Frequency Range Extension of Spectrum Analyzers with Harmonic Mixers

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Frequency Range Extension of Spectrum Analyzers with Harmonic Mixers"

Transcription

1 Products FSEM21/31 and FSEK21/31 or FSEM20/30 and FSEK20/30 with FSE-B21 Frequency Range Extension o Spectrum Analyzers with Harmonic Mixers This application note describes the principle o harmonic mixing and the requirements to be met by spectrum analyzers and external mixers. Subject to change Christoph Rauscher Application Note 1EF43_0E

2 Contents 1 Introduction Fundamentals... 3 Waveguides... 3 Harmonic Mixing... 5 Signal Identiication... 8 Characteristics o Mixers Spectrum Analyzer Requirements and their Realization in FSE Measurement Hints Operation o External Mixers on FSE Reerences Ordering Inormation Introduction The growing number o applications using wireless signal transmission, eg radiocommunication or collision avoidance systems, calls or an ever increasing number o requencies. Since requency requirements can no longer be met by the lower requency bands alone, requencies in the millimeter range are used to a growing extent. So this requency range is not only employed by military users but opened up also or civil applications. So ar, the requencies up to 110 GHz have been o main interest. However, with demands made on harmonic suppression getting higher and EMC directives becoming more stringent (eg FCC CFR47 Part 15), this requency limit is shited to 200 GHz. The requency range above 40 to 50 GHz is covered by spectrum analyzers usually by means o external mixers because the undamental mixing commonly employed in the lower requency range is too complex and expensive or required components such as preselectors are not available. This application note describes the principle o harmonic mixing and the criteria to be taken into account. 1EF43_0E 2 Rohde & Schwarz

3 2 Fundamentals Waveguides Wired signal transmission in the millimeter range is preerably realized by means o waveguides because they oer low attenuation and high reproducibility. Unlike coaxial cables, the requency range in which waveguides can be used is limited also towards lower requencies (highpass ilter characteristics). Wave propagation in the waveguide is not possible below a certain cuto requency where attenuation o the waveguide is very high. Beyond a certain upper requency limit, several wave propagation modes are possible so that the behaviour o the waveguide is no longer unambiguous. In the unambiguous range o a rectangular waveguide, only H 10 waves are capable o propagation. The ollowing ormula applies to the lower cuto requency c,1, rom which such waves are capable o propagation: c = (Equation 2-1) c,1 2 a r where c,1 Lower cuto requency (in Hz) c Velocity o light (in m/s) a Length o larger dimension o waveguide (in m) Dielectric constant o medium in waveguide (= 1 or air) ε r From a limit requency o c,2, the H 01 wave can propagate in addition to the H 10 wave. c,2 is thereore the upper limit requency o the unambiguous range. The ollowing applies: c c,2 = (Equation 2-2) 2 b r where c,2 Upper limit requency (in Hz) b Length o smaller dimension o waveguide (in m) Usually, a ratio o a/b = 2 o the edge lengths is selected, so that c,2 = 2 c,1. Because o the high wave attenuation near the lower cuto requency c,1, and to allow or mechanical tolerances, the ollowing transmission range is usually selected in practice [1]: 1.25 (Equation 2-3) c, c,1 The dimensions o rectangular and circular waveguides are deined by international standards such as 153-IEC or various requency ranges. These requency ranges are also reerred to as waveguide bands. They are designated using dierent capital letters depending on the standard. Table 2-1 provides an overview o the dierent waveguide bands together with the designations o the associated waveguides and langes. For rectangular waveguides, which are mostly used in measurements, harmonic mixers with matching langes are available. For connecting harmonic mixers to circular waveguides, transitions are to be used whose attenuation has to be taken into account in the evaluation o results. 1EF43_0E 3 Rohde & Schwarz

4 Table 2-1 Waveguide bands and associated waveguides Band Frequency Designations Internal dimensions o waveguide Designations o requently used langes in GHz MIL-W-85 EIA 153-IEC RCSC (British) in mm in inches MIL-F UG-XXX /U equivalent (reerence) Remarks Ka WR-28 R320 WG x x B-005 UG-599 /U - UG-381 /U Rectangular Rectangular Round Q WR-22 R400 WG x 2.84 U WR-19 R500 WG x V WR-15 R620 WG x E WR-12 R740 WG x W WR-10 R900 WG x x x x x x B-006 UG-383 /U Round 67B-007 UG-383 /U-M Round 67B-008 UG-385 /U Round 67B-009 UG-387 /U Round 67B-010 UG-383 /U-M Round F WR-08 R1200 WG x x B-M08 / UG-383 /U-M Round, pin contact D WR-06 R1400 WG x x B-M06 / UG-383 /U-M Round, pin contact G WR-05 R1800 WG x x B-M05 / UG-383 /U-M Round, pin contact Y WR-04 R2200 WG x x B-M04 / UG-383 /U-M Round, pin contact J WR-03 R2600 WG x x B-M03 / UG-383 /U-M Round, pin contact 1EF43_0E 4 Rohde & Schwarz

5 Harmonic Mixing In harmonic mixers, a harmonic o the local oscillator (LO) is used or signal conversion to a lower intermediate requency (). The advantage o this method is that the requency range o the local oscillator may be much lower than with undamental mixing, where the LO requency must be o the same order (with low ) or much higher (with high ) than the input signal (RF). Microwave spectrum analyzers use harmonic mixing also in the undamental requency range, FSEK or example rom 26.5 GHz. To ensure image- and spurious-ree spectrum display in the undamental requency range, a tracking preselection is provided at the RF input o the spectrum analyzer. In this way, signals are displayed at the desired requency only. Image-requency signals, which the mixer is not capable o distinguishing rom signals at the desired requency, are suppressed by the preselector. Preselection is not commonly used with external harmonic mixers because o the high requencies involved. Preselection would be very costly in this case and hardly possible to realize at extremely high requencies. Fig. 2-1 shows the test setup or measurements using an external harmonic mixer. The mixer is ed a high-level LO signal. The harmonics generated in the mixer because o its nonlinearity are used or conversion. Fig. 2-1: Test setup or measurements using an external two-port mixer The signal converted to the is coupled out o the line which is also used or eeding the LO signal. Because o the great requency spacing between the LO and the signal, the two signals can be separated by means o a simple diplexer. The diplexer may be realized as part o the mixer or the spectrum analyzer, or as a separate component. Mixers with an integrated diplexer are also reerred to as three-port mixers, mixers without diplexers as two-port mixers. To enable the use o both types o mixer, FSEM and FSEK oer a separate input as well as an integrated diplexer. The LO path o harmonic mixers oten contains a lowpass ilter or the suppression o harmonics o the incoming LO signal. This is to prevent LO harmonics to be superimposed on the mixer-generated harmonics. Depending on the phase o the harmonics, this may cause blanking, which leads to higher conversion loss or produces notches in the requency response characteristic. When selecting an external mixer, thereore, care should be taken that the limit requency o the integrated lowpass ilter is higher than the maximum LO requency o the spectrum analyzer. The RF signal applied to the input o the external mixer together with its harmonics is mixed with all harmonics o the LO signal. The mixer products that all within the o the spectrum analyzer are displayed. They must ulil the ollowing criterion: 1EF43_0E 5 Rohde & Schwarz

6 m = (Equation 2-4) ± n LO RF where m, n 1, 2,... if LO RF Frequency o LO signal (in Hz) Frequency o input signal (in Hz) Intermediate requency (in Hz) The local oscillator o FSEM and FSEK is tunable between 7.5 and 15.2 GHz. The intermediate requency is MHz. For an input signal with a requency o 39 GHz, the criterion according to equation 2-4 is ulilled or the LO requencies listed in Table 2-2. The variable m corresponds to the order o the harmonic o the LO signal by which the input signal is converted to the. The criterion is ulilled twice or each harmonic. The input signal is represented as the upper sideband (normal position) and also as the lower sideband (inverted position) o the local oscillator signal. Components with n 1 are harmonics o the input signal that are generated, or example, in the mixer. It can be seen that these harmonics are converted to the desired only by LO harmonics o a comparatively high order m. I the level o the input signal is well below the 1 db compression point o the mixer, such components have a markedly lower level since the harmonics o the input signal are suiciently attenuated with respect to the undamental and in addition the conversion loss o the mixer increases with increasing order m. Thereore, only responses with n 4 are listed in Table 2-2. While components with higher m and n exist, they can be neglected because o their low level. Table 2-2: LO requencies or which the criterion according to equation 2-4 is ulilled ( = MHz, n 4, m 12) m n LO / GHz m n LO / GHz m n LO / GHz Spectrum analyzers however display the received spectrum not versus the LO requency but versus the input requency. For this, the user has to enter on the spectrum analyzer the order m o the harmonic by which the input signal is to be converted. For the representation o signals in the lower sideband at the correct requency RF, the ollowing equation applies (derived rom equation 2-4): = (Equation 2-5) m RF LO where m Harmonic set by user RF Frequency at which a spectral component is displayed on the analyzer (in Hz) The LO requency LO, which is required or conversion o a signal in the lower sideband, is obtained rom equation 2-4 as ollows: 1EF43_0E 6 Rohde & Schwarz

7 LO + n RF =. (Equation 2-6) m By substituting equation 2-6 in equation 2-5, the ollowing is obtained or RF : + n = m (Equation 2-7) m RF RF The ollowing applies to components converted as the lower sideband by means o a harmonic o the order m = m : = n, (Equation 2-8) RF RF Such components are thereore represented at the correct requency. For image requency response, the ollowing corresponding equations apply: and LO n RF = (Equation 2-9) m n RF = m. (Equation 2-10) RF m The ollowing is then obtained or m = m : = (Equation 2-11) n 2 RF RF I m = 3 is selected, the spectrum displayed on the analyzer contains components at the requencies listed in Table 2-3 (see also Fig. 2-2 on next page). Components lying within the corresponding waveguide band (Ka band in this case) are highlighted grey. Table 2-3: Displayed components or m = 3 (lower sideband, = MHz); sinewave input signal with RF = 39 GHz m n LO / GHz RF / GHz m n LO / GHz RF / GHz m n LO / GHz RF / GHz The input signal converted by means o the 3 rd harmonic o the LO signal is displayed at the correct requency RF = 39 GHz. The image signal is displayed below this signal at a spacing o 2 = GHz (c. Equation 2-11). 1EF43_0E 7 Rohde & Schwarz

8 Fig. 2-2: Spectrum o 39 GHz CW signal recorded with harmonic mixer The above example illustrates that even a simple sinewave signal produces a large number o responses. I the input signal itsel contains several spectral components, intermodulation products may be generated in the mixer in addition to harmonics, such products too being converted to the. I the input signal consists o two sinewave carriers, the ollowing applies: m ± n ± k = (Equation 2-12) LO RF,1 RF,2 where k, n 0, 1, 2,... m 1, 2,... LO Frequency o LO signal (in Hz) RF,1, RF,2 Frequencies o input signals (in Hz) Intermediate requency (in Hz) The number o components increases considerably. It is advisable, thereore, to make use o the highpass ilter characteristic o waveguides to suppress unwanted input signals. Signal Identiication In the previous example, the type o input signal was known, and so it was easy to distinguish the true (or wanted) displayed signal rom unwanted mixer products obtained as a result o image requency response and mixing by other harmonics. Frequently, the spectrum to be measured is not known however so that criteria have to be ound to distinguish unwanted mixer products rom spectral components that are true components o the input signal. From equation 2-10 it can be seen that or each mixture product there exist image requencies which appear at a spacing o (m /m+1) below the mixture product. For m = m, the spacing is exactly 2 (equation 2-11). The same applies to harmonics o the input signal, ie to n 1. However, since the requency ranges o the standardized waveguide bands are considerably smaller than one octave, such mixer products will not become apparent even i the ull band is displayed. 1EF43_0E 8 Rohde & Schwarz

9 Based on this criterion, the ollowing algorithm can be realized: Apart rom the actual test sweep, in which the lower sideband is deined as wanted, a reerence sweep is perormed. For the reerence sweep, the requency o the LO signal is tuned such that the user-selected harmonic o the LO signal (order m ) is shited downwards by 2 relative to the test sweep (see Fig. 2-3). Test Sweep RF m LO Reerence Sweep m LO,Re RF Fig. 2-3: Signal identiication by means o reerence sweep For this reerence sweep, the upper sideband is the wanted sideband. Equation 2-5 is thereore modiied to take the ollowing orm: = +. (Equation 2-13) RF, Re m LO,Re where RF,Re Frequency, at which a spectral component is displayed in reerence sweep (in Hz) LO,Re LO requency in reerence sweep (in Hz) Equation 2-6 is modiied accordingly to: n RF =. (Equation 2-14) LO,Re m By substituting equation 2-14 in equation 2-13, the ollowing results: n RF = m +. (Equation 2-15) RF, Re m The ollowing applies to image requency responses: n RF + = (Equation 2-16) LO,Re m and thereore: n RF + = m +. (Equation 2-17) RF, Re ZF m By selecting m = m in equation 2-17, it will be seen that, unlike the test sweep, image requency responses are displayed at a spacing o 2 above the actual input signal (c. equation 2-8). This allows image 1EF43_0E 9 Rohde & Schwarz

10 requency responses and other unwanted mixer products to be identiied (see Fig. 2-4). Fig. 2-4: Test sweep (top) and reerence sweep (bottom) Input signal with RF = 38 GHz A true signal should be displayed at the same requency in the test sweep and the reerence sweep, ie RF = RF,Re. I m is the same or both sweeps, the ollowing is obtained or the LO requency LO,Re to be set or the reerence sweep: 2 =. (Equation 2-18) LO,Re LO m Apart rom this method o signal identiication by variation o the LO requency, it is possible to vary the level o the input signal to identiy displayed components. By varying the level o the input signal by L / db, the level o displayed true components will vary to the same extent. The levels o intermodulation products and harmonics generated in the mixer, on the other hand, will vary according to their order n, ie a variation o the input level by 1 db will cause a level variation o n db. This is subject to the condition that such intermodulation products and harmonics are generated exclusively in the mixer. Care must be taken, thereore, that the input signal is ree rom such products. Moreover, it must be ensured that the input o the spectrum analyzer is not overloaded. Since the input level can be varied only by the user, this method, unlike signal identiication by varying the LO requency, is not suitable or being implemented in a spectrum analyzer. 1EF43_0E 10 Rohde & Schwarz

11 Characteristics o Mixers Harmonic mixers are divided into single-diode and double-diode mixers. Most commercially available mixers are single-diode mixers, because these are easier to realize. Single-diode mixers basically operate with both even and odd harmonics o the LO signal. The disadvantage o this concept is that it requires biasing. To this end, the mixer is ed with a DC voltage via the LO line. The DC voltage is to be adjusted requency-dependent or minimum conversion loss o the mixer, which complicates automatic measurements at dierent requencies. Double-diode mixers are more complex but require no biasing; they are thereore also reerred to as zero-bias mixers. To attain minimum conversion loss, such mixers should normally be operated with even harmonics. Moreover, the ollowing characteristics should be taken into account in selecting the mixer: required as well as maximum permissible LO power, permissible LO requency range, conversion loss, requency response o conversion loss across small requency spans, order o harmonic or which the speciied conversion loss is valid, sensitivity o conversion loss to changes o LO level, permissible intermediate requency. In addition to the optimum LO level, at which minimum conversion loss is obtained, the maximum LO power is normally speciied at which the mixer can be used without any damage being caused. Because o the lowpass ilter contained in the LO path o the mixer (see section Harmonic mixing ), the usable LO requency range must be taken into account. I the mixer incorporates a diplexer, it must urther be ensured that the requency o the spectrum analyzer is within the bandwidth o the port o the mixer. To ensure a small level error, not only the conversion loss should be as small as possible or high sensitivity, but a continuous requency response is equally important. Narrowband notches or steps o the requency response can only with diiculty be taken into account in the level correction o the spectrum analyzer. The speciied conversion loss applies only to a speciic order o the harmonic. I a dierent harmonic is selected on the spectrum analyzer, level correction by means o the values supplied or the requencydependent conversion loss will lead to erroneous results. To obtain reproducible results, dependence o conversion loss on the LO level should be as small as possible. 1EF43_0E 11 Rohde & Schwarz

12 Spectrum Analyzer Requirements and their Realization in FSE Order o LO Harmonic To obtain low conversion loss o the external mixer, the order o the harmonic used or converting the input signal should be as low as possible. For this, the requency range o the local oscillator must be as high as possible. Spectrum Analyzers FSEM and FSEK ully meet this requirement with an LO requency range o 7.5 to 15.2 GHz. A wide LO requency range and thus a low order m is o advantage also in phase noise measurements o microwave signals. Multiplication o the signal causes an increase o the phase noise by the multiplication actor. For a harmonic o the order m, SSB phase noise is obtained as ollows [2]: L PNm ( o ) = L LO ( o ) + 20 lg (m )db (Equation 2-19) where L PNm ( o ) SSB phase noise o harmonic o the order m at a carrier oset o (in dbc(hz)) L LO ( o ) SSB phase noise o LO signal at a carrier oset o (in dbc(hz)) Fig. 2-5 shows the typical SSB phase noise o the local oscillator o FSE. typ. SSB Phase Noise in dbc(hz) /21 Model /31 Model , Carrier Oset in khz Fig. 2-5: Typical SSB phase noise o local oscillator o FSEM / FSEK The overall noise igure o the system, which consists o a spectrum analyzer and external mixer, is composed as ollows: noise igure at input o spectrum analyzer, plus conversion loss o mixer, plus eedthrough o LO SSB noise to the intermediate requency. Sensitivity is usually speciied as Displayed Average Noise Level (L DAN ) or a speciic bandwidth. The ollowing applies: B L = 174 dbm(hz) + a + NF + (10 lg )db 2,5 db DAN CVL SA Hz (Equation 2-20) where L DAN Displayed average noise level (in dbm) a CVL Conversion loss o external mixer (in db) NF SA Noise igure o analyzer at input (in db) Noise bandwidth o ilter (in Hz) B The value o 174 dbm corresponds to the noise power over 1 Hz bandwidth o a 50 Ω resistance at an ambient temperature o 290 K. The correction value o 2.5 db is necessary because o averaging o logarithmic level values. FSEM and FSEK have a noise igure o typically 7.5 db at their inputs. 1EF43_0E 12 Rohde & Schwarz

13 The eects o broadband noise o the local oscillator are not taken into account in equation Such eects may lead to urther reduction o sensitivity. I the input is open and the two-port mixer is selected, the noise displayed on FSEM and FSEK is about 3 db higher than with a three-port mixer. LO Ampliier LO LO Diplexer LO LO OUT / IN Two-Port Mixer Three-Port Mixer IN Ampliier Fig. 2-6: LO ampliier and diplexer in FSE I the signal path or a two-port mixer is selected, broadband noise at the output o the LO ampliier is applied directly to the path in the diplexer and leads to a higher displayed noise as described above (see Fig. 2-6). Intermediate Frequency The higher the requency o the spectrum analyzer, the greater the spacing at which image requency response is displayed on the requency axis (c. equation 2-11). Mixer products generated by conversion o the undamental o the input signal (n = 1 in equation 2-4) by means o harmonics o the LO signal have a level clearly above that o other mixer products and are thereore easy to identiy. For a single modulated or unmodulated input signal displayed on the requency axis, an image-ree range o 2 is obtained around this signal in which no signal identiication is necessary. Because o the high o MHz, the image-ree range or FSEM and FSEK is GHz. This is suicient or many applications, doing away with the need or signal identiication. Local Oscillator Level The level o the LO signal must be suiciently high to ensure proper unctioning o the mixer, taking into account the loss due to the cable or eeding the LO signal to the mixer. The requency response o the LO level should be as lat as possible. I a two-port mixer is used, it is o advantage i a diplexer is integrated in the spectrum analyzer. This does away with the need or an external diplexer, and thus no extra insertion loss needs to be taken into account in level measurements. FSEM and FSEK both eature an internal diplexer as well as an additional signal input ( IN connector, see Fig. 2-6). This allows the use o either two-port or three-port mixers without the need or any external components. 1EF43_0E 13 Rohde & Schwarz

14 Signal Identiication Methods Apart rom hardware requirements, signal identiication methods play an important role or the eicient use o harmonic mixers. In FSEM and FSEK, the method described in section Signal Identiication is implemented. The test and the reerence sweep can be compared manually by the user and also automatically. Unwanted mixer products are blanked in the displayed spectrum. This enables ast, continuous signal identiication. Measurement Hints To obtain accurate and reproducible results, the ollowing points should be observed: A low-loss cable with a lat requency response should be used or eeding the LO signal to the mixer. The conversion loss o the mixer is normally speciied or a deined LO level. It is thereore important to maintain this level at the LO port o the mixer in order to achieve the desired accuracy. In level correction on the spectrum analyzer, the insertion loss o the cable used or tapping the signal is to be taken into account. I an external diplexer is used or connecting a two-port mixer, the insertion loss o the path o the diplexer is to be taken into account in level correction on the spectrum analyzer. Harmonic mixers requently have a low return loss (typ. VSWR > 2.5:1). I in addition the DUT has poor output matching, the actual conversion loss may markedly deviate rom speciied values. It is thereore expedient to insert an attenuator or isolator between the mixer and the DUT in order to increase measurement accuracy. However, the insertion loss caused by such a component will reduce the sensitivity o the spectrum analyzer and mixer setup. This insertion loss has also to be taken into account in level correction on the spectrum analyzer. 1EF43_0E 14 Rohde & Schwarz

15 3 Operation o External Mixers on FSE The operation o external mixers on FSE will be explained by means o the ollowing example. A sinewave signal with = 14.5 GHz is applied to the input o a multiplier. The spectrum at the output o the multiplier is to be measured in the range 52 to 60 GHz by means o FSE and a two-port mixer or the V band. The mixer used is a double-diode mixer. Its requency-dependent conversion loss is stored in a ile on the FSE hard disk (ile name: EXTMIX_V ). First, the mixer is connected to the waveguide output o the signal source. The LO/ port is connected to the LO OUT / IN connector o FSE using a low-loss coaxial cable. External mixing is activated by: À [ INPUT : EXTERNAL MIXER ] (1) Then the BAND LOCK ON MODE is activated: À [ INPUT : EXTERNAL MIXER : BAND LOCK ON / OFF ]. (2) With À [ INPUT : EXTERNAL MIXER : SELECT BAND ] (3) the table with the parameters or the individual waveguide bands is called up. From this table the desired band, in this case band V, is selected. À [ INPUT : EXTERNAL MIXER : SELECT BAND : BAND ] (4) Selection o band by means o cursor keys and ENTER Ater selecting the band, the requency-dependent conversion loss is to be activated. To this end, the ile containing the conversion loss o the mixer used is selected. À [ INPUT : EXTERNAL MIXER : SELECT BAND : CONV LOSS TABLE ] (5) Selection o ile EXTMIX_V with cursor keys and ENTER The ile contains all the required parameters, so that no urther settings are necessary. The selected ile remains stored or the selected band. I the same mixer is selected in later measurements, only steps 1 to 4 have to be executed. Ater leaving the selection table with the key (menu up), a span is set automatically by which the complete V band is covered, ie 50 to 75 GHz. The requency range to be investigated is set with À [ FREQUENCY START : 52 GHz ] and À [ FREQUENCY STOP : 60 GHz ] To ensure reliable signal identiication by means o the AUTO ID unction, the video bandwidth is reduced as ollows: À [ SWEEP COUPLING : VIDEO BW MANUAL : 1 MHz ] The spectrum shown in Fig. 3-1 is obtained. 1EF43_0E 15 Rohde & Schwarz

16 Fig. 3-1: Output spectrum o multiplier, measured by means o external mixer To identiy the true input signal, the AUTO ID unction is activated: À [ INPUT : EXTERNAL MIXER : SIGNAL ID : AUTO ID ] AUTO ID operates on the principle described in section 2.3. In addition to the test sweep, a reerence sweep is perormed in which the LO requency is shited downwards in accordance with equation The spectra measured in the two sweeps are compared with each other automatically and the result is displayed. Unwanted mixer products are blanked in the displayed trace. The display shown in Fig. 3-2 is obtained. Fig. 3-2: Output spectrum o multiplier, measured by means o external mixer and AUTO ID unction Since the LO requency is shited downwards in the reerence sweep, the mixer conversion loss may turn out to be dierent or the test and the reerence sweep. The reasons or this are the LO output power o the spectrum analyzer varying with the requency and the non-ideal characteristics o the mixer. A certain tolerance should thereore be allowed in the comparison o the signal levels o the test sweep and the reerence sweep. The user can set this tolerance with: À [ INPUT : EXTERNAL MIXER : SIGNAL ID : AUTO ID THRESHOLD : {value} db ] 1EF43_0E 16 Rohde & Schwarz

17 The tolerance must be at least as large as the dierence between the conversion losses obtained or the test sweep and the reerence sweep. I this is not observed, the true input signal might be displayed with an incorrect level. In the above example, a tolerance o 5 db was selected. Mixer conversion loss is already taken into account in the display. Only the insertion loss a MHz o the cable used or tapping the signal is to be taken into account in determining the signal level. The actual level o the input signal is higher by a 0. 1EF43_0E 17 Rohde & Schwarz

18 4 Reerences [1] Janssen, W.: Hohlleiter und Streienleiter. Dr. Alred Hüthig Verlag Heidelberg, 1977 [2] Engelson, M.: Sideband noise measurement using the spectrum analyzer. Application note 26W-7047, Tektronix 5 Ordering Inormation Spectrum Analyzer FSEM 20 (9 khz to 26.5 GHz) FSEM 21 (9 khz to 26.5 GHz, with output or external mixer) FSEM 30 (20 Hz to 26.5 GHz) FSEM 31 (20 Hz to 26.5 GHz, with output or external mixer) FSEK 20 (9 khz to 40 GHz) FSEK 21 (9 khz to 40 GHz, with output or external mixer) FSEK 30 (20 Hz to 40 GHz) FSEK 31 (20 Hz to 40 GHz, with output or external mixer) Required Accessories or FSEM / FSEK Models 20 / 30: FSE-B21 (Output or external mixer) ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG. Mühldorstraße 15. D München P.O.B D München. Telephone Fax Internet: 1EF43_0E 18 Rohde & Schwarz

R&S FSW signal and spectrum analyzer: best in class now up to 50 GHz

R&S FSW signal and spectrum analyzer: best in class now up to 50 GHz R&S FSW signal and spectrum analyzer: best in class now up to 50 GHz The new R&S FSW 43 and R&S FSW 50 signal and spectrum analyzers make the outstanding features of the R&S FSW family available now also

More information

Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range. Application Note

Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range. Application Note Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range Application Note Table of Contents 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 1. Introduction What is dynamic range?

More information

R&S ZCxxx Millimeter-Wave Converters Specifications

R&S ZCxxx Millimeter-Wave Converters Specifications ZCxxx_dat-sw_en_3607-1471-22_v0200_cover.indd 1 Data Sheet 02.00 Test & Measurement R&S ZCxxx Millimeter-Wave Converters Specifications 21.07.2015 15:09:16 CONTENTS Definitions... 3 General information...

More information

Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP

Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP Products: Spectrum Analyzer FSP Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP This application note explains the concept of Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) measurement

More information

0HDVXULQJWKHHOHFWULFDOSHUIRUPDQFH FKDUDFWHULVWLFVRI5),)DQGPLFURZDYHVLJQDO SURFHVVLQJFRPSRQHQWV

0HDVXULQJWKHHOHFWULFDOSHUIRUPDQFH FKDUDFWHULVWLFVRI5),)DQGPLFURZDYHVLJQDO SURFHVVLQJFRPSRQHQWV 0HDVXULQJWKHHOHFWULFDOSHUIRUPDQFH FKDUDFWHULVWLFVRI5),)DQGPLFURZDYHVLJQDO SURFHVVLQJFRPSRQHQWV The treatment given here is introductory, and will assist the reader who wishes to consult the standard texts

More information

Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers

Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers Application Note Products: R&S ZVA R&S ZVB R&S ZVT R&S ZNB This application note describes how to configure a Rohde & Schwarz Network

More information

AM Receiver. Prelab. baseband

AM Receiver. Prelab. baseband AM Receiver Prelab In this experiment you will use what you learned in your previous lab sessions to make an AM receiver circuit. You will construct an envelope detector AM receiver. P1) Introduction One

More information

RF Network Analyzer Basics

RF Network Analyzer Basics RF Network Analyzer Basics A tutorial, information and overview about the basics of the RF Network Analyzer. What is a Network Analyzer and how to use them, to include the Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA),

More information

HP 8970B Option 020. Service Manual Supplement

HP 8970B Option 020. Service Manual Supplement HP 8970B Option 020 Service Manual Supplement Service Manual Supplement HP 8970B Option 020 HP Part no. 08970-90115 Edition 1 May 1998 UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T in the USA and other countries.

More information

Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Agenda Overview: Spectrum analysis and its measurements Theory of Operation: Spectrum analyzer hardware Frequency Specifications

More information

Application Note Noise Frequently Asked Questions

Application Note Noise Frequently Asked Questions : What is? is a random signal inherent in all physical components. It directly limits the detection and processing of all information. The common form of noise is white Gaussian due to the many random

More information

Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements

Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements Table of Contents 1. Overview... 2 2. Theory of Intermodulation Distortion... 2 3. Optimizing IP3 Measurements... 4 4. Theory of Adjacent Channel Power Ratio... 9 5.

More information

Communication Systems

Communication Systems AM/FM Receiver Communication Systems We have studied the basic blocks o any communication system Modulator Demodulator Modulation Schemes: Linear Modulation (DSB, AM, SSB, VSB) Angle Modulation (FM, PM)

More information

RF and Microwave Accessories. CD-ROM Catalog. Find the right component for your Rohde & Schwarz test & measurement equipment

RF and Microwave Accessories. CD-ROM Catalog. Find the right component for your Rohde & Schwarz test & measurement equipment RF and Microwave Accessories CD-ROM Catalog Find the right component for your Rohde & Schwarz test & measurement equipment Product group Typical applications Adapters Interchanging of various connector

More information

Measurement of Harmonics using Spectrum Analyzers

Measurement of Harmonics using Spectrum Analyzers Application Note Dr. Florian Ramian February 01-1EF78_1E Measurement of Harmonics using Spectrum Analyzers Application Note Products: R&S FSW This Application Note focuses on measurement of harmonics using

More information

Visual System Simulator White Paper

Visual System Simulator White Paper Visual System Simulator White Paper UNDERSTANDING AND CORRECTLY PREDICTING CRITICAL METRICS FOR WIRELESS RF LINKS Understanding and correctly predicting cellular, radar, or satellite RF link performance

More information

Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Learning Objectives Name the major measurement strengths of a swept-tuned spectrum analyzer Explain the importance of frequency

More information

Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB

Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB Product: Vector Network Analyzer R&S ZVB Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB Application Note This document describes typical measurements that are required to be made

More information

Impedance 50 (75 connectors via adapters)

Impedance 50 (75 connectors via adapters) VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER PLANAR TR1300/1 DATA SHEET Frequency range: 300 khz to 1.3 GHz Measured parameters: S11, S21 Dynamic range of transmission measurement magnitude: 130 db Measurement time per point:

More information

Agilent PN 8753-1 RF Component Measurements: Amplifier Measurements Using the Agilent 8753 Network Analyzer. Product Note

Agilent PN 8753-1 RF Component Measurements: Amplifier Measurements Using the Agilent 8753 Network Analyzer. Product Note Agilent PN 8753-1 RF Component Measurements: Amplifier Measurements Using the Agilent 8753 Network Analyzer Product Note 2 3 4 4 4 4 6 7 8 8 10 10 11 12 12 12 13 15 15 Introduction Table of contents Introduction

More information

R&S ZNBT8 Vector Network Analyzer Specifications

R&S ZNBT8 Vector Network Analyzer Specifications ZNBT8_dat-sw_en_3606-9727-22_v0200_cover.indd 1 Data Sheet 02.00 Test & Measurement R&S ZNBT8 Vector Network Analyzer Specifications 20.05.2014 08:39:42 CONTENTS Definitions... 3 Measurement range... 4

More information

VCO Phase noise. Characterizing Phase Noise

VCO Phase noise. Characterizing Phase Noise VCO Phase noise Characterizing Phase Noise The term phase noise is widely used for describing short term random frequency fluctuations of a signal. Frequency stability is a measure of the degree to which

More information

Agilent AN 1316 Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy

Agilent AN 1316 Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy Agilent AN 1316 Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy Application Note RF & Microwave Spectrum Analyzers Table of Contents 3 3 4 4 5 7 8 8 13 13 14 16 16 Introduction Absolute versus relative

More information

Introduction to Receivers

Introduction to Receivers Introduction to Receivers Purpose: translate RF signals to baseband Shift frequency Amplify Filter Demodulate Why is this a challenge? Interference (selectivity, images and distortion) Large dynamic range

More information

Improving Network Analyzer Measurements of Frequency-translating Devices Application Note 1287-7

Improving Network Analyzer Measurements of Frequency-translating Devices Application Note 1287-7 Improving Network Analyzer Measurements of Frequency-translating Devices Application Note 1287-7 - + - + - + - + Table of Contents Page Introduction......................................................................

More information

Maximizing Receiver Dynamic Range for Spectrum Monitoring

Maximizing Receiver Dynamic Range for Spectrum Monitoring Home Maximizing Receiver Dynamic Range for Spectrum Monitoring Brian Avenell, National Instruments Corp., Austin, TX October 15, 2012 As consumers continue to demand more data wirelessly through mobile

More information

Network analyzer and spectrum analyzer two in one

Network analyzer and spectrum analyzer two in one R&S ZVL Vector Network Analyzer Network analyzer and spectrum analyzer two in one The R&S ZVL is the lightest and smallest vector network analyzer in its class. On top of this, it can be used as a full-featured

More information

Swept Sine Chirps for Measuring Impulse Response

Swept Sine Chirps for Measuring Impulse Response Swept Sine Chirps or Measuring Impulse Response Ian H. Chan Design Engineer Stanord Research Systems, Inc. Log-sine chirp and variable speed chirp are two very useul test signals or measuring requency

More information

Technical Datasheet Scalar Network Analyzer Model 8003-10 MHz to 40 GHz

Technical Datasheet Scalar Network Analyzer Model 8003-10 MHz to 40 GHz Technical Datasheet Scalar Network Analyzer Model 8003-10 MHz to 40 GHz The Giga-tronics Model 8003 Precision Scalar Network Analyzer combines a 90 db wide dynamic range with the accuracy and linearity

More information

R&S ZVA Vector Network Analyzer Specifications

R&S ZVA Vector Network Analyzer Specifications www.atecorp.com 8-44-ATEC (2832) R&S ZVA Vector Network Analyzer Specifications ZVA_dat-sw_en_523-568-22_v_cover.indd Data Sheet. E stablished 98 Advanced Test Equipment Rentals Test & Measurement 4.5.22

More information

Understanding Mixers Terms Defined, and Measuring Performance

Understanding Mixers Terms Defined, and Measuring Performance Understanding Mixers Terms Defined, and Measuring Performance Mixer Terms Defined Statistical Processing Applied to Mixers Today's stringent demands for precise electronic systems place a heavy burden

More information

Superheterodyne Radio Receivers

Superheterodyne Radio Receivers EE354 Superheterodyne Handout 1 Superheterodyne Radio Receivers Thus ar in the course, we have investigated two types o receivers or AM signals (shown below): coherent and incoherent. Because broadcast

More information

R&S ZNC Vector Network Analyzer Specifications

R&S ZNC Vector Network Analyzer Specifications ZNC3_dat-sw_en_5214-5610-22_v0300_cover.indd 1 Data Sheet 03.00 Test & Measurement R&S ZNC Vector Network Analyzer Specifications 04.09.2012 13:39:47 CONTENTS Definitions... 3 Measurement range... 4 Measurement

More information

Out of Band Spurious Measurement for Bluetooth Modules

Out of Band Spurious Measurement for Bluetooth Modules Products: Signal Analyser FSIQ26/FSP13/FSU8/FSQ26 Out of Band Spurious Measurement for Bluetooth Modules This application notes describes the out of band Spurious emission measurement for Bluetooth modules

More information

R&S SMZ Frequency Multiplier Specifications

R&S SMZ Frequency Multiplier Specifications Test & Measurement Data Sheet 02.00 R&S SMZ Frequency Multiplier Specifications CONTENTS Definitions... 3 Specifications... 4 RF performance...4 Frequency...4 Level...4 Spectral purity...4 Connectors...5

More information

MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER

MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER W. Li, J. Vandewege Department of Information Technology (INTEC) University of Gent, St.Pietersnieuwstaat 41, B-9000, Gent, Belgium Abstract: Precision

More information

The front end of the receiver performs the frequency translation, channel selection and amplification of the signal.

The front end of the receiver performs the frequency translation, channel selection and amplification of the signal. Many receivers must be capable of handling a very wide range of signal powers at the input while still producing the correct output. This must be done in the presence of noise and interference which occasionally

More information

KLYSTRON TUNING PROCEDURES:

KLYSTRON TUNING PROCEDURES: KLYSTRON TUNING PROCEDURES: Applicable to 5-Cavity C-Band and Ku-band Klystrons made by CPI Canada. General. The channel tuning mechanism, an integral part of the tube, provides for the precise tuning

More information

F = S i /N i S o /N o

F = S i /N i S o /N o Noise figure Many receiver manufacturers specify the performance of their receivers in terms of noise figure, rather than sensitivity. As we shall see, the two can be equated. A spectrum analyzer is a

More information

MERCURY. Technical Note Revision: 0 No.: TN- 021

MERCURY. Technical Note Revision: 0 No.: TN- 021 No.: TN- 0 Date: Jan. 0, 00 Crystal manuacturer sine 973 Page o 6 Title: The eect o load capacitor on the crystal Why load capacitor is needed In early days, crystal manuacturer needed the whole equipment

More information

Voltage Comparator and Q Multiplier make a stable Sine Wave Oscillator

Voltage Comparator and Q Multiplier make a stable Sine Wave Oscillator Voltage omparator and Multiplier make a stable ine Wave Oscillator amón Vargas atrón rvargas@inictel.gob.pe INIT It is a known act that sinusoidal oscillators must rely on the action o some amplitudelimiting

More information

A Guide to Calibrating Your Spectrum Analyzer

A Guide to Calibrating Your Spectrum Analyzer A Guide to Calibrating Your Application Note Introduction As a technician or engineer who works with electronics, you rely on your spectrum analyzer to verify that the devices you design, manufacture,

More information

U Tube. Integrated X-Band Conversion System. Orbital Research takes the conventional X-Band LNB, OMT, Polarizer and filtering system and:

U Tube. Integrated X-Band Conversion System. Orbital Research takes the conventional X-Band LNB, OMT, Polarizer and filtering system and: U Tube Integrated X-Band Conversion System Optional Transmit Bandpass Filter (with 90 db of Rx Isolation) The best X band LNB in the world, with 45 db (min) built-in Transmit Reject Filter, an Elliptical

More information

AN1200.04. Application Note: FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: 902-928 MHz. FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: 902-928 MHz

AN1200.04. Application Note: FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: 902-928 MHz. FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: 902-928 MHz AN1200.04 Application Note: FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: Copyright Semtech 2006 1 of 15 www.semtech.com 1 Table of Contents 1 Table of Contents...2 1.1 Index of Figures...2 1.2 Index of Tables...2

More information

Fast and Accurate Test of Mobile Phone Boards

Fast and Accurate Test of Mobile Phone Boards Products: R&S FSP Fast and Accurate Test of Mobile Phone Boards Short test times in conjunction with accurate and repeatable measurement results are essential when testing and calibrating mobile phones

More information

Broadband Push-Pull Power Amplifier Design at Microwave Frequencies

Broadband Push-Pull Power Amplifier Design at Microwave Frequencies Broadband Push-Pull Power Amplifier Design at Microwave Frequencies Robert Smith and Prof. Steve Cripps Centre for High Frequency Engineering, Cardiff University smithrm3@cardiff.ac.uk A broadband, high

More information

Microwave Sensor Technology. Microwave Sensor Technology

Microwave Sensor Technology. Microwave Sensor Technology Microwave Sensor Technology Microwave Sensor Technology Gunn Transceivers Fixed MO86728 - MO9096 2 Gunn Transceivers Voltage Controlled MO87127 - MO9140 Features Electronic Control High Doppler Sensitivity

More information

iva Cable & Antenna Analyzer

iva Cable & Antenna Analyzer iva Cable & Antenna Analyzer VSWR, Return Loss Measurement & Distance to Fault The iva Series Cable & Antenna Analyzer is an exciting new product from Kaelus that enables users to accurately measure VSWR/return

More information

14.5GHZ 2.2KW CW GENERATOR. GKP 22KP 14.5GHz WR62 3x400V

14.5GHZ 2.2KW CW GENERATOR. GKP 22KP 14.5GHz WR62 3x400V 14.5GHZ 2.2KW CW GENERATOR GKP 22KP 14.5GHz WR62 3x400V UTILIZATION OF GKP 22KP GENERATOR With its characteristics of power stability whatever the load, very fast response time at a pulse, low ripple,

More information

AM/FM/ϕM Measurement Demodulator FS-K7

AM/FM/ϕM Measurement Demodulator FS-K7 Data sheet Version 02.00 AM/FM/ϕM Measurement Demodulator FS-K7 July 2005 for the Analyzers FSQ/FSU/FSP and the Test Receivers ESCI/ESPI AM/FM/ϕM demodulator for measuring analog modulation parameters

More information

THE MODELING AND CALCULATION OF SOUND RADIATION FROM FACILITIES WITH GAS FLOWED PIPES INTRODUCTION

THE MODELING AND CALCULATION OF SOUND RADIATION FROM FACILITIES WITH GAS FLOWED PIPES INTRODUCTION THE MODELING AND CALCULATION OF SOUND ADIATION FOM FACILITIES WITH GAS FLOWED PIPES INTODUCTION Analysis o the emission caused by industrial acilities like chemical plants, reineries or other production

More information

APPLICATION NOTE - 016

APPLICATION NOTE - 016 APPLICATION NOTE - 016 Testing RFI Line Filters Frequency Response Analysis Testing RFI line filters Radio frequency interference (RFI) is unwanted electromagnetic noise within a radio communications frequency

More information

Power Amplifier Gain Compression Measurements

Power Amplifier Gain Compression Measurements Technical Brief Power Amplifier Gain Compression Measurements GPIB Private Bus Sweep Out Sweep In Pulse In AC Mod Out Blank/Marker Out Blanking In Overview The 1 db gain compression of an amplifier describes

More information

Signal Generator R&S SML

Signal Generator R&S SML Signal Generator R&S SML Economy at its best 9 khz to 1.1 GHz/2.2 GHz/3.3 GHz SSB phase noise: < 122 dbc (1 Hz) (at f = 1 GHz, f = 20 khz) Setting times

More information

1. The Slotted Line. ECE 584 Microwave Engineering Laboratory Experiments. Introduction:

1. The Slotted Line. ECE 584 Microwave Engineering Laboratory Experiments. Introduction: ECE 584 Microwave Engineering Laboratory Experiments 1. The Slotted Line Introduction: In this experiment we will use a waveguide slotted line to study the basic behavior of standing waves and to measure

More information

Copyright 2005 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium 2005

Copyright 2005 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium 2005 Copyright 2005 IEEE Reprinted rom IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium 2005 This material is posted here with permission o the IEEE. Such permission o the IEEE does t in any way imply IEEE endorsement

More information

APSYN420A/B Specification 1.24. 0.65-20.0 GHz Low Phase Noise Synthesizer

APSYN420A/B Specification 1.24. 0.65-20.0 GHz Low Phase Noise Synthesizer APSYN420A/B Specification 1.24 0.65-20.0 GHz Low Phase Noise Synthesizer 1 Introduction The APSYN420 is a wideband low phase-noise synthesizer operating from 0.65 to 20 GHz. The nominal output power is

More information

Group and Phase Delay Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer ZVR

Group and Phase Delay Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer ZVR Group and Phase Delay Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer ZVR Application Note 1EZ35_1E Subject to change 10 July 1997, Olaf Ostwald Products: ZVR ZVRE ZVRL CONTENTS PAGE 1 BASICS 2 2 PHASE DELAY

More information

The Preselector Filter

The Preselector Filter 3/31/2005 The Preselector Filter.doc 1/14 The Preselector Filter Say we wish to tune a super-het receiver to receive a radio station broadcasting at 100 MHz. I the receiver uses and IF requency o IF =

More information

R&S ZVA-Z75, -Z110, -Z140, -Z170, -Z220, -Z325, -Z500 Converters Quick Start Guide

R&S ZVA-Z75, -Z110, -Z140, -Z170, -Z220, -Z325, -Z500 Converters Quick Start Guide R&S ZVA-Z75, -Z110, -Z140, -Z170, -Z220, -Z325, -Z500 Converters Quick Start Guide (=7ÔWÌ) 1307.7039.62 06 Test & Measurement Quick Start Guide This Quick Start Guide describes the following converter

More information

APPLICATION NOTES POWER DIVIDERS. Things to consider

APPLICATION NOTES POWER DIVIDERS. Things to consider Internet Copy Rev A Overview Various RF applications require power to be distributed among various paths. The simplest way this can be done is by using a power splitter/divider. Power dividers are reciprocal

More information

DVT913 TV CHANNEL CONVERTER

DVT913 TV CHANNEL CONVERTER Broadband Cable Networks 1(5) DVT913 TV CHANNEL CONVERTER General DVT913 is a TV Channel Converter for the DVX tend product family. It consists of an input down converter from to, a high selectivity part

More information

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R SM.1792. Measuring sideband emissions of T-DAB and DVB-T transmitters for monitoring purposes

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R SM.1792. Measuring sideband emissions of T-DAB and DVB-T transmitters for monitoring purposes Rec. ITU-R SM.1792 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R SM.1792 Measuring sideband emissions of T-DAB and DVB-T transmitters for monitoring purposes (2007) Scope This Recommendation provides guidance to measurement

More information

Vector Network Analyzer Techniques to Measure WR340 Waveguide Windows

Vector Network Analyzer Techniques to Measure WR340 Waveguide Windows LS-296 Vector Network Analyzer Techniques to Measure WR340 Waveguide Windows T. L. Smith ASD / RF Group Advanced Photon Source Argonne National Laboratory June 26, 2002 Table of Contents 1) Introduction

More information

R&S ZVL Vector Network Analyzer Specifications

R&S ZVL Vector Network Analyzer Specifications R&S ZVL Vector Network Analyzer Specifications Test & Measurement Data Sheet 08.02 CONTENTS Specifications... 3 Measurement range... 3 Measurement speed... 3 Measurement accuracy... 4 Effective system

More information

Monolithic Crystal Filters 2 Quartz resonator internally coupled utilizing piezoelectric effect.

Monolithic Crystal Filters 2 Quartz resonator internally coupled utilizing piezoelectric effect. The following describes filter types, what they do and how they perform. Along with definitions and detailed graphs, we are hopeful this information is both useful and informative. Filter Types Monolithic

More information

FCC PART 95 SUBPART D AND IC RSS-136 TEST REPORT FOR CB TRANSCEIVERS

FCC PART 95 SUBPART D AND IC RSS-136 TEST REPORT FOR CB TRANSCEIVERS 849 NW STATE ROAD 45 NEWBERRY, FL 32669 USA PH: 888.472.2424 OR 352.472.5500 FAX: 352.472.2030 EMAIL: INFO@TIMCOENGR.COM HTTP://WWW.TIMCOENGR.COM APPLICANT FCC PART 95 SUBPART D AND IC RSS-136 TEST REPORT

More information

FEATURES APPLICATIO S. LTC1060 Universal Dual Filter Building Block DESCRIPTIO TYPICAL APPLICATIO

FEATURES APPLICATIO S. LTC1060 Universal Dual Filter Building Block DESCRIPTIO TYPICAL APPLICATIO FEATURES Guaranteed Filter Speciication or ±.7V and ±5V Supply Operates Up to khz Low Power and 88dB Dynamic Range at ±.5V Supply Center Frequency Q Product Up to.mhz Guaranteed Oset Voltages Guaranteed

More information

&"#' ( "#' )*! #+ #,# 1" 1! 2"# ' 6! #* #!"#" +" )$# # # "#$#$ '2 2 ## #1##9 # # ##2 #( # 8##! #9# 9@8!( " " "32#$#$2#9 # "#!#1#$#$#9 '29# # #9$

&#' ( #' )*! #+ #,# 1 1! 2# ' 6! #* #!# + )$# # # #$#$ '2 2 ## #1##9 # # ##2 #( # 8##! #9# 9@8!(   32#$#$2#9 # #!#1#$#$#9 '29# # #9$ !"## $#!%!"# &"#' ( "#' )*! #+ #,# "##!$ -+./0 1" 1! 2"# # -&1!"#" (2345-&1 #$6.7 -&89$## ' 6! #* #!"#" +" 1##6$ "#+# #-& :1# # $ #$#;1)+#1#+

More information

Insertion Phase Errors in long lengths of coaxial cable assemblies

Insertion Phase Errors in long lengths of coaxial cable assemblies Insertion Phase Errors in long lengths of coaxial cable assemblies In this section, we will discuss the steps necessary to correct for insertion phase error as part of the calibration procedure for Vector

More information

Agilent N8973A, N8974A, N8975A NFA Series Noise Figure Analyzers. Data Sheet

Agilent N8973A, N8974A, N8975A NFA Series Noise Figure Analyzers. Data Sheet Agilent N8973A, N8974A, N8975A NFA Series Noise Figure Analyzers Data Sheet Specifications Specifications are only valid for the stated operating frequency, and apply over 0 C to +55 C unless otherwise

More information

ELECRAFT KX3 EXTENDED VFO TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION PROCEDURE Copyright 2012 Elecraft LLC Rev. A8, October 27, 2012

ELECRAFT KX3 EXTENDED VFO TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION PROCEDURE Copyright 2012 Elecraft LLC Rev. A8, October 27, 2012 ELECRAFT KX3 EXTENDED VFO TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION PROCEDURE Copyright 2012 Elecraft LLC Rev. A8, October 27, 2012 Introduction The KX3 standard VFO temperature compensation is entirely adequate for most

More information

Microwave signal generators

Microwave signal generators Course on Microwave Measurements Microwave signal generators Prof. Luca Perregrini Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering University of Pavia e-mail: luca.perregrini@unipv.it web: microwave.unipv.it

More information

Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED

Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED www.analog.com www.hittite.com THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK , 10 MHz to 20 GHz 2 Elizabeth Drive,

More information

Antenna Trainer EAN. www.edibon.com. Technical Teaching Equipment INTRODUCTION

Antenna Trainer EAN. www.edibon.com. Technical Teaching Equipment INTRODUCTION Antenna Trainer EAN Technical Teaching Equipment Products Products range Units 3.-Communications INTRODUCTION Antennas are the main element of aerial communications. They are the transition between a transmission

More information

Experiment 7: Familiarization with the Network Analyzer

Experiment 7: Familiarization with the Network Analyzer Experiment 7: Familiarization with the Network Analyzer Measurements to characterize networks at high frequencies (RF and microwave frequencies) are usually done in terms of scattering parameters (S parameters).

More information

INTEGRATED ASSEMBLIES TELEDYNE MICROWAVE SOLUTIONS

INTEGRATED ASSEMBLIES TELEDYNE MICROWAVE SOLUTIONS INTEGRATED ASSEMBLIES TELEDYNE MICROWAVE SOLUTIONS INTEGRATED ASSEMBLIES FROM TELEDYNE MICROWAVE SOLUTIONS Teledyne Microwave Solutions (TMS) offers full first-level integration capabilities, providing

More information

"FP", "FR", "FQ" Series Bandpass Filters

FP, FR, FQ Series Bandpass Filters Description "FP", "FR", "FQ" Series Bandpass Filters The tuning instructions described on the following pages apply to all 7, 8.5, and 10 Bandpass, Notch, and Q circuit filters. Typical models and electrical

More information

2. The Vector Network Analyzer

2. The Vector Network Analyzer ECE 584 Laboratory Experiments 2. The Vector Network Analyzer Introduction: In this experiment we will learn to use a Vector Network Analyzer to measure the magnitude and phase of reflection and transmission

More information

MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES

MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES 200 WOOD AVENUE, MIDDLESEX, NJ 08846 PHONE (732) 469-9510 FAX (732) 469-0418 MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES MTN-107 TEST SETUP FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF X-MOD, CTB, AND CSO USING A MEAN SQUARE CIRCUIT AS A DETECTOR

More information

Conquering Noise for Accurate RF and Microwave Signal Measurements. Presented by: Ernie Jackson

Conquering Noise for Accurate RF and Microwave Signal Measurements. Presented by: Ernie Jackson Conquering Noise for Accurate RF and Microwave Signal Measurements Presented by: Ernie Jackson The Noise Presentation Review of Basics, Some Advanced & Newer Approaches Noise in Signal Measurements-Summary

More information

The EMI-Receiver according to CISPR 16-1-1

The EMI-Receiver according to CISPR 16-1-1 Author: Dipl. -Ing. Dieter Schwarzbeck Schwarzbeck Mess-Elektronik An der Klinge 29 D-69250 Schönau / Germany Tel.: +49 6228 1001 Fax.:+49 6228 1003 support@schwarzbeck.de www.schwarzbeck.de Requirements

More information

Anatech Electronics, Inc.

Anatech Electronics, Inc. Like all types of RF and microwave filters, ceramic filters have unique characteristics that differentiate them from their counterparts and make them useful for specific applications. Ceramic filters are

More information

FIXED INCOME ATTRIBUTION

FIXED INCOME ATTRIBUTION Sotware Requirement Speciication FIXED INCOME ATTRIBUTION Authors Risto Lehtinen Version Date Comment 0.1 2007/02/20 First Drat Table o Contents 1 Introduction... 3 1.1 Purpose o Document... 3 1.2 Glossary,

More information

Application Software MobiDemo

Application Software MobiDemo Application Software MobiDemo Application Note 1MA11_1E Products: FSE/FSIQ Subject to change - Roland Minihold 99-07 Contents 1. Overview... 2 2. Software Features... 2 3. Hardware and Software Requirements...

More information

User Guide. Introduction. HCS12PLLCALUG/D Rev. 0, 12/2002. HCS12 PLL Component Calculator

User Guide. Introduction. HCS12PLLCALUG/D Rev. 0, 12/2002. HCS12 PLL Component Calculator User Guide HCS12PLLCALUG/D Rev. 0, 12/2002 HCS12 PLL Component Calculator by Stuart Robb Applications Engineering Motorola, East Kilbride Introduction The MC9S12D amily o MCUs includes a Phase-Locked Loop

More information

2398 9 khz to 2.7 GHz Spectrum Analyzer

2398 9 khz to 2.7 GHz Spectrum Analyzer Spectrum Analyzers 2398 9 khz to 2.7 GHz Spectrum Analyzer A breakthrough in high performance spectrum analysis, combining cost effectiveness and portability in a new lightweight instrument 9 khz to 2.7

More information

EMC STANDARDS STANDARDS AND STANDARD MAKING BODIES. International. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) http://www.iec.

EMC STANDARDS STANDARDS AND STANDARD MAKING BODIES. International. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) http://www.iec. EMC STANDARDS The EMC standards that a particular electronic product must meet depend on the product application (commercial or military) and the country in which the product is to be used. These EMC regulatory

More information

Low Profile, Low Cost, Fully Integrated Monolithic Microwave Amplifiers

Low Profile, Low Cost, Fully Integrated Monolithic Microwave Amplifiers (AN-60-016) Low Profile, Low Cost, Fully Integrated Monolithic Microwave Amplifiers Engineering Department Mini-Circuits, Brooklyn, NY 11235 Introduction Monolithic microwave amplifiers are widely used

More information

Microwave Circuit Design and Measurements Lab. INTRODUCTION TO MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS: DETECTION OF RF POWER AND STANDING WAVES Lab #2

Microwave Circuit Design and Measurements Lab. INTRODUCTION TO MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS: DETECTION OF RF POWER AND STANDING WAVES Lab #2 EE 458/558 Microwave Circuit Design and Measurements Lab INTRODUCTION TO MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS: DETECTION OF RF POWER AND STANDING WAVES Lab #2 The purpose of this lab is to gain a basic understanding

More information

Suggestion of a New Brain Reaction Index for the EEG Signal Identification and Analysis

Suggestion of a New Brain Reaction Index for the EEG Signal Identification and Analysis , pp.123-132 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijbsbt.2014.6.4.12 Suggestion o a ew Brain Reaction Index or the EEG Signal Identiication and Analysis Jungeun Lim 1, Bohyeok Seo 2 and Soonyong Chun * 1 School

More information

RIGOL. User s Guide. DSA800 Options and Accessories. Jan. 2012. RIGOL Technologies, Inc.

RIGOL. User s Guide. DSA800 Options and Accessories. Jan. 2012. RIGOL Technologies, Inc. User s Guide Jan. 2012 RIGOL Technologies, Inc. Guaranty and Declaration Copyright 2012 RIGOL Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Trademark Information RIGOL is a registered trademark of RIGOL Technologies,

More information

FM Microwave Radio Link

FM Microwave Radio Link FM Microwave Radio Link Transmitter T_NBFM-01 Receiver R_NBFM-01 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 OVERVIEW 2 2 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS 2 2.1 TRANSMITTER T_NBFM-01 2 2.2 RECEIVER R_ NBFM-01 3 2.3 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

More information

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET. TDA7000 FM radio circuit. Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC01

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET. TDA7000 FM radio circuit. Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC01 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET File under Integrated Circuits, IC01 May 1992 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The is a monolithic integrated circuit for mono FM portable radios, where a minimum on peripheral components

More information

Features. Applications. Description. Blockdiagram. K-LC1a RADAR TRANSCEIVER. Datasheet

Features. Applications. Description. Blockdiagram. K-LC1a RADAR TRANSCEIVER. Datasheet Features 24 GHz K-band miniature transceiver 180MHz sweep FM input (n.a. for K-LC1a_V2) Dual 4 patch antenna Single balanced mixer with 50MHz bandwidth Beam aperture 80 /34 15dBm EIRP output power 25x25mm

More information

Microwave Filter Products

Microwave Filter Products Microwave Filter Products AMS, Microwave Filter Components 1 www.aeroflex.com Filter Business history in Aeroflex Aeroflex/Hauppauge: Has filters on commercial, military and defense market for over 42

More information

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BS.704 *, ** Characteristics of FM sound broadcasting reference receivers for planning purposes

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BS.704 *, ** Characteristics of FM sound broadcasting reference receivers for planning purposes Rec. ITU-R BS.704 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BS.704 *, ** Characteristics of FM sound broadcasting reference receivers for planning purposes (1990) The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly, considering a) that

More information

Keysight Technologies 8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis. Application Note

Keysight Technologies 8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis. Application Note Keysight Technologies 8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis Application Note The Spectrum Analyzer The spectrum analyzer, like an oscilloscope, is a basic tool used for observing signals. Where the oscilloscope

More information

Tx/Rx A high-performance FM receiver for audio and digital applicatons

Tx/Rx A high-performance FM receiver for audio and digital applicatons Tx/Rx A high-performance FM receiver for audio and digital applicatons This receiver design offers high sensitivity and low distortion for today s demanding high-signal environments. By Wayne C. Ryder

More information

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. E January 30, 2008 Doc. No. SY_SSS_1026s TRADEMARKS The ibiquity Digital logo and ibiquity Digital are registered trademarks of ibiquity Digital Corporation.

More information