# THE MODELING AND CALCULATION OF SOUND RADIATION FROM FACILITIES WITH GAS FLOWED PIPES INTRODUCTION

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE MODELING AND CALCULATION OF SOUND RADIATION FROM FACILITIES WITH GAS FLOWED PIPES INTRODUCTION"

## Transcription

1 THE MODELING AND CALCULATION OF SOUND ADIATION FOM FACILITIES WITH GAS FLOWED PIPES INTODUCTION Analysis o the emission caused by industrial acilities like chemical plants, reineries or other production areas is the irst and most important step while calculating the noise pollution o the environment. Pipework with gas or luid lows are oten contributing relevant to the sound radiation o a complete acility. This radiation can be determined applying the methods described in technical papers like VDI 3733 and ISO FIGUE 1: Gas pipes inside industrial acility In all cases where measurements are not possible or during a planning and optimization process, a practical technique is to derive the sound power level rom signiicant parameters which do have inluence on the noise emission. Ater the deinition and modeling o an emitting system, all contributing system parameters inluencing the emission can be altered according to dierent operating scenarios. As a result the spectrum o the noise emission o a gas pipe can be calculated or the real conditions. ACOUSTICAL ASPECTS OF GAS FILLED PIPES Pipes are used to transport solid, liquid and gaseous media. The ollowing only deals with round pipes or gaseous media without a solid content, e.g. granulates etc., up to a diameter o 800 mm. For pipes with rectangular cross-sections and pipes or liquid media, dierent considerations must be taken into account. From the acoustical point o view, pipes with large diameters are to be viewed as even plates. Signiicant or the emission o a pipe is the contribution o sound power via the outer walls o the pipe introduced into the pipe rom external sources such as ans, compressors etc. As a rule, this external sound power is signiicantly higher than the natural noise generated by the low. Noise absorption in Gas illed ound Pipes Compared to lat plates, pipe noise absorption has signiicantly higher values below the ring expansion requency (see /1/]). educed sound absorption occurs in the range o the critical requency that is dependent on each wave and vibration orm (mode) (see /1/, /5/). Above the ring expansion requency, the acoustic characteristics

2 o pipes are the same as or lat plates with a characteristic drop in sound absorption in the range o coincidental requency (see also /3/). From /1/, the ollowing equations are used. In addition, the inluence o coincidence according to /3/ and /4/ is taken into account. Formula or attenuation is: D 1 10Log 4 3 E = ( 10 d ) sinh 10Log B ( B) + L (1) Where: c ρ s + Log /5 w w r = Log + cf F d ρ r + K (2) c F = p 10 (3) ρ F r cw = π d 10 3 (4) K = 35 10Log 1 + g g + 1 (5) B = K =0 or g < r 4 10 g =.4 (6) 1 3 ( d 10 ) 6 W ( c ( s 10 3 ) ( d 10 ) + α (7) t α = ( + M ) ( ) A d p 1 11 (8) M A = v/c F L = α (9) 3 ( d 10 )

3 Considered parameters are: Lm [m] section length d [mm] pipe diameter v [m/s] low speed in the pipe p [bar(abs)] absolute gas pressure in the pipe ρ F [kg/m3] gas density in the pipe t [grd C] gas temperature in the pipe s [mm] pipe wall thickness ρ W [kg/m3] pipe wall density c W [m/s] expanding wave speed o the pipe material Flow Noise Generation Flow noises are caused in lows through pipes by turbulent boundary layer low. In accordance with /1/, a proportion o 10-3 o the low energy is converted into sound energy. In industrial acilities, low noise is usually o subordinate signiicance, but can be a dominating sound source in piping ittings with high pressure loss (e.g. Valves / Armatures) and the outlow rom silencers. To determine low noise, various equations are speciied in the literature. The A-evaluated sound power level increases with around the power o 6 o the low speed. Flow noise is independent o the pipe length, but is also dependent on the pressure loss. L WA ( w) + 10Log( S) + 10Log( p) 25log( N T ) 15Log( κ )db = s 0.16 w + 60Log (10) Where T = t The considered parameters in this case are: w [m/s] low speed S [m2 ] cross-section area p [bar] pressure in the pipe or channel N [kj/kg/k] speciic gas constant T [ C] temperature Κ [---] adiabatic exponent CALCULATING THE SOUND POWE LEVELS OF GAS PIPING SYSTEMS FOM TECHNICAL PAAMETES USING SIMULATION SOFTWAE Sound power levels o technical sound sources depend on source-typical parameters. Those can depending on the kind o source or example be the nominal value, the length, the diameter, etc. The sotware program CadnaA /6/ eatures a module based on the idea (SET), that the resulting sound power levels can be calculated by the program depending on the values o theses parameters. This eature can be used to automatically calculate sound power levels o sources as well as transmissions to urther elements, depending on the appropriate requency dependent attenuation; single sources can thus be combined to assemble complex noise emitting systems. Updates in these systems or example due to the insertion o new elements or the position change o an existing one lead to technical correct changes o the complete system; this way, the eects o a silencer can or example easily be tested, or dierent system s operation conditions can be evaluated with minimum time and eort. Technical source elements are deined in the sotware according to the ollowing igure, and can later be used in the model. Up to 10 parameters can have inluence on the calculation o sound power levels or the attenuations;

5 Single modules need to get the necessary values or the parameters. The ollowing igure shows values on the example o a pipe section. Furthermore, linkages between system elements are relevant. In this example, the start point is the radial an, where pressure side (output 2) is linked with the pipe 1. For all urther elements, the deault setting next can be kept or output 1, as the linked elements are directly connected to them in the SET-T table (Figure 4) Ventilator Volumenstrom 56 m³/s Gesamt-Druckdierenz 7000 Pa ohrleitung Teilstücklänge 10 m³/s ohrdurchmesser 2000 mm Strömungsgeschw m/s Gasdruck 1 bar Gastemperatur 20 C ohrwanddicke 2 mm ohrmaterialdichte 7850 kg/m³ Dehnwellengeschw m/s Kamin Teilstücklänge 20 m Kamindurchmesser 3000 mm Kaminwanddicke 2 mm Abgastemperatur 20 C Verschmutzungsgrad 2 Kaminmündung Querschnitt 7.2 m² FIGUE 5(A): Exemplary values or the required elements in SET-T FIGUE 5(B): Parameter coniguration o a pipe section. Modeling and calculation The modeling is conducted with regular industrial sources or all the elements. The an can be modeled with a point source. The ollowing pipes can be modeled with line sources and the chimney is created with a line source entered vertically. At last the chimney opening is modeled; this is done with a point source with a speciic directivity. The described model is shown in the ollowing igure. FIGUE 6: Conduit with an, 4 pipes and a steel chimney. The values shown at the industrial sources are sound power levels calculated with exemplary parameter values.

6 Once the model is set, a calculation can be done in order to get the sound pressure levels at the receiver points. GAS PIPEWOK MODEL S MODIFICATION AND UPDATING Once a pipework model is created, it can easily be updated or modiied. For example, elements can be moved via drag & drop; urthermore new elements can easily be inserted. In both cases, all emission spectra and the transmitted sound can be updated with just one click. Modeling non - physical aspects In some cases, urther elements need to be inserted even i no physical elements are added to the system. This should be considered when working with SET and is shown with the change o a cross-section here. The cross-section o a pipe has inluence on noise emission and transmission, which is considered correctly in SET. But the sudden jump between 2 diameters also has an inluence; this is not considered with the single parts so ar. So beside the adjustment o pipe parameters (diameter, luid speed, etc.) a urther element must be entered to consider the changing cross-section. To achieve this, the block Cross Section Jump can be utilized. In SET-T it can be inserted at the desired position between two pipes; depending on the cross-sections entered in the element, a urther attenuation between the respective pipe elements is considered. FIGUE 7: SET-S input parameters dialog or a Cross Section Jump The cross-section jump is only mentioned as an example among others. Especially or pipe systems, many elements are documented and can be used. Entering and changing position o urther elements in the system For already existing pipework systems, new elements can be created easily in order to evaluate dierent scenarios. In this example, a silencer should be included between the last pipe and the chimney. The silencer shall be a carriage with attenuation according to a predeined, requency dependent curve. Once the new element is entered the noise transmissions and emissions are completely re-calculated. Figures 8(a) and 8(b) show the system s table beore and ater the entry o a silencer with exemplary values. As can be seen, the silencer itsel doesn t emit any noise. To change this, an output or AD could have been added in the appropriate table.

7 FIGUE 8(A): Pipework system without any noise reduction device FIGUE 8(B): Inserting a silencer between Pipe 4 and steel chimney This easy tool is also drag & drop sensitive, allowing quick assessment o all possible actions. In the ollowing igure, the silencer, which was between Pipe 4 and the Steel chimney, will be moved to the position between pipe 1 and pipe 2. Ater a recalculation the complete system s table is automatically renewed, which means that the changed emission- and transmission values and (as ar as receivers are present) the changed sound pressure levels are immediately visible. FIGUE 9: Inserting a silencer between Pipe 1 and Pipe 2 This possibility to place a sound-inluencing element simply by clicking on this table line and dragging enables the study o any solution with minimum time and eort. The silencer or the data structure behind this line can be copied and allocated in other positions. Cut and paste becomes the technical data pendant to removal and installation. Whereas in the case o conventional programming, all radiation suraces and sources downstream o the silencer have to be "touched" to reduce their sound power accordingly, this is now dealt with by inserting the silencer with one operation. The same procedure continues until immission calculation. I a calculation is run ater changing the plate thickness o a pipe in an industrial system, the consequences have been correctly taken into account or all calculated levels and also or entire noise maps.

8 FIGUE 10: esulting Sound Powers and Sound Pressure level at receiver when placing the silencer between pipe 1 and 2 EFEENCES 1. VDI 3733 Noise in pipes, July DIN 2458, Welded steel pipes, February Schmidt, H.: Handbook o acoustics, VDI publications, Düsseldor, Measurements and calculations within the ramework o project work at Bayer AG 5. W. Straßen: Noise creation through inserts in pipes and solids in the luid, lecture 'House o Technology', CadnaA: Computer Aided Noise Abatement, sotware developed by DataKustik GmbH,

### PAGE 2. Figure 1: Difference between PWL ins and SPL 1m

PAGE 1 Pipe noise J.H. Granneman and R.P.M. Jansen, Peutz Consulting Engineers, The Netherlands, emphasise the need for an adequate pipe noise control procedure, with reference to the design phase, insulation

### FIXED INCOME ATTRIBUTION

Sotware Requirement Speciication FIXED INCOME ATTRIBUTION Authors Risto Lehtinen Version Date Comment 0.1 2007/02/20 First Drat Table o Contents 1 Introduction... 3 1.1 Purpose o Document... 3 1.2 Glossary,

### 8. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF COMPRESSORS 8.1 Introduction

8. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF COMPRESSORS 8.1 Introduction The compressed air system is not only an energy intensive utility but also one o the least energy eicient. Over a period o time, both perormance

### Frequency Range Extension of Spectrum Analyzers with Harmonic Mixers

Products FSEM21/31 and FSEK21/31 or FSEM20/30 and FSEK20/30 with FSE-B21 Frequency Range Extension o Spectrum Analyzers with Harmonic Mixers This application note describes the principle o harmonic mixing

### Darcy Friction Factor Formulae in Turbulent Pipe Flow

Darcy Friction Factor Formulae in Turbulent Pipe Flow Jukka Kiijärvi Lunowa Fluid Mechanics Paper 110727 July 29, 2011 Abstract The Darcy riction actor in turbulent pipe low must be solved rom the Colebrook

### Chapter 22A Sound Waves. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 22A Sound Waes A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Proessor o Physics Southern Polytechnic State Uniersity 2007 Objecties: Ater completion o this module, you should be able to: Deine

### Copyright 2005 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium 2005

Copyright 2005 IEEE Reprinted rom IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium 2005 This material is posted here with permission o the IEEE. Such permission o the IEEE does t in any way imply IEEE endorsement

### Exhaust noise control case study for 2800 class locomotive

Exhaust noise control case study for 2800 class locomotive Briony CROFT 1 ; Steve BROWN 2 ; Aaron MILLER 3, Andrew PARKER 4 1 SLR Consulting (Canada) Ltd, Canada 2,3,4 SLR Consulting Australia Pty Ltd,

### 2. Getting Started with the Graphical User Interface

May 2011 NII52017-11.0.0 2. Getting Started with the Graphical User Interace NII52017-11.0.0 The Nios II Sotware Build Tools (SBT) or Eclipse is a set o plugins based on the Eclipse ramework and the Eclipse

### Measuring Pulsed Beams with a Slit-based Profiler

Measuring Pulsed Beams with a Slit-based Proiler Pulse Rates, Power, and Damage Considerations Although the NanoScan was designed originally to measure continuous wave (CW) beams, many s are operated in

### 6.1 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Section 6.1 Eponential and Logarithmic Functions 1 6.1 Eponential and Logarithmic Functions We start our review o eponential and logarithmic unctions with the deinition o an eponential unction. Deinition

### Swept Sine Chirps for Measuring Impulse Response

Swept Sine Chirps or Measuring Impulse Response Ian H. Chan Design Engineer Stanord Research Systems, Inc. Log-sine chirp and variable speed chirp are two very useul test signals or measuring requency

### Characterization of Absorbent Flow Rate in Towel and Tissue

Characterization o Absorbent Flow ate in Towel and Tissue Paul D. Beuther, Michael W. Veith, Kenneth J. Zwick Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Neenah, WI, USA Correspondence to: Paul D. Beuther, email: paul.beuther@kcc.com

### MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY INTRODUCTION

2 MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY INTRODUCTION A requency distribution, in general, shows clustering o the data around some central value. Finding o this central value or the average is o importance, as it

### The Determination of Uncertainties in Dynamic Young s Modulus

Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-65 UNCERT COP 3: 000 Manual o Codes o Practice or the Determination o Uncertainties in Mechanical Tests on Metallic Materials Code o Practice No. 3

### INLINE flowmeter for continuous flow measurement

INLINE flowmeter for continuous flow measurement Economic integration in pipe systems without any additional piping 3-wire frequency pulse version to directly interface with PLC s (both PNP and NPN) Connection

### A Study on Analysis and Improved Methods for Noise and Vibration of Compressor Motor. Xiaoyao Qian, Pingping Wang

Applied Mechanics and Materials Online: 2011-08-22 ISSN: 1662-7482, Vols. 88-89, pp 564-568 doi:10.4028/www.scientiic.net/amm.88-89.564 2011 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland A Study on Analysis and

### TECHNICAL GUIDE. lot 11. Climate and energy policy, what is the ErP Directive, motor and fan efficiencies

TECHNICAL GUIDE ErP Directive lot 11 FANS and MOTORS Climate and energy policy, what is the ErP Directive, motor and an eiciencies directive, motor and an eiciencies To combat electricity usage and reduce

### Voltage Comparator and Q Multiplier make a stable Sine Wave Oscillator

Voltage omparator and Multiplier make a stable ine Wave Oscillator amón Vargas atrón rvargas@inictel.gob.pe INIT It is a known act that sinusoidal oscillators must rely on the action o some amplitudelimiting

### Standard Software for Automated Testing of Infrared Imagers, IRWindows TM in Practical Applications

Standard Sotware or Automated Testing o Inrared Imagers, IWindows TM in Practical Applications Alan Irwin Santa Barbara Inrared, Inc. 32A North Nopal Street Santa Barbara, CA 9303 obert L. Nicklin Uncooled

### Sound, Decibels, Doppler Effect

Phys Lectures 34 Sound, Decibels, Doppler Eect Key points: ntensity o Sound: Decibels Doppler Eect Re: 6-,3,7. Page 6- Characteristics o Sound Sound can trael through any kind o matter, but not through

### Air Handling Units Acoustic Insulation Performance Tests

Classvent AIR HANDLERS LTD Engineering Solutions Air Source Renewable Energy Low Energy, Air Source, Heat Pump System 1262 Acoustic Testing Laboratory College of Science & Technology Air Handling Units

### VENT SILENCER PRODUCT GUIDE

VENT SILENCER Copyright 2009 by PULSCO Incorporated. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited. PRODUCT GUIDE PULSCO VENT SILENCER TABLE OF CONTENTS DESCRIPTION PAGE PULSCO VENT

### Absorption mufflers in exhaust systems. Rolf Jebasinski. J. Eberspächer GmbH & Co. Abstract

1 Absorption mufflers in exhaust systems Rolf Jebasinski J. Eberspächer GmbH & Co Abstract Absorption mufflers or combined absorption/reflection mufflers are an almost indispensable element of modern exhaust

### Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations

Natti S. Rao Nick R. Schott Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Hands-on Examples and Case Studies Sample Pages from Chapters 4 and 6 ISBNs 978--56990-509-8-56990-509-6 HANSER Hanser Publishers,

### IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN:

Week 13 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions o these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out dierently. The method to ind the solution

### Table 1 Mechanical Properties of Pipe Table 2 Section Properties of Pipe and Reinforcing Dowel The Fitting with the Rib

Table 1 Mechanical Properties o Pipe Material Minimum Minimum Allowable Modulus Tensile Yield Yield o trength trength trength* Elasticity (psi) (psi) (psi) (ksi) Aluminum 6063-T6 Pipe ATM429 30,000 25,000

### Stilling Well Recommendations

White Paper June 24, 2009 Stilling Well Recommendations This document describes general requirements for stilling wells used for radar tank gauging applications. Automation solutions for oil & gas, defense

### Vibration reduction of thermal break balcony connections

Vibration reduction of thermal break balcony connections M. Schneider and H.-M. Fischer University of Applied Sciences, Schellingstr. 24, 70174 Stuttgart, Germany martin.schneider@hft-stuttgart.de 5405

### Digital flow ELEMENT transmitter for continuous flow measurement

Digital flow ELEMENT transmitter for continuous flow measurement Type 8036 can be combined with... DN06 to DN65 fluidic process connection Programmable outputs : one or two transistor output(s) and single

### THE EFFECT OF THE SPINDLE SYSTEM ON THE POSITION OF CIRCULAR SAW TEETH A STATIC APPROACH

TRIESKOVÉ A BEZTRIESKOVÉ OBRÁBANIE DREVA 2006 12. - 14. 10. 2006 305 THE EFFECT OF THE SPINDLE SYSTEM ON THE POSITION OF CIRCULAR SAW TEETH A STATIC APPROACH Roman Wasielewski - Kazimierz A. Orłowski Abstract

### Calibration and Uncertainties of Pipe Roughness Height

9 th IWA/IAHR Conerence on Urban Drainage Modelling Calibration and Uncertainties o Pipe Roughness Height Kailin Yang, Yongxin Guo, Xinlei Guo,Hui Fu and Tao Wang China Institute o Water Resources and

### Sound Waves, Beats, and Doppler Effect (Ch 17-8, 17-9)

Sound Waes, Beats, and Doppler Eect (Ch 7-8, 7-9) A ibrating object, such as a tuning ork, produces a sound wae in air. We usually think o sound waes traelling in air, or normally it is the ibration o

### EN 13445-5:2002 (E) Issue 27 (2007-06)

Issue 27 (2007-06) Annex A (normative) Inspection and testing o serially produced pressure vessels Model acceptance...48 A.1 Introduction...48 A.2 Limitations or vessels permitted to be clasiied as serially

### Chapter 19 First Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 9 First Law o Thermodynamics When two bodies at dierent temperatures (T and T ) are placed in thermal contact, they ultimately reach a common temperature (T ) somewhere between the two initial

### Pressure Drop Correlation Covering Dilute to Dense Regimes of Solid Particle-Gas Flow in a Vertical Conveying Pipe

ITB J. Eng. Sci. Vol. 41, No. 1, 2009, 65-76 65 Pressure Drop Correlation Covering Dilute to Dense Regimes o Solid Particle-Gas Flow in a Vertical Conveying Pipe Y. Bindar, N.A. Sutrisniningrum & D. Santiani

### Specifying Calibration Standards and Kits for Agilent Vector Network Analyzers. Application Note 1287-11

Speciying Calibration Standards and Kits or Agilent Vector Network Analyzers Application Note 1287-11 Table o Contents Introduction... 3 Measurement errors... 3 Measurement calibration... 3 Calibration

### SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING

APPENDIX A (IFGS) SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING (This appendix is informative and is not part of the code.) A.1 General. To determine the size of piping used in a gas piping system, the following

### is the power reference: Specifically, power in db is represented by the following equation, where P0 P db = 10 log 10

RF Basics - Part 1 This is the first article in the multi-part series on RF Basics. We start the series by reviewing some basic RF concepts: Decibels (db), Antenna Gain, Free-space RF Propagation, RF Attenuation,

### 4 SENSORS. Example. A force of 1 N is exerted on a PZT5A disc of diameter 10 mm and thickness 1 mm. The resulting mechanical stress is:

4 SENSORS The modern technical world demands the availability of sensors to measure and convert a variety of physical quantities into electrical signals. These signals can then be fed into data processing

### 8. Exception Handling

8. Exception Handling February 2011 NII52006-10.1.0 NII52006-10.1.0 Introduction This chapter discusses how to write programs to handle exceptions in the Nios II processor architecture. Emphasis is placed

### Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22

BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =

### Sound Insulation of Walls with a new Mortar-Mix System

Sound Insulation of Walls with a new Mortar-Mix System Martin Schneider, Heinz-Martin Fischer Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences, Germany. Summary A new clay block walling system developed by the

### Specific Statistical Analysis of Influence of the Hearing Memory to the Acoustic Quality Evaluation of Multimedia Classroom

Siniša Fajt Miljenko Krhen Vladimir Šimović Speciic Statistical Analysis o Inluence o the Hearing Memory to the Acoustic Quality Evaluation o Multimedia Article Ino: Management Inormation Systems, Vol.

### units). The factors that inluence space comfort

Radiation Conduction Convection Evaporation units). The factors that inluence space comfort Local Air Velocity, FPM Local Air Velocity, FPM 1 1 8 6 4 2 8 6 4 2 4% Neck region 3% 2% 1% 2% 1% 3% -6-4 -2

### Stub in. (mm) 48 (1200) 42 (1050) 36 (900) 42 (1050) 36 (900) (1200) 6 (150) NA NA NA Avail Avail Avail Avail Avail Avail Avail Avail 42 (1050)

Tech Sheet Detention Retention Water Quality Maniold Sizing Guidance or StormTech Chamber Systems August, 01 General: The design o subsurace chambers systems, as part o a site design, involves many sitespeciic

### FLOW MEASUREMENT 2001 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE DERIVATION OF AN EXPANSIBILITY FACTOR FOR THE V-CONE METER

FLOW MEASUREMENT 200 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE DERIVATION OF AN EXPANSIBILITY FACTOR FOR THE V-CONE METER Dr D G Stewart, NEL Dr M Reader-Harris, NEL Dr R J W Peters, McCrometer Inc INTRODUCTION The V-Cone

### Manual Analysis Software AFD 1201

AFD 1200 - AcoustiTube Manual Analysis Software AFD 1201 Measurement of Transmission loss acc. to Song and Bolton 1 Table of Contents Introduction - Analysis Software AFD 1201... 3 AFD 1200 - AcoustiTube

### Calculating Heat Loss by Mark Crombie, Chromalox

Calculating Heat Loss by Mark Crombie, Chromalox Posted: January 30, 2006 This article deals with the basic principles of heat transfer and the calculations used for pipes and vessels. By understanding

### Lecture 14. Introduction to the Sun

Lecture 14 Introduction to the Sun ALMA discovers planets forming in a protoplanetary disc. Open Q: what physics do we learn about the Sun? 1. Energy - nuclear energy - magnetic energy 2. Radiation - continuum

### Effects of Various Couplants on Carbon Steel and Aluminium Materials Using Ultrasonic Testing

18th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, 16-20 April 2012, Durban, South Africa Effects of Various Couplants on Carbon Steel and Aluminium Materials Using Ultrasonic Testing Ngeletshedzo NETSHIDAVHINI

### AM Receiver. Prelab. baseband

AM Receiver Prelab In this experiment you will use what you learned in your previous lab sessions to make an AM receiver circuit. You will construct an envelope detector AM receiver. P1) Introduction One

### Autofocus Accuracy Specifications in Canon EOS Digital SLR Cameras

Auto Accuracy Speciications in Canon EOS Digital SLR Cameras Douglas A. Kerr, P.E. Issue 1 June 6, 2005 ABSTRACT Canon, Inc. typically epresses the accuracy tolerance o the auto system in their EOS digital

### TOP 10 NOISE CONTROL TECHNIQUES

TOP 10 NOISE CONTROL TECHNIQUES The following are 10 simple noise control techniques that have wide application across the whole of industry. In many cases, they will produce substantial noise reductions

### Minor losses include head losses through/past hydrants, couplers, valves,

Lecture 10 Minor Losses & Pressure Requirements I. Minor Losses Minor (or fitting, or local ) hydraulic losses along pipes can often be estimated as a function of the velocity head of the water within

### EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP NOISE IN WATER PIPE SYS- TEM

The 21 st International Congress on Sound and Vibration 13-17 July, 2014, Beijing/China EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP NOISE IN WATER PIPE SYS- TEM Muze Huang, Hongling Sun,

### INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH SCIENCE & MANAGEMENT

PREDICTION OF TRANSMISSION LOSS FOR CYLINDRICAL EXPANSION CHAMBER HAVING CENTRAL-OUTLET AND SIDE-OUTLET CONFIGURATION BY TRANSFER MATRIX METHOD Amit Kumar Gupta 1*, Neha Mathur 2 1* Mechanical Engineering

### RX-AM4SF Receiver. Pin-out. Connections

RX-AM4SF Receiver The super-heterodyne receiver RX-AM4SF can provide a RSSI output indicating the amplitude of the received signal: this output can be used to create a field-strength meter capable to indicate

### Division 15 MECHANICAL VIBRATION ISOLATION Section Bid Opportunity #: Page 1 of 5

Division 15 MECHANICAL VIBRATION ISOLATION Section 15070 Bid Opportunity #: 436-2011 Page 1 of 5 GENERAL 1.1 RELATED WORK.1 The General Conditions and General Specifications form an integral part of this

### 3.0 Exhaust Muffler Design Principles. 3.1 Basic Concepts

3.0 Exhaust Muffler Design Principles 3.1 Basic Concepts Internal combustion engines are typically equipped with an exhaust muffler to suppress the acoustic pulse generated by the combustion process. A

### FULL DC INVERTER SYSTEMS

FULL DC INVERTER SYSTEMS INDIDUAL AND MODULAR DESIGN & FLEXIBLE COMBINATION commercial air conditioners SDV4 2011/2012 AIR CONDITIONING 1 WELCOME TO THE WORLD of SINCLAIR AIR CONDITIONERS Company operation

### 6/S1 SOUND ATTENUATORS PZ, PZC, PZM, PK. v 2.4 (en)

6/S1 v 2.4 (en) SOUND ATTENUATORS PZ, PZC, PZM, PK www.klimaoprema.hr 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS Rectangular attenuators - PZ... 3 Round sound attenuators - PZC... 16 Interspace sound attenuator - PZM... 18 Definition

### Using quantum computing to realize the Fourier Transform in computer vision applications

Using quantum computing to realize the Fourier Transorm in computer vision applications Renato O. Violin and José H. Saito Computing Department Federal University o São Carlos {renato_violin, saito }@dc.uscar.br

### Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems

Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Welcome back to the video course on Fluid Mechanics. In today

### Exergy Analysis of a Water Heat Storage Tank

Exergy Analysis of a Water Heat Storage Tank F. Dammel *1, J. Winterling 1, K.-J. Langeheinecke 3, and P. Stephan 1,2 1 Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 2 Center

### Experiment 3 Pipe Friction

EML 316L Experiment 3 Pipe Friction Laboratory Manual Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department College of Engineering FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Nomenclature Symbol Description Unit A cross-sectional

### Acoustic Terms, Definitions and General Information

Acoustic Terms, Definitions and General Information Authored by: Daniel Ziobroski Acoustic Engineer Environmental and Acoustic Engineering GE Energy Charles Powers Program Manager Environmental and Acoustic

### The soot and scale problems

Dr. Albrecht Kaupp Page 1 The soot and scale problems Issue Soot and scale do not only increase energy consumption but are as well a major cause of tube failure. Learning Objectives Understanding the implications

### Relationship between Sound Pressure and Sound Power Levels

Relationship between Sound Pressure and Sound Power Levels 4 W. T. W. CORY Chairman of the Eurovent WG 1 Fans If we wish to know the sound power transmitted through a fan and ducting system, it is preferable

### A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND WEIGHT IN TREES AND ITS BEARING ON BRANCHING ANGLES. (From Harvard University, Cambridge.

A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCUMFERENCE AND WEIGHT IN TREES AND ITS BEARING ON BRANCHING ANGLES. By CECIL D. MURRAY. (From Harvard University, Cambridge.) (Accepted or publication, February 21, 1927.) When

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Exam 3 General Physics 202 Name 1) 550 g of water at 75eC are poured into an 855 g aluminum container with an initial temperature of 11eC. The specific heat of aluminum is 900 J/(kgœK). How much heat flows

### Section II. Hardware Abstraction Layer

Section II. Hardware Abstraction Layer This section describes the Nios II hardware abstraction layer (HAL). It includes the ollowing chapters: Chapter 5, Overview o the Hardware Abstraction Layer Chapter

### Pressure drop in pipe lines for compressed air: comparison between experimental and theoretical analysis M. Carello, A. Ivanov, L.

Pressure drop in pipe lines for compressed air: comparison between experimental and theoretical analysis M. Carello, A. Ivanov, L. Mazza /,70729 Tbrmo, Abstract In this paper a test methodology to determine

### OPTIMASS 6000 Technical Datasheet

OPTIMASS 6000 Technical Datasheet Sensor for mass flow The high performance meter for process industries Cryogenic, high temperature and high pressure options Supreme liquid and gas performance with CT

### N K. dn dt. Theory of the dynamics of fisheries exploitation, and the concept of Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)

Theory o the dynamics o isheries exploitation, and the concept o Maximum Sustainable ield (MS One o the most logically compelling ideas in population biology, but perhaps one o the most diicult to demonstrate

### HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi

HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi 2 Rajesh Dudi 1 Scholar and 2 Assistant Professor,Department of Mechanical Engineering, OITM, Hisar (Haryana)

### CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C

comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle

### Investigations of a Long-Distance 1000 MW Heat Transport System with APROS Simulation Software

th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT ) Espoo, Finland, August 9-4, 9 SMiRT -Division 3, Paper 56 Investigations of a Long-Distance MW Heat Transport System with

### Effect of Compression on the Acoustic Absorption of Coir Fiber

American Journal o Applied Sciences 7 (9): 1285-1290, 2010 ISSN 1546-9239 2010 Science Publications Eect o Compression on the Acoustic Absorption o Coir Fiber 1 Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor, 1 Md. Ayub, 1 Rozli

### General Thoughts on Generator Set - Acoustic Solutions & Noise Control

t: 023 81 290160 www.excelpowerltd.co.uk f: 023 81 290260 info@excelpowerltd.co.uk General Thoughts on Generator Set - Acoustic Solutions & Noise Control Written By Steve Delaney A.M.I.O.A. of TAS Ltd

### Ambient Noise. The background noise of the sea.

Ambient Noise The background noise o the sea. When trying to detect a target or contact out in the ocean, one o the most diicult parts is to hear the target through all the background noise. This is just

### OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Use Vane anemometers are used for the velocity measurement of directed air flows being free from eddies and turbulences. Because of the small, sturdy construction the instrument

### A NOVEL ALGORITHM WITH IM-LSI INDEX FOR INCREMENTAL MAINTENANCE OF MATERIALIZED VIEW

A NOVEL ALGORITHM WITH IM-LSI INDEX FOR INCREMENTAL MAINTENANCE OF MATERIALIZED VIEW 1 Dr.T.Nalini,, 2 Dr. A.Kumaravel, 3 Dr.K.Rangarajan Dept o CSE, Bharath University Email-id: nalinicha2002@yahoo.co.in

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture

### The Research on Influence Facts of Supply Chain Finance Operation Rui ZHANG

International Conerence on Management Engineering and Management Innovation (ICMEMI 015) The Research on Inluence Facts o Supply Chain Finance Operation Rui ZHANG Faculty o management Wuhan University

### Various Technics of Liquids and Solids Level Measurements. (Part 3)

(Part 3) In part one of this series of articles, level measurement using a floating system was discusses and the instruments were recommended for each application. In the second part of these articles,

### Chapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers

Part I: Objective type questions and answers Chapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers 1. The parameter used by ASME to define fans, blowers and compressors is a) Fan ration b) Specific ratio c) Blade ratio d) Twist

### Heattransferina tankintank combi store

Søren Knudsen Heattransferina tankintank combi store DANMARKS TEKNISKE UNIVERSITET Rapport BYG DTU R-025 2002 ISSN 1601-2917 ISBN 87-7877-083-1 1 Contents Contents...1 Preface...2 Summary...3 1. Introduction...4

### Frost Damage of Roof Tiles in Relatively Warm Areas in Japan

Frost Damage of Roof Tiles in Relatively Warm Areas in Japan Influence of Surface Finish on Water Penetration Chiemi IBA Hokkaido Research Organization, Japan Shuichi HOKOI Kyoto University, Japan INTRODUCTION

### HDA -----------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------- Lightstrips ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ceiling system for heating and cooling LIGHTSTRIPS LIGHTSTRIPS

### ABM Non-Contact Level Devices MORE AT:

ABM Non-Contact Level Devices MORE AT: WWW.ABMSENSOR.COM Propagation of Ultrasonic and Electromagnetic Waves RADAR ANTENNA REFLECTOR (Water) ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER (Matched to AIR) Speed of Ultrasonic wave

### Rainfall generator for the Meuse basin

KNMI publication; 196 - IV Rainall generator or the Meuse basin Description o 20 000-year simulations R. Leander and T.A. Buishand De Bilt, 2008 KNMI publication = KNMI publicatie; 196 - IV De Bilt, 2008

### Principle of Thermal Imaging

Section 8 All materials, which are above 0 degrees Kelvin (-273 degrees C), emit infrared energy. The infrared energy emitted from the measured object is converted into an electrical signal by the imaging

FATIGUE LOADING IN WIND TURBINES M. Ragheb 5/6/2009 INTRODUCTION Because o the complex systems o variable loads that wind turbines are subjected to, they are particularly susceptible to atigue damage.

### New Trend In Classification Of Hazard Of Explosive Atmosphere In Laboratory Workplaces

New Trend In Classiication O Hazard O Explosive Atmosphere In Laboratory Workplaces Di Benedetto A. 1, Dolcetti G. 2, Grimaz S. 3., Russo P. 4, Salzano E. 1 1 Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Consiglio

### Treasure Hunt. Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? EMR Principles and Properties. EMR and Remote Sensing

Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? Treasure Hunt Find and scan all 11 QR codes Choose one to watch / read in detail Post the key points as a reaction to http://www.scoop.it/t/env202-502-w2

### BIOMEDICAL ULTRASOUND

BIOMEDICAL ULTRASOUND Goals: To become familiar with: Ultrasound wave Wave propagation and Scattering Mechanisms of Tissue Damage Biomedical Ultrasound Transducers Biomedical Ultrasound Imaging Ultrasonic

### Data Centres A complete solution to noise control and acoustic packages

Data Centres A complete solution to noise control and acoustic packages Introduction World class noise control. Expertise you can trust. IAC Acoustics is world-renowned for providing cost effective solutions