Respiration During Exercise. The Respiratory System. Objectives. Provides a means of gas exchange b/n the env t & the body

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Respiration During Exercise. The Respiratory System. Objectives. Provides a means of gas exchange b/n the env t & the body"

Transcription

1 Chapter 10 Respiration During Exercise The Respiratory System Provides a means of gas exchange b/n the env t & the body Plays a role in the regulation of acid-base balance during exercise Objectives Explain the principle physiological function of the pulmonary system Outline the major anatomical components of the respiratory system List major muscles involved in inspiration & expiration at rest & during exercise Discuss the importance of matching blood flow to alveolar ventilation in the lung Explain how gases are transported across the blood-gas interface in the lung 1

2 Objectives Discuss the major transportation modes of O 2 & CO 2 in the blood Discuss the effects of temp, ph, & levels of 2,3 DPG on the oxygenhemoglobin dissociation curve Describe the ventilatory response to constant load, steady-state exercise Objectives Describe the ventilatory response to incremental exercise Identify the location & function of chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors that are thought to play a role in the regulation of breathing Discuss the neural-humoral theory of respiratory control during exercise Respiration 1. Pulmonary respiration Ventilation (breathing) and the exchange of gases (O 2 & CO 2 ) in the lungs 2. Cellular respiration Relates to O 2 utilization and CO 2 production by the tissues This chapter is concerned with pulmonary respiration, and respiration will be used to mean such 2

3 Respiration Function of the Lungs 1 purpose is to provide a means of gas exchange b/n the external env t & the body Major Organs of the Respiratory System 3

4 Position of the Lungs, Diaphragm & Pleura Conducting & Respiratory Zones Conducting zone Respiratory zone Conducting & Respiratory Zones 4

5 Pathway of Air to Alveoli Mechanics of Breathing Ventilation Inspiration Expiration Resistance to airflow The Mechanics of Inspiration & Expiration 5

6 Muscles of Respiration Pulmonary Ventilation (VE) Pulmonary Ventilation (VE) Dead-space ventilation (V D ) unused ventilation Does not participate in gas exchange Anatomical dead space: conducting zone Physiological dead space: disease Alveolar ventilation (V A ) Volume of inspired gas that reaches the respiratory zone V = V A + V D 6

7 Pulmonary Volumes & Capacities Measured by spirometry Vital capacity (VC) Maximum amount of air that can be expired following a maximum inspiration Residual volume (RV) Air remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration Total lung capacity (TLC) Sum of VC & RV A Spirogram Showing Pulmonary Volumes & Capacities Partial Pressure (PP) of Gases Dalton s Law The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the pressure that each gas would exert independently The PP of O 2 (PO 2 ) Air is 20.93% oxygen Expressed as a fraction: Total pressure of air = 760 mmhg PO 2 = x 760 = 159 mmhg 7

8 Diffusion of Gases Fick s law of diffusion The rate of gas transfer ( V gas) is proportional to the tissue area, the diffusion coefficient of the gas, and the difference in the partial pressure of the gas on the two sides of the tissue, and inversely proportional the the thickness. V gas = A T x D x (P 1-P 2 ) V gas = rate of diffusion A = tissue area T = tissue thickness D = diffusion coefficient of gas P 1 -P 2 = difference in partial pressure Diffusion of Gases PP & Gas Exchange 8

9 Blood Flow to the Lung Pulmonary circuit Blood Flow to the Lung When standing, most of the blood flow is to the base of the lung Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships Ventilation/perfusion ratio Indicates matching of blood flow to ventilation Ideal: ~1.0 Base Overperfused (ratio <1.0) Apex Underperfused (ratio >1.0) 9

10 Ventilation/Perfusion Ratios O 2 Transport in the Bld O 2 Hb Dissociation Curve 10

11 O 2 -Hb Dissociation Curve: Effect of ph O 2 -Hb Dissociation Curve: Effect of T O 2 -Hb Dissociation Curve: 2-3 DPG 11

12 O 2 Transport in Muscle Dissociation Curves for Mb & Hb CO 2 Transport in Bld 12

13 CO 2 Transport in Bld Release of CO 2 From Bld Rest-to-Work Transitions 13

14 Exercise in a Hot Env t Incremental Exercise Ventilatory Reponse to Exercise: Trained vs. Untrained In the trained runner 14

15 Ventilatory Reponse to Exercise: Trained vs. Untrained Control of Ventilation Respiratory control center Receives neural and humoral input Input to the Respiratory Control Centers Humoral chemoreceptors Central chemoreceptors Peripheral chemoreceptors Neural input 15

16 Effect of Arterial PCO 2 on VE Effect of Arterial PO 2 on VE Ventilatory Control During Exercise Submaximal exercise 16

17 Ventilatory Control During Submaximal Exercise Effect of Training on VE VE is lower at same work rate following training Effects of Endurance Training on VE During Exercise 17

18 Do the Lungs Limit Exercise Performance? Submaximal exercise Maximal exercise 18

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System Exercise and the Cardiovascular System Chapter 13: The Physiology of Training 1 CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS Aerobic fitness measured by VO 2max VO 2max is a product of maximal cardiac output (Q) and arteriovenous

More information

Gas Exchange Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.

Gas Exchange Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl. Gas Exchange Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) Page 1. Introduction Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse between

More information

Gas Exchange. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com)

Gas Exchange. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Gas Exchange Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse between the alveoli

More information

Oxygenation and Oxygen Therapy Michael Billow, D.O.

Oxygenation and Oxygen Therapy Michael Billow, D.O. Oxygenation and Oxygen Therapy Michael Billow, D.O. The delivery of oxygen to all body tissues is the essence of critical care. Patients in respiratory distress/failure come easily to mind as the ones

More information

PULMONARY PHYSIOLOGY

PULMONARY PHYSIOLOGY I. Lung volumes PULMONARY PHYSIOLOGY American College of Surgeons SCC Review Course Christopher P. Michetti, MD, FACS and Forrest O. Moore, MD, FACS A. Tidal volume (TV) is the volume of air entering and

More information

Ventilation Perfusion Relationships

Ventilation Perfusion Relationships Ventilation Perfusion Relationships VENTILATION PERFUSION RATIO Ideally, each alveolus in the lungs would receive the same amount of ventilation and pulmonary capillary blood flow (perfusion). In reality,

More information

A. All cells need oxygen and release carbon dioxide why?

A. All cells need oxygen and release carbon dioxide why? I. Introduction: Describe how the cardiovascular and respiratory systems interact to supply O 2 and eliminate CO 2. A. All cells need oxygen and release carbon dioxide why? B. Two systems that help to

More information

CAPS 422: Distribu0on of Alveolar Ven0la0on & Perfusion Ven0la0on Perfusion Mismatch

CAPS 422: Distribu0on of Alveolar Ven0la0on & Perfusion Ven0la0on Perfusion Mismatch CAPS 422: Distribu0on of Alveolar Ven0la0on & Perfusion Ven0la0on Perfusion Mismatch Dr. Sally Osborne Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences University of Bri0sh Columbia room 3602, D.H. Copp

More information

Physiology of Ventilation

Physiology of Ventilation Physiology of Ventilation Lecturer: Sally Osborne, Ph.D. Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences Email: sosborne@interchange.ubc.ca Useful link: www.sallyosborne.com Required Reading: Respiratory

More information

Lab #11: Respiratory Physiology

Lab #11: Respiratory Physiology Lab #11: Respiratory Physiology Background The respiratory system enables the exchange of O 2 and CO 2 between the cells and the atmosphere, thus enabling the intake of O 2 into the body for aerobic respiration

More information

Pulmonary Function Tests

Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary Function Tests Pulmonary Function: Tests Dynamic function : obstructive defects Static function : restrictive defects Diffusion abnormalities (gas exchange) Spirometry and Maximal Expiratory

More information

Spirometry. Pulmonary Function: Tests. Spirometry and Maximal Expiratory and Inspiratory Flow Volume Curves

Spirometry. Pulmonary Function: Tests. Spirometry and Maximal Expiratory and Inspiratory Flow Volume Curves Pulmonary Function Tests PFT Interpretation The interpretation of lung function tests involves two tasks: 1) the classification of the derived values with respect to a reference population and assessment

More information

Oxygenation. Chapter 21. Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing. Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing*

Oxygenation. Chapter 21. Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing. Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing* Oxygenation Chapter 21 Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing Inspiration ~ breathing in Expiration ~ breathing out Ventilation ~ Movement of air in & out of the lungs Respiration ~ exchange of O2 & carbon

More information

Pulmonary Diseases. Lung Disease: Pathophysiology, Medical and Exercise Programming. Overview of Pathophysiology

Pulmonary Diseases. Lung Disease: Pathophysiology, Medical and Exercise Programming. Overview of Pathophysiology Lung Disease: Pathophysiology, Medical and Exercise Programming Overview of Pathophysiology Ventilatory Impairments Increased airway resistance Reduced compliance Increased work of breathing Ventilatory

More information

Airways Resistance and Airflow through the Tracheobronchial Tree

Airways Resistance and Airflow through the Tracheobronchial Tree Airways Resistance and Airflow through the Tracheobronchial Tree Lecturer: Sally Osborne, Ph.D. Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences Email: sosborne@interchange.ubc.ca Useful links: www.sallyosborne.com

More information

What, roughly, is the dividing line between the upper and lower respiratory tract? The larynx. What s the difference between the conducting zone and

What, roughly, is the dividing line between the upper and lower respiratory tract? The larynx. What s the difference between the conducting zone and What, roughly, is the dividing line between the upper and lower respiratory tract? The larynx. What s the difference between the conducting zone and the respiratory zone? Conducting zone is passageways

More information

OXYGEN THERAPY. Pulmonary System The pulmonary system is responsible for external and internal respiration.

OXYGEN THERAPY. Pulmonary System The pulmonary system is responsible for external and internal respiration. WHY DOES THE BODY NEED OXYGEN? Every function in the body requires oxygen. Oxygen is needed to complete the metabolism of glucose to produce ATP which provides energy. If inadequate amounts of oxygen reach

More information

Pediatric Respiratory System: Basic Anatomy & Physiology. Jihad Zahraa Pediatric Intensivist Head of PICU, King Fahad Medical City

Pediatric Respiratory System: Basic Anatomy & Physiology. Jihad Zahraa Pediatric Intensivist Head of PICU, King Fahad Medical City Pediatric Respiratory System: Basic Anatomy & Physiology Jihad Zahraa Pediatric Intensivist Head of PICU, King Fahad Medical City Outline Introduction Developmental Anatomy Developmental Mechanics of Breathing

More information

Chapter 2 - Anatomy & Physiology of the Respiratory System

Chapter 2 - Anatomy & Physiology of the Respiratory System Chapter 2 - Anatomy & Physiology of the Respiratory System Written by - AH Kendrick & C Newall 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Gross Anatomy of the Lungs, 2.3 Anatomy of the Thorax, 2.4 Anatomy and Histology of the

More information

Pre-lab homework Lab 6: Respiration and Gas exchange

Pre-lab homework Lab 6: Respiration and Gas exchange Lab Section: Pre-lab homework Lab 6: Respiration and Gas exchange Name: 1. Name the organs used for gas exchange in each of the following organisms: Humans Fish Insects 2. What are three features common

More information

Pathophysiology of hypercapnic and hypoxic respiratory failure and V/Q relationships. Dr.Alok Nath Department of Pulmonary Medicine PGIMER Chandigarh

Pathophysiology of hypercapnic and hypoxic respiratory failure and V/Q relationships. Dr.Alok Nath Department of Pulmonary Medicine PGIMER Chandigarh Pathophysiology of hypercapnic and hypoxic respiratory failure and V/Q relationships Dr.Alok Nath Department of Pulmonary Medicine PGIMER Chandigarh Jan 2006 Respiratory Failure inadequate blood oxygenation

More information

RESPIRATORY VENTILATION Page 1

RESPIRATORY VENTILATION Page 1 Page 1 VENTILATION PARAMETERS A. Lung Volumes 1. Basic volumes: elements a. Tidal Volume (V T, TV): volume of gas exchanged each breath; can change as ventilation pattern changes b. Inspiratory Reserve

More information

MECHINICAL VENTILATION S. Kache, MD

MECHINICAL VENTILATION S. Kache, MD MECHINICAL VENTILATION S. Kache, MD Spontaneous respiration vs. Mechanical ventilation Natural spontaneous ventilation occurs when the respiratory muscles, diaphragm and intercostal muscles pull on the

More information

Oxygen Dissociation Curve

Oxygen Dissociation Curve 122 Visit http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com for details Chapter 4 Dissociation Curve Can you draw the oxygen dissociation curve of normal adult haemoglobin? How many points on the curve can you indicate with

More information

Determinants of Blood Oxygen Content Instructor s Guide

Determinants of Blood Oxygen Content Instructor s Guide Determinants of Blood Oxygen Content Instructor s Guide Time to Complete This activity will take approximately 75 minutes, but can be shortened depending on how much time the instructor takes to review

More information

Human Anatomy and Physiology The Respiratory System

Human Anatomy and Physiology The Respiratory System Human Anatomy and Physiology The Respiratory System Basic functions of the respiratory system: as a Gas exchange supply oxygen to aerobic tissues in the body and remove carbon dioxide waste product. in-

More information

LECTURE NOTES ON HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY

LECTURE NOTES ON HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY 1 LECTURE NOTES ON HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY CONTENTS (Dr. GÜL ERDEMLI) 1. MECHANICS OF BREATHING: 2. REGULATION AND CONTROL OF BREATHING: 3. VENTILATION 4. LUNG VOLUMES AND PULMONARY FUNCTION

More information

RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Part 2 ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK th November 2009

RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Part 2 ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK th November 2009 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Part 2 ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK 160 16 th November 2009 Dr Nadine Dobby Anaesthetic Registrar Dr Sarah Chieveley-Williams Consultant Anaesthetist University College London

More information

CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Lung cancer affects a life-sustaining system of the body, the respiratory system. The respiratory system is responsible for one of the essential

More information

2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system

2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system Essential questions What are the functions of the respiratory

More information

Functions of the respiratory system. The Respiratory System. Respiratory Mucosa. The Respiratory tract. Organization of the Respiratory System

Functions of the respiratory system. The Respiratory System. Respiratory Mucosa. The Respiratory tract. Organization of the Respiratory System Functions of the respiratory system The Respiratory System Chapter 23 Gas exchange between air and circulating blood Moving air to and from the exchange surface of the lungs Protection of respiratory surfaces

More information

1. Organs of the Respiratory System

1. Organs of the Respiratory System S T U D Y G U I D E 14 1. Organs of the Respiratory System a. Label the parts of the upper respiratory tract by placing the numbers of the structures by the correct labels. 11 Conchae 14 Nasopharynx 15

More information

Instructor. Entry Level Standards: Prerequisites: Co Requisites: RC 111 Textbooks: Acceptance into Respiratory Care Program

Instructor. Entry Level Standards: Prerequisites: Co Requisites: RC 111 Textbooks: Acceptance into Respiratory Care Program Instructor Course Description: Entry Level Standards: Prerequisites: Co Requisites: RC 111 Textbooks: Class Web Site: Library Usage: Internet Access: Presentation Course Syllabus RC 142 Cardiopulmonary

More information

IMPAIRED BLOOD-GAS EXCHANGE. Intraoperative blood gas analysis

IMPAIRED BLOOD-GAS EXCHANGE. Intraoperative blood gas analysis IMPAIRED BLOOD-GAS EXCHANGE Intraoperative blood gas analysis When do you perform BGA Intraoperatively? Informe actual NEVER Routine:Thoracic Thoracic, Cardiac,Neurosurgery Emergency situation Drop in

More information

LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES

LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES STANDARDS 3.1.10A, 3.1.12A Identify the function of subsystems within a larger system; analyze and describe the function, interaction and relationship Westminster College among

More information

Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular System Major Jobs of the CV system? Transport O 2 & nutrients to tissues Removal of waste Helps regulate body temperature 1 A Coupled Unit Circulatory & Respiratory systems work TOGETHER

More information

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF COMPRESSED GAS DIVING

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF COMPRESSED GAS DIVING THE PHYSIOLOGY OF COMPRESSED GAS DIVING Simon Mitchell INTRODUCTION The breathing of compressed gas while immersed and exposed to increased ambient pressure imposes significant homeostatic challenges on

More information

Arterial Blood Gases, Digital Pulse Oximetry, and Routine Blood Work. By John R. Goodman BS RRT

Arterial Blood Gases, Digital Pulse Oximetry, and Routine Blood Work. By John R. Goodman BS RRT Arterial Blood Gases, Digital Pulse Oximetry, and Routine Blood Work By John R. Goodman BS RRT Patients with chronic lung disease frequently are tested to determine their lung function. The lungs basically

More information

Pulmonary Ventilation

Pulmonary Ventilation RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY The process of respiration is divided into four categories: 1- Pulmonary ventilation. 2- Diffusion of oxygen and CO2 between alveoli and tissues. 3- Transport of oxygen and CO2 in

More information

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR, RESPIRATORY AND RENAL SYSTEMS

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR, RESPIRATORY AND RENAL SYSTEMS SUBJECT: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR, RESPIRATORY AND RENAL SYSTEMS CREDITS: Total: 13 Theory: 6.5 Practical: 6.5 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Develop skills in spoken, written and graphic communication

More information

Understanding Pulmonary Function Testing. PFTs, Blood Gases and Oximetry Skinny Little Reference Guide

Understanding Pulmonary Function Testing. PFTs, Blood Gases and Oximetry Skinny Little Reference Guide Understanding Pulmonary Function Testing PFTs, Blood Gases and Oximetry Skinny Little Reference Guide INTRODUCTION This brochure is intended to help you understand the meaning of Pulmonary Function Testing,

More information

Acute Oxygen Therapy

Acute Oxygen Therapy Oxygen Therapy Acute Oxygen Therapy A life saving drug, very often given without careful evaluation of its potential benefits and side effects Like any drug there are clear indications for treatment with

More information

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY KNR 182

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY KNR 182 Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes (KNR 182) ; Page 92 HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY KNR 182 Lecture Packet for Unit V Respiratory System Professor: Dale D. Brown, Ph.D. 5120 Dept of KNR Horton Fieldhouse

More information

Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests

Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests Dr. Sally Osborne Cellular & Physiological Sciences University of British Columbia Room 3602, D.H Copp building 604 822-3421 sally.osborne@ubc.ca www.sallyosborne.com

More information

TRANSPORT OF BLOOD GASES From The Lungs To The Tissues & Back

TRANSPORT OF BLOOD GASES From The Lungs To The Tissues & Back TRANSPORT OF BLOOD GASES From The Lungs To The Tissues & Back Dr. Sally Osborne Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences University of British Columbia Room 3602, D.H Copp Building 604 822-3421

More information

Elevation Training Masks vs. Classic Altitude Training: A Comparison. Brian Warren MS, CSCS, USAW

Elevation Training Masks vs. Classic Altitude Training: A Comparison. Brian Warren MS, CSCS, USAW Elevation Training Masks vs. Classic Altitude Training: A Comparison Brian Warren MS, CSCS, USAW Overview Basic Definition/Examples of Altitude Background/History of Altitude Training Popular Altitude

More information

Pulmonary Ventilation

Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary Ventilation Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction Pulmonary ventilation, or breathing, is the

More information

Function of Respiratory System. Respiratory Failure. Any condition in which the respiratory system fails to do its primary function:

Function of Respiratory System. Respiratory Failure. Any condition in which the respiratory system fails to do its primary function: Respiratory Failure Any condition in which the respiratory system fails to do its primary function: Oxygenate arterial blood and eliminate CO2 Function of Respiratory System Oxygenate arterial blood and

More information

PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS A Workshop on Simple Spirometry & Flow Volume Loops

PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS A Workshop on Simple Spirometry & Flow Volume Loops PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS A Workshop on Simple Spirometry & Flow Volume Loops YOU SHOULD READ THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL BEFORE Tuesday March 30 Interpretation of PFTs Learning Objectives 1. Specify the indications

More information

Fourth Grade The Human Body: The Respiratory System Assessment

Fourth Grade The Human Body: The Respiratory System Assessment Fourth Grade The Human Body: The Respiratory System Assessment 1a. The brings air in and out of the body. a. respiratory system b. circulatory system 1b. The system is the part of the body responsible

More information

Introduction to Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

Introduction to Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Introduction to Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing 2 nd Edition Andrew M. Luks, MD Robb Glenny, MD H. Thomas Robertson, MD Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine University of Washington Section

More information

How to Read SpO 2. Basic understanding of the pulse oximeter. Konica Minolta Sensing, Inc.

How to Read SpO 2. Basic understanding of the pulse oximeter. Konica Minolta Sensing, Inc. How to Read SpO 2 Basic understanding of the pulse oximeter Konica Minolta Sensing, Inc. How to Read SpO2 Table of contents 1 What is a pulse oximeter?...1 2 What can be learned by monitoring blood oxygen

More information

Kinetic Theory of Gases. 6.1 Properties of Gases 6.2 Gas Pressure. Properties That Describe a Gas. Gas Pressure. Learning Check.

Kinetic Theory of Gases. 6.1 Properties of Gases 6.2 Gas Pressure. Properties That Describe a Gas. Gas Pressure. Learning Check. Chapter 6 Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases 6.1 Properties of Gases 6.2 Gas Pressure A gas consists of small particles that move rapidly in straight lines. have essentially no attractive (or repulsive) forces.

More information

Used to treat tissue hypoxia Improve oxygen supply Reduce the work of breathing Potential to improve medical outcomes and save lives if used

Used to treat tissue hypoxia Improve oxygen supply Reduce the work of breathing Potential to improve medical outcomes and save lives if used Used to treat tissue hypoxia Improve oxygen supply Reduce the work of breathing Potential to improve medical outcomes and save lives if used appropriately Can cause harm if used inappropriately Main indication

More information

Confirming Diagnosis Through Spirometry

Confirming Diagnosis Through Spirometry Confirming Diagnosis Through Spirometry Shirley F. Jones, M.D., FCCP I have no conflicts of interest Instructional Objectives At the end of this session, learners will be able to: Select individual patients

More information

Chapter 1 Dissolved Oxygen in the Blood

Chapter 1 Dissolved Oxygen in the Blood Chapter 1 Dissolved Oxygen in the Blood Say we have a volume of blood, which we ll represent as a beaker of fluid. Now let s include oxygen in the gas above the blood (represented by the green circles).

More information

Module 2: Lung Function + Physics of Breathing How does air actually get into our lungs?

Module 2: Lung Function + Physics of Breathing How does air actually get into our lungs? Young Scientist Program: Anatomy Teaching Team A.) Introduction Module 2: Lung Function + Physics of Breathing How does air actually get into our lungs? Everyone knows that breathing is essential to life.

More information

Arterial Blood Gas Case Questions and Answers

Arterial Blood Gas Case Questions and Answers Arterial Blood Gas Case Questions and Answers In the space that follows you will find a series of cases that include arterial blood gases. Each case is then followed by an explanation of the acid-base

More information

The Impact of Breathing Pattern and Lung Size on the Alcohol Breath Test

The Impact of Breathing Pattern and Lung Size on the Alcohol Breath Test Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 2, February 2007 (Ó 2006) pp. 264 272 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-006-9216-3 The Impact of Breathing Pattern and Lung Size on the Alcohol Breath Test MICHAEL P. HLASTALA

More information

Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly - email worldanaesthesia@mac.com

Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly - email worldanaesthesia@mac.com RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK 147 17 th AUGUST 2009 Dr Nadine Dobby Anaesthetic Registrar Dr Sarah Chieveley-Williams Consultant Anaesthetist University College London Hospital

More information

CHAPTER 19: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

CHAPTER 19: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OBJECTIVES: 1. Fully explain the process (5 parts of) respiration. 2. Describe the significance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in human cells. 3. Explain the structure and function of mucous membranes that

More information

CHAPTER 5 - BREATHING "THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM"

CHAPTER 5 - BREATHING THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CHAPTER 5 - BREATHING "THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM" You have read how the blood transports oxygen from the lungs to cells and carries carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs. It is the function of the respiratory

More information

Thibodeau: Anatomy and Physiology, 5/e. Chapter 23: Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Thibodeau: Anatomy and Physiology, 5/e. Chapter 23: Anatomy of the Respiratory System Thibodeau: Anatomy and Physiology, 5/e Chapter 23: Anatomy of the Respiratory System Naturally, the structure, location, and function of the organs of the respiratory system are the focus of this entire

More information

BREATHING-RELATED LIMITATIONS TO THE ALCOHOL BREATH TEST

BREATHING-RELATED LIMITATIONS TO THE ALCOHOL BREATH TEST BREATHING-RELATED LIMITATIONS TO THE ALCOHOL BREATH TEST MICHAEL P. HLASTALA, PhD Departments of Physiology and Biophysics and of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Box 356522 University

More information

Tests. Pulmonary Functions

Tests. Pulmonary Functions Pulmonary Functions Tests Static lung functions volumes Dynamic lung functions volume and velocity Dynamic Tests Velocity dependent on Airway resistance Resistance of lung tissue to change in shape Dynamic

More information

COURSE SYLLABUS RC 223 CLINICAL-3

COURSE SYLLABUS RC 223 CLINICAL-3 COURSE SYLLABUS RC 223 CLINICAL-3 Class Hours: 0 Laboratory Hours: 24 Credit Hours: 4 Course Description: Entry Level Standards: This course will emphasize neonatal-pediatric intensive care, pulmonary

More information

The Circulatory System (How are materials moved by the circulatory system?)

The Circulatory System (How are materials moved by the circulatory system?) The Circulatory System (How are materials moved by the circulatory system?) Why? Blood is a living, liquid tissue made up of many components. The heart is the pump that forces the blood throughout the

More information

9.5 ph and the ph Scale

9.5 ph and the ph Scale 9.5 ph and the ph Scale Living things prefer a constant ph. Normal blood ph is strictly regulated between 7.35 and 7.45. The ph of a solution is commonly measured either electronically by using an instrument

More information

Interpretation of the Arterial Blood Gas Self-Learning Packet

Interpretation of the Arterial Blood Gas Self-Learning Packet Interpretation of the Arterial Blood Gas Self-Learning Packet * See SWIFT for list of qualifying boards for continuing education hours. Table of Contents Purpose... 3 Objectives... 3 Instructions... 4

More information

Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids

Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids Lecture Presentation Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Julie Klare Fortis College Smyrna, GA Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium 9.4

More information

Plan of care for clients experiencing respiratory acidosis and alkalosis. values do we need to know????

Plan of care for clients experiencing respiratory acidosis and alkalosis. values do we need to know???? 1 Understanding ABG s Plan of care for clients experiencing respiratory acidosis and alkalosis 2 First the Basics.. An ACID is a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion or freely dissociate a hydrogen

More information

Better Living with Obstructive Pulmonary Disease A Patient Guide

Better Living with Obstructive Pulmonary Disease A Patient Guide Better Living with Obstructive Pulmonary Disease A Patient Guide Second Edition November 2012 Queensland Health a Better Living with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease A Patient Guide is a joint project

More information

TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN BLOOD

TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN BLOOD TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN BLOOD CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OXYGEN CASCADE OXYGEN DELIVERY DURING EXERCISE OXYGEN DELIVERY DURING CRITICAL ILLNESS CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT O2 TRANSPORT REQUIREMENTS

More information

From AARC Protocol Committee; Subcommittee Adult Critical Care Version 1.0a (Sept., 2003), Subcommittee Chair, Susan P. Pilbeam

From AARC Protocol Committee; Subcommittee Adult Critical Care Version 1.0a (Sept., 2003), Subcommittee Chair, Susan P. Pilbeam AARC - ADULT MECHANICAL VENTILATOR PROTOCOLS 1. Guidelines for Using Ventilator Protocols 2. Definition of Modes and Suggestions for Use of Modes 3. Adult Respiratory Ventilator Protocol - Guidelines for

More information

Respiration and Gas Exchange

Respiration and Gas Exchange MODULE 02 Respiration and Gas Exchange This is one of the characteristics of living things. We will study this in both plants and humans. Gas exchange structures and how they facilitate gas exchange in

More information

Forced vital capacity: maximal volume of air exhaled with maximally forced effort from a maximal inspiration.

Forced vital capacity: maximal volume of air exhaled with maximally forced effort from a maximal inspiration. SOP Spirometry 1. General considerations Spirometry serves as a physiological test to quantify pulmonary disease severity and to assess clinical change in respiratory function over time. Standard spirometric

More information

Basic techniques of pulmonary physical therapy (I) 100/04/24

Basic techniques of pulmonary physical therapy (I) 100/04/24 Basic techniques of pulmonary physical therapy (I) 100/04/24 Evaluation of breathing function Chart review History Chest X ray Blood test Observation/palpation Chest mobility Shape of chest wall Accessory

More information

How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion. How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion. How Organisms Exchange Gases: Respiratory Organs

How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion. How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion. How Organisms Exchange Gases: Respiratory Organs How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion Gas is exchanged between respiratory medium and body fluids through diffusion across a respiratory surface To effectively exchange gases, the surface must

More information

Pulmonary Ventilation: Inspiration and Expiration

Pulmonary Ventilation: Inspiration and Expiration Pulmonary Ventilation: Inspiration and Expiration Inspiration visualize the thoracic cavity as a gas-filled box with a single entrance at the top, the tube like trachea. The volume of this box is changeable

More information

Equations for Primary FRCA

Equations for Primary FRCA Equations for Primary FA Pharmacology : concentration t: time Bioavailability Bioavailab ility AU AU OAL IV AU: area under concentration time curve Exponential Function d d or K. dt dt e.78 or 0. 37 e

More information

Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist: NAVA for Neonates

Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist: NAVA for Neonates Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist: NAVA for Neonates Robert L. Chatburn, MHHS, RRT-NPS, FAARC Research Manager Respiratory Institute Cleveland Clinic Professor Department of Medicine Lerner College

More information

ACID- BASE and ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. MGHS School of EMT-Paramedic Program 2011

ACID- BASE and ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. MGHS School of EMT-Paramedic Program 2011 ACID- BASE and ELECTROLYTE BALANCE MGHS School of EMT-Paramedic Program 2011 ACID- BASE BALANCE Ions balance themselves like a see-saw. Solutions turn into acids when concentration of hydrogen ions rises

More information

GRADE 11F: Biology 3. UNIT 11FB.3 9 hours. Human gas exchange system and health. Resources. About this unit. Previous learning.

GRADE 11F: Biology 3. UNIT 11FB.3 9 hours. Human gas exchange system and health. Resources. About this unit. Previous learning. GRADE 11F: Biology 3 Human gas exchange system and health UNIT 11FB.3 9 hours About this unit This unit is the third of six units on biology for Grade 11 foundation. The unit is designed to guide your

More information

Section 02: The Cardiovascular System

Section 02: The Cardiovascular System Section 02: The Cardiovascular System Chapter 15 The Cardiovascular System Chapter 16 Cardiovascular Regulation and Integration Chapter 17 Functional Capacity of the Cardiovascular System HPHE 6710 Exercise

More information

Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Chest and Lungs

Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Chest and Lungs C H A P T E R Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Chest and Lungs 1 1 Many health workers have difficulty understanding and interpreting the clinical signs and symptoms of respiratory diseases. With

More information

21.1 OVERVIEW OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

21.1 OVERVIEW OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 21.1 OVERVIEW OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 1 Classified anatomically into upper and lower tracts: passageways from nasal cavity to larynx Lower passageways from trachea alveoli o Alveoli tiny air sacs, site

More information

Evaluation copy. Figure 1

Evaluation copy. Figure 1 O 2 Extraction by the Lungs Computer 23 Oxygen is required for cell metabolism. During inhalation air is brought into the lungs, where oxygen is extracted. Oxygen passes into the bloodstream at the membrane

More information

Pulmonary Function Testing: Coding and Billing Issues

Pulmonary Function Testing: Coding and Billing Issues Pulmonary Function Testing: Coding and Billing Issues Neil R MacIntyre MD FAARC and Catherine M Foss CPFT Introduction Accreditation Developing Coding/Billing Strategies Spirometry Lung Volume Testing

More information

The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System The Respiratory System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Functions of The Respiratory System To allow gases from the environment to enter the bronchial tree through inspiration by expanding the thoracic volume. To allow

More information

RESPIRATORY CHANGES AT HIGH ALTITUDE

RESPIRATORY CHANGES AT HIGH ALTITUDE RESPIRATORY CHANGES AT HIGH ALTITUDE By RICHARD L. RILEY Department of Environmental Medicine, The Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore 5, Md., U. S. A. It is convenient to discuss

More information

Using Pulse Oximeters

Using Pulse Oximeters Using Pulse Oximeters Tutorial 1 the basics 1 World Health Organization, 2011. WHO, All rights 2011. reserved. The Pulse Oximeter In this tutorial you will learn about: The function of a pulse oximeter

More information

the ventilation equivalent for 02 remains essen- lation equivalent for 02 is materially increased. a quantitative evaluation of the degree of dis-

the ventilation equivalent for 02 remains essen- lation equivalent for 02 is materially increased. a quantitative evaluation of the degree of dis- VENTILATORY FUNCTION TESTS. III. RESTING VENTILATION, METABOLISM, AND DERIVED MEASURES By HARL W. MATHESON AND JOHN S. GRAY (From the Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Medical School, (Submitted

More information

BLOOD GASES AND RESPIRATORY PATTERN IN EXERCISING FOWL: COMPARISON IN NORMOXIC AND HYPOXIC CONDITIONS

BLOOD GASES AND RESPIRATORY PATTERN IN EXERCISING FOWL: COMPARISON IN NORMOXIC AND HYPOXIC CONDITIONS J. exp. Biol. 126, 423-431 (1986) 423 Printed in Great Britain The Company of Biologists Limited 1986 BLOOD GASES AND RESPIRATORY PATTERN IN EXERCISING FOWL: COMPARISON IN NORMOXIC AND HYPOXIC CONDITIONS

More information

Understand the main structural and functional changes associated with normal aging

Understand the main structural and functional changes associated with normal aging Theme 1: Physiologic Changes in the Elderly Michael C. Lewis, MD Associate Professor of Clinical Anesthesiology This unit forms the second part of a series of teaching modules on Anesthesia for the Elderly.

More information

Chapter 2 Aerobic Metabolism and the Steady-State Concept

Chapter 2 Aerobic Metabolism and the Steady-State Concept Chapter 2 Aerobic Metabolism and the Steady-State Concept Abstract This chapter contains an analysis of the steady-state concept, as it is applied during light exercise. In this case, oxygen consumption

More information

Up to 50% of continuous flow oxygen therapy patients experience clinically significant nocturnal desaturation. 1

Up to 50% of continuous flow oxygen therapy patients experience clinically significant nocturnal desaturation. 1 Up to 50% of continuous flow oxygen therapy patients experience clinically significant nocturnal desaturation. 1 Continuous Flow Oxygen Delivery & Sleep A number of theories and studies are published surrounding

More information

Breathing and Holding Your Breath copyright, 2005, Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1

Breathing and Holding Your Breath copyright, 2005, Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 Breathing and Holding Your Breath copyright, 2005, Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 Introduction Everybody breathes all day, every day. Why?

More information

Chemical equilibria Buffer solutions

Chemical equilibria Buffer solutions Chemical equilibria Buffer solutions Definition The buffer solutions have the ability to resist changes in ph when smaller amounts of acid or base is added. Importance They are applied in the chemical

More information

Spirometry. A quick guide Sue Filsell Clinical Respiratory Physiologist South Link Health Conference Dunedin Nov 08. Spirometry

Spirometry. A quick guide Sue Filsell Clinical Respiratory Physiologist South Link Health Conference Dunedin Nov 08. Spirometry Spirometry A quick guide Sue Filsell Clinical Respiratory Physiologist South Link Health Conference Dunedin Nov 08 Spirometry What is it? What are we measuring? Equipment performance & validation Performing

More information

Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular systems function is to pump blood and deliver it to the rest of the body. The cardiovascular system is most closely related to the circulatory system. The blood

More information