8. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF COMPRESSORS 8.1 Introduction

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 8. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF COMPRESSORS 8.1 Introduction The compressed air system is not only an energy intensive utility but also one o the least energy eicient. Over a period o time, both perormance o compressors and compressed air system reduces drastically. The causes are many such as poor maintenance, wear and tear etc. All these lead to additional compressors installations leading to more ineiciencies. A periodic perormance assessment is essential to minimize the cost o compressed air. 8.2 Purpose o the Perormance Test To ind out: Actual Free Air Delivery (FAD) o the compressor Isothermal power required Volumetric eiciency Speciic power requirement The actual perormance o the plant is to be compared with design / standard values or assessing the plant energy eiciency. 8. Perormance Terms and Deinitions Compression ratio Isothermal Power Isothermal Eiciency Volumetric eiciency : Absolute discharge pressure o last stage Absolute intake pressure : It is the least power required to compress the air assuming isothermal conditions. : The ratio o Isothermal power to shat power : The ratio o Free air delivered to compressor swept volume Speciic power requirement: The ratio o power consumption (in kw ) to the volume delivered at ambient conditions. 8.4 Field Testing Measurement o Free Air Delivery (FAD) by Nozzle method Principle: I specially shaped nozzle discharge air to the atmosphere rom a receiver getting its supply rom a compressor, sonic low conditions sets in at the nozzle throat Bureau o Energy Eiciency 107

2 or a particular ratio o upstream pressure (receiver) to the downstream pressure (atmospheric) i.e. Mach number equals one. When the pressure in the receiver is kept constant or a reasonable intervals o time, the airlow output o the compressor is equal to that o the nozzle and can be calculated rom the known characteristic o the nozzle Arrangement o test equipment The arrangement o test equipment and measuring device shall conirm to Figure Nozzle Sizes The ollowing sizes o nozzles are recommended or the range o capacities indicated below: Nozzle size (mm) Capacity (m /hr) Flow Nozzle: Flow nozzle with proile as desired in IS 1041:1994 and dimensions Measurements and duration o the test. The compressor is started with the air rom the receiver discharging to the atmosphere through the low nozzle. It should be ensured that the pressure drop through the throttle valve should be equal to or twice the pressure beyond the throttle. Ater the system is stabilized the ollowing measurements are carried out: Receiver pressure Pressure and temperature beore the nozzle Pressure drop across the nozzle Speed o the compressor kw, kwh and amps drawn by the compressor The above readings are taken or the 40%, 60%, 100% and 110% o discharge pressure values. Measuring instruments required or test Thermometers or Thermocouple Pressure gauges or Manometers Dierential pressure gauges or Manometers Standard Nozzle Bureau o Energy Eiciency 108

3 Psychrometer Tachometer/stroboscope Electrical demand analyser P 1 T 1 P 2 FILTER AIR COMPRESSOR RECEIVER P 4 P T Nozzle THROTTLE VALVE DISCHARGE TO ATMOSPHERE P P 4 FLOW STRAIGHTENER BY-PASS Figure 8.1: Test Arrangement or Measurement o Compressed Air Flow 8.5 Calculation Procedure or Nozzle Method I. Free air delivered, Q ( m s π / sec) = k x x d 4 x x P1 2 T1 2( P P4 )( P x Ra ) T 1 / 2 k : Flow coeicient as per IS d : Nozzle diameter M T 1 : Absolute inlet temperature o K P 1 : Absolute inlet pressure kg/cm 2 P : Absolute Pressure beore nozzle kg/cm 2 T : Absolute temperature beore nozzle o K R a : Gas constant or air J/kg k P -P 4 : Dierential pressure across the nozzle kg/cm 2 Bureau o Energy Eiciency 109

4 II. Isothermal Eiciency = Isothermal power / Input power P1 xq xloge r Isothermal power ( kw ) = 6.7 P 1 = Absolute intake pressure kg/ cm 2 Q = Free air delivered m /hr. r = Pressure ratio P 2 /P 1 III. Power consumption, kw Speciic power consumption at rated discharge pressure= Free air delivered, m / hr Freeair delivered inm / min IV. Volumetric eiciency = x 100 Compressor displacement in m / min Compressor displacement π 2 = x D 4 x L x S x χ x n D = Cylinder bore, metre L = Cylinder stroke, metre S = Compressor speed rpm χ = 1 or single acting and 2 or double acting cylinders n = No. o cylinders 8.6 Example Calculation o Isothermal Eiciency or a Reciprocating Air Compressor. Step 1 : Calculate Volumetric Flow Rate k : Flow coeicient (Assumed as 1) d : Nozzle diameter : 0.08 metre P 2 : Receiver Pressure -.5 kg / cm 2 (a) P 1 : Inlet Pressure kg / cm 2 (a) T 1 : Inlet air temperature 0 o C or 0 o K P : Pressure beore nozzle 1.08 kg / cm 2 T : Temperature beore the nozzle 40 o C or 1 o K P P 4 : Pressure drop across the nozzle = 0.06 kg / cm 2 R a : Gas constant : 287 Joules / kg K Free air delivered, Q ( m s π / sec) = k x x d 4 x x P1 2 T1 2( P P4 )( P x Ra ) T 1 / 2 Free air delivered 1 / 2 s π x0.06 x1.08 x 287, Q ( m / sec) = 1x x(0.08) x x = 0.91 m /sec = m / h Bureau o Energy Eiciency 110

5 Step 2 : Calculate Isothermal Power Requirement P xq xloge Isothermal power ( kw ) = r P 1 - Absolute intake pressure = 1.04 kg / cm 2 (a) Q -Free Air Delivered = m / h..51 Compression ratio, r = = x xloge.6 Isothermal power ( kw ) = = 48. 4kW 6.7 Step : Calculate Isothermal Eiciency Motor input power = 100 kw Motor and drive eiciency = 86 % Compressor input power = 86 kw Isothermal eiciency = Isothermal Power x 100 Compressor input Power = 48.4 x 100 = 56% Assessment o Speciic Power requirement Speciic power consumption = Actual power consumed by the compressor Measured Free Air Delivery In the above example the measured low is m /hr and actual power consumption is 100 kw. Speciic power requirement = = kw/m /hr 8.8 Measurement o FAD by Pump Up Method (Note: The ollowing section is a repeat o material provided in the chapter- on Compressed Air System in Book-.) Another way o determining the Free Air Delivery o the compressor is by Pump Up Method - also known as receiver illing method. Although this is less accurate, this can be adopted where the elaborate nozzle method is diicult to be deployed. Bureau o Energy Eiciency 111

6 Simple method o Capacity Assessment in Shop loor Isolate the compressor along with its individual receiver being taken or test rom main compressed air system by tightly closing the isolation valve or blanking it, thus closing the receiver outlet. Open water drain valve and drain out water ully and empty the receiver and the pipeline. Make sure that water trap line is tightly closed once again to start the test. Start the compressor and activate the stopwatch. Note the time taken to attain the normal operational pressure P 2 (in the receiver) rom initial pressure P 1. Calculate the capacity as per the ormulae given below: Actual Free air discharge Q P P V P T 2 1 = 0 Nm / Minute Where P 2 = Final pressure ater illing (kg/cm 2 a) P 1 = Initial pressure (kg/cm 2 a) ater bleeding P 0 = Atmospheric Pressure (kg/cm 2 a) V = Storage volume in m which includes receiver, ater cooler, and delivery piping T = Time take to build up pressure to P 2 in minutes The above equation is relevant where the compressed air temperature is same as the ambient air temperature, i.e., perect isothermal compression. In case the actual compressed air temperature at discharge, say t 2 0 C is higher than ambient air temperature say t 1 0 C (as is usual case), the FAD is to be corrected by a actor (27 + t 1 ) / (27 + t 2 ). EXAMPLE An instrument air compressor capacity test gave the ollowing results (assume the inal compressed air temperature is same as the ambient temperature) Comment? Piston displacement : m /minute Theoretical compressor capacity : m 7 kg/cm 2 Compressor rated rpm 750 : Motor rated rpm : 1445 Receiver Volume : 7.79 m Additional hold up volume, i.e., pipe / water cooler, etc., is : m Total volume : 8.22 m Initial pressure P 1 : 0.5 kg/cm 2 Final pressure P 2 : 7.0 kg/cm 2 Bureau o Energy Eiciency 112

7 Atmospheric pressure P 0 : kg/cm 2,a Compressor output m /minute : ( P ) P2 1 Total Volume Atm. Pressure Pumpup time ( ) 8.22 : = 1.17 m /minute Capacity shortall with respect to m /minute rating is m /minute i.e., %, which indicates compressor perormance needs to be investigated urther. Bureau o Energy Eiciency 11

8 QUESTIONS 1) What is meant by Free Air Delivery? 2) Describe the method o estimating low by nozzle method. ) Describe the method o estimating low by pump up method. 4) Deine the term isothermal eiciency and explain its signiicance. 5) Deine the term volumetric eiciency and explain its signiicance. 6) How is speciic power requirement calculated? REFERENCES 1. IS 1041:1994: Measurement o airlow o compressors and exhausters by nozzles. 2. IS 5456:1985 code o practice or testing o positive displacement type air compressors and exhausters. Compressor perormance Aerodynamics or the user by M Theodore Gresh- Butterworth Heinemann. Bureau o Energy Eiciency 114

Power Calculation 2 Design Studies

Power Calculation 2 Compressor Design (Example 5): Specifications: 5cfm free air delivered. Output pressure 6.895 Bar. Intake air 0.97 Bar 27 C (Assume there is an intake pressure drop and intake air has

CHAPTER 25 IDEAL GAS LAWS

EXERCISE 139, Page 303 CHAPTER 5 IDEAL GAS LAWS 1. The pressure of a mass of gas is increased from 150 kpa to 750 kpa at constant temperature. Determine the final volume of the gas, if its initial volume

UNIVERSITY ESSAY QUESTIONS:

UNIT I 1. What is a thermodynamic cycle? 2. What is meant by air standard cycle? 3. Name the various gas power cycles". 4. What are the assumptions made for air standard cycle analysis 5. Mention the various

ME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING. Part-B (16Marks questions)

ME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING Part-B (16Marks questions) 1. Drive and expression for the air standard efficiency of Otto cycle in terms of volume ratio. (16) 2. Drive an expression for the air standard efficiency

Refrigeration and Airconditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Refrigeration and Airconditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No. # 22 Refrigeration System Components: Compressor (Continued)

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit code: J/601/1496 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 TUTORIAL 3 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC MOTORS The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit code: J/601/1496 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 TUTORIAL 1 HYDRAULIC PUMPS The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive so there

CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C

comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle

Section 11 - System Diagrams

Section 11 System Diagrams Page 11-1 Section 11 - System Diagrams Section Contents Page Overview...11-3 Flow Diagram, Air Intake System...11-4 Flow Diagram, Cooling System...11-5 Flow Diagram, Exhaust

20 m neon m propane 20

Problems with solutions:. A -m 3 tank is filled with a gas at room temperature 0 C and pressure 00 Kpa. How much mass is there if the gas is a) Air b) Neon, or c) Propane? Given: T73K; P00KPa; M air 9;

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics

Unit 24: Applications of Pneumatics and Hydraulics Unit code: J/601/1496 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 TUTORIAL 2 HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC CYLINDERS The material needed for outcome 2 is very extensive

CHME 302 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABOATORY-I EXPERIMENT 302-1 FLOW MEASUREMENT TEST

CHME 302 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABOATORY-I EXPERIMENT 302-1 FLOW MEASUREMENT TEST OBJECTIVE The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate the working principles of four most common devices used to measure

Section 6 System Diagrams

Page 6-1 Section Contents Page Overview...6-3 Flow Diagram, Fuel System...6-4 Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System...6-5 Flow Diagrams, Cooling System...6-9 Flow Diagrams, Air Intake System...6-11 Flow

Section 11 System Diagrams

Page 11-1 Section Contents Page System Diagrams Overview...11-3 Flow Diagram, Fuel System...11-4 Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System...11-5 Flow Diagram, Cooling System...11-9 Flow Diagram, Air Intake

I C ENGINES & COMPRESSORS

I C ENGINES & COMPRESSORS QUESTION BANK UNIT I Actual Cycles and their Analysis: Introduction, Comparison of Air Standard and Actual Cycles, Time Loss Factor, Heat Loss Factor, Volumetric Efficiency. Loss

Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods

CHAPTER Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods COMPRESSED AIR Sixth Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering 11 By Dr. Ibrahim Assakkaf ENCE 420

DERON Air/Water Swimming pool Heat Pump. CY/DY series for Heating/Cooling. Description

Description Compact air/water heat pump for outside installation. With suction gas cooled rotary compressor. With extensive aluminium/cu lamellar tube evaporator and PVC Titanium condenser. Axial fan Refrigerant

RITTER Multiple Sonic Nozzle Calibration System

RITTER Multiple Sonic Nozzle Calibration System »Wouldn t it be great to eliminate doubtful measurement results by using proven measurement technology? Providing the most precise results ensures and increases

Adsorption air dryers ADS 25 INDUSTRY CUSTOMER SERVICE COMPRESSED AIR AIR INTAKE 20 C 70% UR 760 mm Hg 2 grh 2 O/m 3 AIR PRESSURE 0 bar COOLING SYSTEM 30 C 00% UR 0 bar 2,8 grh 2 O/m 3 A compressor that

AIR POWERED ENGINE INTRODUCTION. Pramod Kumar.J Mechanical Engineer, Bangalore, INDIAs

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 66 72, Article ID: IJMET_07_02_010 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=2

Eurovacuum EV Series. Single Stage Oil Sealed Rotary Vane Pump

Eurovacuum EV Series Single Stage Oil Sealed Rotary Vane Pump Eurovacuum EV Series Single Stage Oil Sealed Rotary Vane Pumps Eurovacuum Company is offering its various products to meet industrial vacuum

COMPRESSION. Bureau of Forestry. Natural Gas Advisory Committee January 15, 2014. Presentation to the. www.dcnr.state.pa.us

COMPRESSION Bureau of Forestry Presentation to the Natural Gas Advisory Committee January 15, 2014 Gas Well Decline Gas wells decline in volume and pressure as produced As the pressure declines so does

Variable Vane Pump, Direct Controlled PV7...A Series 1X / 2X

Variable Vane Pump, Direct Controlled PV7...A Series 1X / X RE 1 Issue: 1.1 Replaces: 8.8 Sizes 1 to Maximum pressure 1 bar Displacement volume 1 to cm Features Very short control times Low noise Mounting

FIXED DISPLACEMENT HYDRAULIC VANE PUMPS BQ SERIES

BQ FIXED DISPLACEMENT HYDRAULIC VANE PUMPS BQ SERIES Versatility, power, compactness and low running costs are the main characteristics of B&C vane pumps. All the components subject to wear are contained

Diesel Power Plant - Arrangement - Equipment - Advantages & disadvantages Intake air filter Diesel Engine Fuel injection pump Filter Oil pump Storage tank Schematic arrangement of Diesel Power Plant Equipment

Objective - Determining characteristic curve of a four-stroke Diesel engine - Calculating thermal efficiency of the engine

Objective - Determining characteristic curve of a four-stroke Diesel engine - Calculating thermal efficiency of the engine Apparatus The experimental setup, shown in Fig. 1, has three main parts: engine,

THERMODYNAMICS NOTES - BOOK 2 OF 2

THERMODYNAMICS & FLUIDS (Thermodynamics level 1\Thermo & Fluids Module -Thermo Book 2-Contents-December 07.doc) UFMEQU-20-1 THERMODYNAMICS NOTES - BOOK 2 OF 2 Students must read through these notes and

Section 11 - System Diagrams

Section 11 System Diagrams Page 11-1 Section 11 - System Diagrams Section Contents Page Overview...11-3 Flow Diagram, Fuel System...11-4 Flow Diagrams, Lubricating Oil System...11-5 Flow Diagrams, Cooling

Fluid Power Formula. These Formula Cover All Fluid Power Applications In This Manual

These Formula Cover All Fluid Power Applications In This Manual For Computer Programs To Work Problems By Simply Filling In The Blanks See Your Local Fluid Power Distributor Many Companies Web Site Or

Section 6 - System Diagrams

Section 6 System Diagrams Page 6-1 Section 6 - System Diagrams Section Contents Page Overview...6-3 Flow Diagram, Fuel System...6-4 Flow Diagrams, Lubricating Oil System...6-5 Flow Diagrams, Cooling System...6-8

Practice Problems on Conservation of Energy. heat loss of 50,000 kj/hr. house maintained at 22 C

COE_10 A passive solar house that is losing heat to the outdoors at an average rate of 50,000 kj/hr is maintained at 22 C at all times during a winter night for 10 hr. The house is to be heated by 50 glass

UNIT 2 REFRIGERATION CYCLE

UNIT 2 REFRIGERATION CYCLE Refrigeration Cycle Structure 2. Introduction Objectives 2.2 Vapour Compression Cycle 2.2. Simple Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle 2.2.2 Theoretical Vapour Compression

THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 5 HEAT PUMPS AND REFRIGERATION. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following.

THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 5 HEAT PUMPS AND REFRIGERATION On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following. Discuss the merits of different refrigerants. Use thermodynamic tables for

Technical Specification. Generating Set with Waukesha engine burning natural gas

Technical Specification Generating Set with Waukesha engine burning natural gas The following presents the Gas Engine Generating Set (GEGS) APG1000 type, based on Waukesha gas engine 16V150LTD. Using the

P = n M 9550 [kw] Variable Intake Manifold in VR Engines. Self-study programme 212. Principles and Description of Operation. Service.

Service. Self-study programme 212 Variable Intake Manifold in VR Engines Principles and Description of Operation P = n M 9550 [kw] M [Nm] P [kw] n [min -1 ] 212_020 The output and torque of an engine have

FIXED DISPLACEMENT HYDRAULIC VANE PUMPS BQ SERIES

BQ FIXED DISPLACEMENT HYDRAULIC VANE PUMPS BQ SERIES Versatility, power, compactness and low running costs are the main characteristics of B&C vane pumps. All the components subject to wear are contained

FIXED DISPLACEMENT HYDRAULIC VANE PUMPS BQ SERIES

BQ FIXED DISPLACEMENT HYDRAULIC VANE PUMPS BQ SERIES Versatility, power, compactness and low running costs are the main characteristics of B&C vane pumps. All the components subject to wear are contained

Turbo Tech 103 (Expert)

Turbo Tech 103 (Expert) This article is a bit more involved and will describe parts of the compressor map, how to estimate pressure ratio and mass flow rate for your engine, and how to plot the points

Trailer brake valve Trailer brake valve with adjustable predominance

Trailer brake valve with adjustable predominance 971 002 Application Purpose Maintenance Vehicles with conventional two-lien brake control (not Trailer EBS). To control the dual-line air braking system

Specifications for Volkswagen Industrial Engine

Volkswagen 1 industrial engine Specifications for Volkswagen Industrial Engine AFD 1.9 ltr. TDI diesel engine EURO 2 Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg Volkswagen AG reserves the right to introduce amendments or

Vehicular Engine Design Extra Material

Vehicular Engine Design Extra Material Contents Chapter 1: The Internal Combustion Engine An Introduction... 2 Problem 1.1: Calculate Total Engine Displacement... 2 Problem 1.2: Calculate Engine Power

Radial piston pumps type R and RG

Radial piston pumps type R and RG Operating pressure p max = 700 bar Delivery flow Q max = 91.2 lpm (at 1450 rpm) Geometric displacement V g max = 64.2 cm 3 /rev. 1. General Motor pumps and hydraulic power

Atlas Copco Stationary air compressors

Atlas Copco Stationary air compressors Oil-free and oil lubricated piston compressor 2.2 - kw / 3-7.5 hp QUALITY COMPRESSORS DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY FOR THE SNOW MAKING INDUSTRY Atlas Copco's L-range of

THE MODELING AND CALCULATION OF SOUND RADIATION FROM FACILITIES WITH GAS FLOWED PIPES INTRODUCTION

THE MODELING AND CALCULATION OF SOUND ADIATION FOM FACILITIES WITH GAS FLOWED PIPES INTODUCTION Analysis o the emission caused by industrial acilities like chemical plants, reineries or other production

Pump ED 101. Positive Displacement Pumps. Part I Reciprocating Pumps

Pump ED 101 Positive Displacement Pumps Part I Reciprocating Pumps Joe Evans, Ph.D http://www.pumped101.com There are many pump designs that fall into the positive displacement category but, for the most

Section IV VACUUM PUMPS. Vacuum Pumps: Basic Operation

VACUUM PUMPS Section IV Equipment used to generate vacuum, as noted earlier, is similar to air compressors. It's even possible to generate compressed air or vacuum with the same machine, depending on how

BLOWERS EXHAUSTERS CONTINENTAL INDUSTRIE ASME PTC 10 PERFORMANCE TEST PROCEDURE. Blowers & Exhausters. Page 1 of 6 PURPOSE STANDARDS INSTRUMENTS

PURPOSE Page 1 of 6 Test purpose is the measure of the following compressor operating parameters: flow of gas handled pressure rice produced shaft power requirement efficiency surge limit STANDARDS Test

Construction of separating calorimeter is as shown in figure:

1. Title: Measurement of dryness fraction by Separating Calorimeter, Throttling Calorimeter, Separating and Throttling Calorimeter. 2. Learning objectives: 2.1. Intellectual skills: a) Measurement of Dryness

Centrifugal Fans and Pumps are sized to meet the maximum

Fans and Pumps are sized to meet the maximum flow rate required by the system. System conditions frequently require reducing the flow rate. Throttling and bypass devices dampers and valves are installed

VARIABLE VANE PUMPS V3

VARIABLE VANE PUMPS V3 (series 30 and 40) Nominal sizes 12; 25; 40; 63 up to p n 100 bar V g 8.5; 19; 32; 47 cm 3 /rev KE 1015 11/02 replaces 07/97 easy commissioning due to automatic bleed facility low

Drives and motors. A guide to using variable-speed drives and motors in data centres

Drives motors A guide to using variable-speed drives motors in data centres The power behind the data Private public businesses, from banks to supermarkets, to telecommunications companies internet providers

hose-to-hose coupling pump-to-hose coupling

pipe_02 A homeowner plans to pump water from a stream in their backyard to water their lawn. A schematic of the pipe system is shown in the figure. 3 m 1 m inlet pipe-to-pump coupling stream re-entrant

4000 Series TWG2A Diesel Engine ElectropaK Non-Emissions compliant rpm

The 4012-46TWG engine has been developed using the latest engineering techniques and builds on the strengths of the already very successful 4012 Series family and addresses today s uncompromising demands

Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical quantities that are conserved and two quantities that are not conserved during a process.

Thermo 1 (MEP 261) Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Yunus A. Cengel & Michael A. Boles 7 th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, ISBN-978-0-07-352932-5, 2008 Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical

REDESIGN OF THE INTAKE CAMS OF A FORMULA STUDENT RACING CAR

FISITA2010-SC-P-24 REDESIGN OF THE INTAKE CAMS OF A FORMULA STUDENT RACING CAR Sándor, Vass Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary KEYWORDS valvetrain, camshaft, cam, Formula Student,

In Situ Performance Evaluation of Industrial Reciprocating Air Compressors

Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Compressor Engineering Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2008 In Situ Performance Evaluation of Industrial Reciprocating Air Compressors Meivelu

Chapters 7. Performance Comparison of CI and SI Engines. Performance Comparison of CI and SI Engines con t. SI vs CI Performance Comparison

Chapters 7 SI vs CI Performance Comparison Performance Comparison of CI and SI Engines The CI engine cycle can be carried out in either 2 or 4 strokes of the piston, with the 4-cycle CI engine being more

The Fundamentals of Gas Flow Calibration

The Fundamentals of Gas Flow Calibration Application Note Introduction Understanding the fundamentals of gas flow calibration is essential for evaluating calibration systems, estimating the magnitude of

Booster Compressors N Series. Pressures to 650 psig Capacities 9.5 to 724 cfm

Booster Compressors N Series Pressures to 650 psig Capacities 9.5 to 724 cfm High Pressure Systems from Kaeser PET plastics, molding, leak testing and other special applications require higher pressures

Avoiding climate-damaging methane emissions during pipeline repairs

Avoiding climate-damaging methane emissions during pipeline repairs Krakow, October 14 th, 2011 Christian Hadick (Pipeline Intervention) and Axel Scherello 2 Reduction of natural gas emissions Reduction

1013 E. The engine for agricultural equipment.

1013 E. The engine for agricultural equipment.... -186 kw at 2300 rpm These are the characteristics of the 1013 E: Modern water-cooled 4- and 6-cylinder in-line engine Turbocharging with charge air cooling

HEAVY DUTY STORAGE GAS

Multi-Fin flue technology Flue damper saves energy Electronic controls HEAVY DUTY STORAGE GAS Dependability The Rheem heavy duty gas range is the work horse of the industry having proved itself over many

Kompressoren Adsorption Dryer AD Adsorption Drying: why? Modern industries require compressed air that is increasingly filtered with low dew point and condensate. Today, the equipment is more sophisticated

4000 Series 4008TAG2A Diesel Engine ElectropaK 947 kwm @ 1500 rpm

The Perkins 4000 Series family of 6, 8, 12 and 16 cylinder diesel engines was designed in advance of today s uncompromising demands within the power generation industry and includes superior performance

Screw Compressors ESM 30 132 Fixed Speed & VS 30 132 Variable Speed

Screw Compressors ESM 30 132 Fixed Speed & VS 30 132 Variable Speed Rely on GD to provide the perfect fit The perfect fit to maximise productivity The growing industrial demand for compressed air requires

technical data air conditioning systems RXS20-25-35E (single phase) FBQ-B8V1-B8V3B Split Heat Pump Condensing Units Split Sky Air

technical data RXS20-25-35E FBQ-B8V-B8V3B (single phase) Split Heat Pump Condensing Units air conditioning systems Split Sky Air Outdoor Units R-40A RXS-E2VB Split Sky Air Outdoor Units Features O u t

SELECTION, APPLICATION AND MAINTENANCE

DIESEL PROTECTION SYSTEMS D-Series Engine Automatic Overspeed Shut Down Valves (Spindle Types with Air Pressure and Manual Shut Down Options) SELECTION, APPLICATION AND MAINTENANCE Valve Numbers D92-AP

Drives and motors. A guide to using variable speed drives and motors in data centres Meeting your Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC)

Drives and motors A guide to using variable speed drives and motors in data centres Meeting your Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) The power behind the data Private and public businesses, from banks to

Energy Efficiency Best Practice Guide Compressed Air Systems

4 Energy Efficiency Best Practice Guide Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 What are the business benefits of compressed air efficiency? 5 3 What is your opportunity? 6 4 Solution 1 Improve the efficiency of your

Refrigerated Air Dryers. Catalogue

Refrigerated Air Dryers Catalogue GB Why use a refrigerated dryer? Humidity is a component of atmospheric air, which can be found in the compressed air distribution systems and the machines that use the

ROOFTOP - HEAT PUMP UNIT. This document applies when installing into an air handler or as part of an air handling system.

ROOFTOP - HEAT PUMP UNIT Technical data Applies to Model YNRA R410A This document applies when installing into an air handler or as part of an air handling system. CONTENTS 1. General description... 2

Ambient Temperature Operation and Matching MAN B&W Two-stroke Engines

Ambient Temperature Operation and Matching MAN B&W Two-stroke Engines Content Introduction...5 Standard ambient matched engine...5 Operating at high seawater with standard matched engine...6 Non-standard

Model-based Parameter Optimization of an Engine Control Unit using Genetic Algorithms

Symposium on Automotive/Avionics Avionics Systems Engineering (SAASE) 2009, UC San Diego Model-based Parameter Optimization of an Engine Control Unit using Genetic Algorithms Dipl.-Inform. Malte Lochau

9. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF HVAC SYSTEMS

9. ENERGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF HVAC SYSTEMS 9.1 Introduction Air conditioning and refrigeration consume significant amount of energy in buildings and in process industries. The energy consumed in

Reliable and Efficient Hydraulics and Pneumatics for Today and Tomor

Reliable and Efficient Hydraulics and Pneumatics for Today and Tomor Energy Savings Through Proper Use of Pneumatics Date: November 21, 2013 Frank Langro Festo Corporation Director Marketing & Product

Schematic Symbols Chart (Design Hydraulic and Pneumatic circits)

Page 1 of 6 (Home) Symbols / Visit us on: Fluid Power, Automation and Motion Control for all Industries About Us Products Services Catalogs Place an Order Training & Information Contact Us Employee Access

Simplified Acceptance Test of Electric Driven, Low Pressure Turbocompressor Air Blower Package

CAGI BL5389 6/13 Simplified Acceptance Test of Electric Driven, Low Pressure Turbocompressor Air Blower Package Compressed Air & Gas Institute Sponsor: 1300 Sumner Ave Cleveland, Ohio 44115-2851 CAGI BL5389

912. The engine for construction equipment.

912. The engine for construction equipment....... 24-82 kw at 1500-2500 min -1 These are the characteristics of the 912: Air-cooled 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-cylinder naturally aspirated in-line-engines. Direct injection.

C. starting positive displacement pumps with the discharge valve closed.

KNOWLEDGE: K1.04 [3.4/3.6] P78 The possibility of water hammer in a liquid system is minimized by... A. maintaining temperature above the saturation temperature. B. starting centrifugal pumps with the

Screw Compressors. ESM 7 22 Fixed Speed & VS 7 22 Variable Speed. Rely on GD to provide the perfect fit

Screw Compressors ESM 7 22 Fixed Speed & VS 7 22 Variable Speed Rely on GD to provide the perfect fit Absolute reliability The growing industrial demand for compressed air requires compressor manufacturers

DEVELOPMENT OF A TWIN SCREW EXPRESSOR AS A THROTTLE VALVE REPLACEMENT FOR WATER-COOLED CHILLERS

DEVELOPMENT OF A TWIN SCREW EXPRESSOR AS A THROTTLE VALVE REPLACEMENT FOR WATER-COOLED CHILLERS J J Brasz, Carrier Corporation, Syracuse, NY, 13221, USA joost.j.brasz@carrier.utc.com I K Smith and N Stosic

1100 Series 1104D-44TA Diesel Engine Industrial Open Power Unit 83.0 kw / rpm

The 1104D-44TA IOPU is a new addition to the 1100 Series range of IOPU engines. These ultra clean engines are assembled on a new high technology production line. Frequent computerized checks during the

Water for Profit. Water Power Output. Introduction. What is pump efficiency? Pump curves. Total Dynamic Head (TDH)

Water for Profit PUMPING UNIT EFFICIENCY: Bore Pump Systems Pumping efficiency tests completed as part of system auditing within the Rural Water Use Efficiency Initiative found that many systems are operating

European Aviation Safety Agency

European Aviation Safety Agency EASA TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET Number : IM.E.026 Issue : 04 Date : 04 April 2014 Type : Engine Alliance LLC GP7200 series engines Models: GP7270 GP7272 GP7277 List of

SCP 012-130 ISO. Other advantages: SCP 012-130 ISO is a series of piston pumps with a fixed displacement for mobile and stationary hydraulics.

SCP 012-130 ISO is a series of piston pumps with a fixed displacement for mobile and stationary hydraulics. SCP 012-130 ISO covers the entire displacement range 12-130 cmᶟ rev. at a maximum pressure of

Basic Symbols. Lines. Circular. Square. Diamond. Miscellaneous Symbols. -continuous line - flow line. -dashed line - pilot, drain

Airline Hydraulic's Main Page Basic Symbols Lines continuous line flow line dashed line pilot, drain envelope long and short dashes around two or more component symbols. Circular Square Diamond large circle

Air Flow Optimization via a Venturi Type Air Restrictor

, July 3-5, 013, London, U.K. Air Flow Optimization via a Venturi Type Air Restrictor Anshul Singhal, Mallika Parveen, Member, IAENG Abstract The aim of this project is to create a flow restriction device

Compressor Efficiency Definitions

Compressor Efficiency Definitions K. Ueno, PhD, and R. E. Bye, VAIREX Corporation K. S. Hunter, PhD, University of Colorado May 12th, 2003 Many standard efficiency definitions exist that qualify the mass

Ergo-Pro Single Line Solar Station Installation and Operating Instructions

Rp 3/4 Ergo-Pro Single Line Solar Station Installation and Operating Instructions Item No Pump type 677.21.70 WILO ST 15/6 13 2 4 11 Technical Specifications Max. operating pressure: 6 bar Max. operating

Minor losses include head losses through/past hydrants, couplers, valves,

Lecture 10 Minor Losses & Pressure Requirements I. Minor Losses Minor (or fitting, or local ) hydraulic losses along pipes can often be estimated as a function of the velocity head of the water within

Laboratory Experience with a Model Jet Turbine

Session 2166 Laboratory Experience with a Model Jet Turbine John E. Matsson Oral Roberts University Abstract This paper describes the experience gained from the operation of a JetCat model turbojet engine

A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices

A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices Part PatE21: Last updated: 15th January 2011 Author: Patrick J. Kelly This patent describes methods for altering HHO gas so that it can be used in vehicle engines

INDUSTRIAL DIRECT DRIVEN PISTON COMPRESSORS CL - CH - CK

INDUSTRIAL DIRECT DRIVEN PISTON COMPRESSORS CL - CH - CK CL - CH - CK Direct driven solution for industry Proven technology, solid construction The CL - CH - CK units are directly driven air-cooled, single

Electric vacuum pump for brake servo unit

Service. Self-Study Programme 257 Electric vacuum pump for brake servo unit Design and Function Cars fitted with a petrol engine in combination with an automatic gearbox which comply with the EU 4 Standard

Calibration and Uncertainties of Pipe Roughness Height

9 th IWA/IAHR Conerence on Urban Drainage Modelling Calibration and Uncertainties o Pipe Roughness Height Kailin Yang, Yongxin Guo, Xinlei Guo,Hui Fu and Tao Wang China Institute o Water Resources and

CNG / CBG. your high pressure solution. compressors for turn-key refuelling stations. www.lmf.at CNG/CBG

your high pressure solution CNG / CBG compressors for turn-key refuelling stations company profile LMF is the leading Austrian manufacturer of high-pressure piston compressor systems for air, natural gas

Screw Compressors 11-22kW

INDUSTRIALS GROUP Screw Compressors 11-22kW KSA Plus Fixed Speed, KSV Variable Speed Smart and affordable CHAMPION COMPRESSED AIR TECHNOLOGIES KSA Plus Screw Compressors Up to 45 C ambient temperature

POSSIBILITY FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RE-COMPRESSRION FOR STEAM BASED DRYING PROCESSES

POSSIBILITY FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RE-COMPRESSRION FOR STEAM BASED DRYING PROCESSES M. Bantle 1, I. Tolstorebrov, T. M. Eikevik 2 1 Department of Energy Efficiency, SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway,