Literature Synopsis: Teaching in French and Minority Languages Faculté Saint-Jean. Introduction. Key Findings. 1. Official languages in Canada

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1 Literature Synopsis: Teaching in French and Minority Languages Faculté Saint-Jean Introduction In 1969, the Official Languages Act officially passed a bilingualism policy. This led to debates on immersion education across Canada. French immersion programs have been in place for nearly 40 years. In Alberta, students can study French as a Second Language (FSL) or be enrolled in a French immersion program. Francophone schools give the francophone student the opportunity to study in his/her native language. The following synopsis is by no means a detailed listing of the existing research on French immersion programs, French as a second language or of francophone education. This is a synopsis of some of the newer research in the field. Key Findings 1. Official languages in Canada The historic origins of Canadian official bilingualism are outlined by Churchill (1998). He indicates that the separation of language from culture is very problematic. Not only does he mention the French and English cultures, he also outlines the trend of immigrants to adopt one of Canada s two official languages. The linguistic and cultural tension in Canada is examined by Edwards (1998). Official bilingualism and educational policy and language are given extensive coverage as well as the origin of French, English and aboriginal languages. 2. Error correction in second language classroom Second language teachers correct many errors and find it frustrating to see the errors recur in student writing. Mantello (1997) indicates that students should keep in mind that the only true objective in error correction is student learning. Robinson (1999) used a self-correcting strategy on the written work of her students to help them correct their own errors. Fehr (2000) studied various strategies to evaluate the oral production of secondary students in French immersion. Beaudet (2001) and Collins (2001) used interactive corrective strategies to correct the spoken errors of French immersion students. 3. Marketing the French Immersion Program Businesses that do well have a product the consumer wants. Therrien (2003) indicates that attrition and retention in French immersion schools is a problem. A marketing strategy must be in place if French immersion schools are to attract and retain students. The product must be valuable and marketable. French immersion and FSL programs are promoted in a number of ways, both in the school and outside the school (Evaluation Plus Inc., 2002). Makangu Mov s (2004) study surveyed the future plans of French immersion students in four high schools. Results have shown that the majority of students plan to pursue post-secondary education programs immediately after finishing high school. According to this study, French immersion graduates hope to maintain their mastery of the French language by speaking with francophones and by taking advantage of situations in the 1

2 work place whenever possible. These French immersion graduates are satisfied with the program and will recommend it to other parents and to other students. 4. Sciences in French The development and implementation of a new program of studies is a long and difficult task and the result is sometimes met with disfavor on the part of the teachers. Gamache (2002) interviewed all involved parties in the development of the secondary immersion science program of studies and leads us through the process of program development. She also indicates the perception of the teachers regarding program development and program implementation. d Entremont and Garneau (2003) studied the wide range in the amount of instruction given in French and the wide diversity of science courses being offered in French in French immersion high schools in Alberta. Paquin (2002) motivates students to study science through the use of short stories related to scientific concepts. 5. French immersion administrators What are the qualifications needed to be a French Immersion administrator? Garneau (1999) asked whether French immersion administrators should be bilingual. Her study indicates there are very few bilingual principals in French immersion high schools in Alberta, yet the principal plays a major leadership role in the administration and promotion of French immersion programs within his/her school (Evaluation Plus Inc., 2002). Papanicolas (2002) studied teachers perceptions of the qualities of a French immersion program administrator. The responses indicate the need to have bilingual principals who speak and value the French language. 6. Teacher training Edwards, Kristmanson and Rehorick (2000) have written (in French) a useful resource that could be used by French immersion teacher education programs. As well as studying the theoretical principles of second language teaching, emphasis is placed on cultural and linguistic conscience. There are very few books written in French dealing specifically with the subject of French immersion teacher training. Christensen and Laplante (2001, 2004) have developed a second language portfolio for preservice French immersion teachers as part of their professional development. In this portfolio, students were asked to write a brief biography of their lives as speakers and learners of French, to include an action plan in which they assessed their second language proficiency and set specific language learning goals, artifacts from both in-class and out-of-class learning experiences and a final narrative entry commenting on the degree of success of their action plan. Their more recent research is an analysis of the portfolio experience for these preservice French immersion teachers. The researchers found that the portfolio became a tool mediating language learning activities and created a new space for second language development. Lamy-Rittammer (2003) studied the advantages and disadvantages cooperating teachers experience while supervising practicum students in a French immersion context. The following themes emerged from the study: the opportunity of reflecting on and in action, the possibilities of professional renewal, and the advantages of a richer linguistic context for the student teacher and for the French immersion students as well as the re-visiting of the demands placed on teachers. Babin (2003) examined the effect of having teachers working in a professional learning community to learn, observe and experiment with a pedagogical approach based on the idea of enhancing students intellectual potential. She also measured the benefit of a writing workshop approach on students learning in a French immersion context. 2

3 7. Mathematics achievement Certain school jurisdictions in Alberta allow French immersion students who have studied the subject matter in French to write the English version of the diploma exam. The study by Bournet-Trites and Reeder (2001) examined the effect of teaching mathematics in French on mathematics achievement evaluated in English. This study offers evidence that increasing the intensity of French in the immersion program will lead to positive results on mathematics achievement evaluated in English. 8. Communication is the key Students must have opportunities to communicate in French if they are going to integrate the language and the cognitive development with their growing personal identities (Cummins, 2000). He indicated that the second language will remain abstract and trivial unless students have the opportunity to express themselves. Students must make sense of what is going on in the classroom (de Courcy, 2003). Analysis of her data points to the importance of students learning of private speech (vocalized or sub-vocalized talking to oneself in French). 9. Writing strategies Cavanagh (1997) and Gagnon (2002) outlined writing strategies, the paradoxical thinking, and the teaching that leads to competent and effective writing skills in French and French immersion groups. The material developed by Cavanagh (1998, 1999, 2002) serves as a teaching aid to enhance the writing process. Parent-Miller (2004) studied the effect of a Writer s Workshop approach on the perceptions and practices of students revision abilities. The research showed how grade four French immersion students progressed in their ability to revise their texts, despite the challenges of writing in a second language. 10. Practices in French immersion A first step in understanding immersion pedagogy is to revisit the balance between learning and acquiring a language. This balance needs to be addressed in the classroom by educators (Mandin & Desrochers, no date). Fortin (2002) documented the effect and interrelationship between musical integration and second language acquisition. This study, involving grade four French immersion students, indicated that students who participated in music activities that were integrated with language learning were brought to a higher level of readiness of language learning as exhibited by significantly enhanced levels of attentiveness, participation, concentration, transfer, memory retention, external and internal motivation and interest. Fortier (2004), in her research with grade six French immersion students, discovered that it is possible for French immersion students to read for pleasure in their second language. This action research study was carried out using a Reader s Workshop approach to motivate students to read in French. A dialogue journal was used to record their reactions to French texts they chose to read. It was discovered that French immersion students can find delight in reading in their second language if certain conditions are provided. 3

4 Suggestions for Teachers Be mindful of the language of instruction. Students learn a language by hearing it and using it. Reflect on the process of learning in a second language. Students need to be exposed to a variety of functions and genres of language in order to eventually function in second language contexts. Reflect on the product of language learning. Students are at ease with a wide array of functions of language but need to become more mindful of the precision of language. Error correction, in both oral and written language, needs to be addressed in French language instruction. Favor pedagogical practices that give students time and spaces to use French. Do everything in your power to create a school culture where French is used as the language of communication. Administrators and teachers set the tone for students in a French immersion school. All stakeholders involved in teaching French and minority languages should reflect on the importance of hiring administrators who speak French or the minority language, or at least, value the French or the minority language. Teachers should attempt to balance learning (conscious learning) and acquisition (unconscious learning) of the French language. However, at the beginning of their schooling in French, practices favoring acquisition should precede learning, giving students a stronger base for language learning. Music should be integrated with language learning since it brings students to a higher level of readiness for language learning. It enhances students levels of attentiveness, participation, concentration, transfer, memory retention, and external and internal motivations. Schools should engage in creating strong professional learning communities in which teachers learn, observe and experiment with pedagogical approaches that are apt to enhance students success in school as well as in their future endeavors. References Babin, C. (2003). L établissement d un partenariat pédagogique et les communautés professionnelles d apprentissage en contexte d immersion français. Unpublished master s project. Faculté Saint- Jean. University of Alberta. Beaudet, L. (2001). Les erreurs en immersion, une chance d apprentissage par le biais des stratégies interactives. Unpublished Bournet-Trites, M. & Reeder, K. (2001). Interdependence revisited: Mathematics achievement in an intensified French immersion program. Canadian Modern Language Review, 58(1), Cavanagh, M. (1998). Comment écrire un texte d opinion. Edmonton: Éditions comment écrire. Materiel pédagogique. Cavanagh, M. (1999). Comment écrire une lettre personnelle. Edmonton: Éditions comment écrire. Matériel pédagogique. 4

5 Cavanagh, M. (1997). L effet de l enseignement d une stratégie de planification sur la production écrite en français langue maternelle et langue seconde. Unpublished master s thesis. Faculté Saint-Jean. University of Alberta. Cavanagh, M. (2002). Production d un texte d opinion: Un programme d intervention pédagogique axé sur les processus rédactionnels. Doctoral thesis. Université de Sherbrooke. Christiansen, H. & Laplante, B. (2001). Portfolio langagier en français. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 57, Christiansen, H. & Laplante, B (2004). Second language pre-service teachers as learners: The language portfolio project. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 60, Churchill, S. (1998). Official language in Canada: Changing the landscape. Ottawa: Canadian Heritage. Collins, P. (2001). Les erreurs à l oral en immersion française, une chance d apprentissage par le biais des stratégies interactives: Perspective d une enseignante. Unpublished master s project. Faculté Saint-Jean. University of Alberta. Cummins, J. (2000). Immersion education for them millennium: What we have learned from 30 years of research on second language immersion. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto. decourcy, M. (2003). French takes over your mind: Private speech and making sense in immersion programs. Journal of Educational Thought, 37, d Entremont, Y. & Garneau, A. (2003). L immersion française en Alberta: Les sciences sont-elles enseignées en français au secondaire? Journal of Educational Thought, 37, Edwards, J. (Ed.). (1998). Language in Canada. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Edwards, V., Kristmanson, P.L., & Rehorick, S.E. (2000). Manuel pour la formation des enseignants et des enseignantes: L enseignement des langues secondes d après une approche communicative/expérientielle. Fredericton, NB: Centre didactique des langues secondes, Université de Nouveau Brunswick. Evaluation Plus Inc. (2002). Characteristics of successful French language programs. Edmonton: Edmonton Public School District. Fehr, S. (2000). Répertoire d instruments d évaluation de production orale en immersion française au niveau secondaire. Unpublished Fortier, L. (2004). Développer le plaisir de lire en immersion française. Unpublished master s project. Faculté Saint-Jean. University of Alberta. Fortin, S. (2002). L impact de l intégration musicale sur l apprentissage d une deuxième langue en contexte d immersion. Unpublished Gagnon, R. (2002). Un modèle paradoxal de l écrit: Réussir avec les ateliers d écriture. Unpublished 5

6 Gamache, L. (2002). Développement du nouveau curriculum de sciences au secondaire. Unpublished Garneau, A. (1999). Les sciences en immersion française au deuxième cycle du secondaire en Alberta. Unpublished Lamy-Rittammer, M. (2003). La supervision de stage: Un acte professionnel. Unpublished Makangu Mov, J. (2004). Que deviennent les finissants de l Alberta à la fin de leur programme d immersion française? Unpublished master s project. Faculté Saint-Jean. University of Alberta. Mandin, L. & Desrochers, C. (no date). Building a future on best practices in French immersion A fine balance. Unpublished document. Available from the author at Mantello, M. (1997). Error correction in the L2 classroom. Canadian modern language review 54, Papanicolas, N. (2002). Les qualités des administrateurs en immerion française d après les perceptions des enseignants. Unpublished master s project. Faculté Saint-Jean. University of Alberta. Paquin, D. (2002). L intégration du récif fictif dans l enseignement des sciences. Unpublished Parent-Miller, M. (2004). Réviser un texte, ça s apprend en immersion française. Unpublished Robinson, V. (1999). L effet de l enseignement d une stratégie d autocorrection sur la production écrite en français langue seconde immersion. Unpublished master s project. Faculté Saint-Jean. University of Alberta. Therrien, D. (2003). Promotion du programme d immersion française en Alberta. Unpublished 6

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