has shared responsibilities, they needed a system to keep order so they established government and laws. Write the cause and effect sentence on the graphic organizer as they write it on their paper.

6 T: Group 2 seat 4. Oh, that s Carly. Read the cause from the sentences we just wrote. T: Group 1, seat 2, Oh Sally, read the effect from the sentences we just wrote. T: Check your group members answers. T: The first written language was created to record the laws. The Sumerians scratched these symbols using triangular reeds on clay tablets to record their laws. Hold up the picture of the early writing systems. Post an image or chart of the tokens(7,000bc), pictographs(3500bc) and cuneiform(3000bc) symbols that were used in the written language. T: Tell your group what a writing system is. T: Glue the picture of the writing systems onto your organizer. T: The food surplus allowed Sumerians to trade their food for goods with other cities. They used cuneiform to record their trades. Hold up the picture of trading. T: Use your sentence frames to tell your group what it means to trade. T: Glue the picture of food surplus onto your organizer. T: The Sumerians were very successful traders but needed a more efficient way to transport their goods. So they invented the wheel. Hold up the picture of the wheel. T: Tell your group why they needed the wheel. T: Glue the picture of the wheel onto your organizer. T: By trading Sumerians interacted with other city- states and other people learned of their access to natural resources. The Sumerian city- states were permanent, had a wealth of natural resources and were vulnerable or not well- protected so nomadic herders often invaded them. In 2900B.C. Semitic herders seized city- states in northern Sumer and this was the beginning of the Akkadian Empire. By 2250 B.C. the Akkadian Empire reached from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. T: Label your cause and effect graphic organizer on the line provided under the pictures as I label the enlarged graphic organizer. From trading, neighboring cities learned of the Sumerians supply of natural resources and invaded them. This led to the first Empire called the Akkadian Empire. Write the cause and effect sentences on the graphic organizer as they write it on their paper. T: Underline the cause in these sentences and circle the effect. You may discuss it with your group first. T: Group 2 seat 4. Oh, that s Carly. Read the cause from the sentences we just wrote. T: Group 1, seat 2, Oh Sally, read the effect from the sentences we just wrote.

7 T: Check your group members answers. Independent Practice: (3 minutes) T: Fill- out this exit ticket by filling in two cause and effect sentences about the effects of physical features on cultural development. You may use your graphic organizer to help you. After you write, share your sentences with your group. Then I will roll and have 2 of you share your sentences with the class. Please write your sentences silently. Wait 2 minutes to write. T: Ok, now share your sentences in your group. Closing: ( 2 minutes) Roll the dice and call on a group and a seat. T: Ok. Kayla, read the first sentence. T: ok, Jacob, read the second sentence. Assessment: Listen to student responses on their exit ticket and collect them. Extra Ideas: Final

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