Elevation Training Masks vs. Classic Altitude Training: A Comparison. Brian Warren MS, CSCS, USAW

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2 Elevation Training Masks vs. Classic Altitude Training: A Comparison Brian Warren MS, CSCS, USAW

3 Overview Basic Definition/Examples of Altitude Background/History of Altitude Training Popular Altitude Training Methods Altitude & Air Relationship Physiological Adaptations

4 Overview Elevation Training Mask Info/Claims Personal Research Conducted Limitations Practical Implications for Tactical Populations

5 Basic Definitions, Background of Altitude, & Altitude Training

6 What is Altitude? Where Does it Start? The height of a point in relation to sea level Low altitude ~1,000-4,000 ft. Minimal effects, if any, on well-being Moderate altitude 4,000-10,000 ft. Effects on well-being in unacclimated people Performance and aerobic capacity

7 High altitude 10,000 20,000 ft. Acute mountain sickness Severe altitude 20,000 ft. + Severe hypoxic effects

8 History 1644: Torricelli develops mercury barometer 1648: Pascal demonstrates reduced P b at high altitudes 1777: Lavoisier describes O 2 and other gases that contribute to P b 1801: Dalton s law of partial pressures Late 1800s: Effects of hypoxia on body recognized

9 History First acknowledged at 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City (~7,250 ft.) Due to multiple records being broken. Practiced by endurance athletes to gain an edge against competition

10 Altitude Training Methods

11 Hypobaric Chamber Created to minimize exposure to harsh climates while still being able to train for competitions at higher elevations Low pressure Low oxygen saturation

12 Normobaric Hypoxia Normal pressure Low oxygen saturation Both chambers are not very practical for tactical population

13 Intermittent Hypoxic Training Alternating intervals of breathing hypoxic air, followed by breathing ambient air Procedure repeated min/day over a few weeks

14 Live High/Train Low Live High Exposed to elevation majority of time Allows EPO, RBC adaptations to occur over time Train low To keep training intensity, NM adaptations

15 Altitude & Air Relationship

16 The Air We Breathe Ambient pressure at sea level is 760 mmhg (barometric pressure) % gasses in air are 20.93% O % CO % N +

17 Dalton s Law Gives us the partial pressures of gasses At 760 mmhg, 20.93% O 2 exerts 159 mmhg ( x 760 = 159) Differences in pressure allow gasses to move in the body

18 Henry s Law Gasses dissolve in liquids in proportion to their partial pressure and solubility The oxygenation of Hb to form oxyhemoglobin depends entirely on the pp of O 2 in solution

19 Is There REALLY Less O 2?

20 Physiological Adaptations

21 Physiological Adaptations Erythropoietin (EPO) Natural hormone in kidneys Stimulates RBC production Red Blood Cells (RBC) Increase in number Greater O 2 carrying capability

22 Physiological Adaptations Hemoglobin Hematocrit VO 2 max Time to exhaustion May result in increased work capacity & performance

23 ETM Information & Claims

24 Elevation Training Mask Claims that benefits may include: lung capacity anaerobic threshold energy production mental focus mental & physical stamina oxygen efficiency

25 Elevation Training Mask Patented resistance training device that creates pulmonary resistance Adjustable resistance during inspiration Fixed resistance during expiration Claims to simulate 3,000-18,000 ft. above sea level

26

27 Elevation simulated

28 Personal Research

29 Research The Effects of an Elevation Training Mask on VO 2 max of Male ROTC Cadets Pilot study to determine future research Purpose Statement Investigate the Effects of an Elevation Training Mask on VO 2 max of Male ROTC Cadets Statistical significance set at p 0.10 Research Hypothesis There will be a significant difference between the VO 2 max in cadets that wore the ETM during training and cadets that did not

30 Research n=14 Baseline- 45 ml/kg/min Avg. VO 2 max for this demographic Training Frequency/Duration 7 weeks, 3d/wk, ~ 60 minutes Day 1, 2 mile run Day 2, BW Circuit Day 3, 4 miles Pre-determined by ROTC

31 Research Simulated Elevation Progression Elevation (ft) Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 7 Time

32 Results Control Experimental Volunteer VO 2 pretest VO 2 posttest Volunteer VO 2 pretest VO 2 posttest ID# (ml/kg/min 1 ) (ml/kg/min 1 ) ID# (ml/kg/min 1 ) (ml/kg/min 1 ) Group averages VO 2 pre test VO 2 post test Absolute change in VO 2 Relative % change in VO 2 (ml/kg/min 1 ) (ml/kg/min 1 ) ( ml/kg/min 1 ) Control ± ± ± ± 0.13 Experimental ± ± ± ± 0.19 Control vs. Experimental 1.50 ± ± 0.46 * Values are reported as mean ± SD **Control = did not receive treatment; Experimental = received treatment Experimental group shows no significant difference from control group after pretest (p = 0.46) Experimental group shows no significant difference from control group a er pos est (p = 0.34)

33 Limitations Small sample size Type of training Compliance Frequency/duration of exposure Specific progression of resistance CO 2 re-breathing No blood analysis

34 Practical Implications Tactical athlete would need as much exposure as possible Experiment with different progressions Not much research showing advantage of use

35 Conclusion May teach proper breathing diaphragm strength PPO 2 does not change when mask is worn Only restricts air intake Not possible to mimic altitude training like claims suggest More research is needed with this device to understand effectiveness

36 References About the training mask. Retrieved from elevation training mask/ Benardot, D., (2012). Advanced sports nutrition. (2 nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Bonin, D., (1997). Altitude and hypoxia training a short review. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 18(8), Dick, F. W., (2007). Training at altitude in practice. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 13(S203 S205). Dreger, R. W., & Paradis, S. (2013). A comparison of high intensity interval training with a self contained breathing apparatus (scba) and the elevation training mask. NAIT. Friedmann Bette, B., (2008). Classical altitude training. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 18(1), Hahn, A. G., & Gore, C. J., (2001). The effect of altitude on cycling performance: a challenge to traditional concepts. Sports med. 31(7), Harsch, V. (2006). Robert hooke, inventor of the vacuum pump and the first altitude chamber (1671). Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 77(8) Hawkins, M., Raven, P. B., Snell, P. G., Stray Gundersen, J., & Levine, B. D., (2007). Maximal oxygen uptake as a parametric measure of cardiorespiratory capacity. Medicine & science in sports and exercise. 39(1), Levine, B. D., & Stray Gundersen, J., (2007). A practical approach to altitude training. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 13(S209 S212). McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2010). Exercise at medium and high altitude. Exercise physiology: nutrition, energy, and human performance ( ). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Risso, A., Turello, M., Biffoni, F., & Antonutto, G., (2007). Red blood cell senescence and neocytolysis in humans after high altitude acclimatization. Blood cells, molecules, and diseases. 38, Welnetz, R. J., (1998). Altitude mask simulator. Retrieved from Wilber, R. (2001). Current trends in altitude training. Sports medicine. 31(4), Wilber, R. (2007). Application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes. Medicine & science in sports & exercise. 39(9), Wolski, L. A., McKenzie, D. C., & Wenger, H. A., (1996). Altitude training for improvements in sea level performance: is there scientific evidence of benefit? Sports Med. 22(4),

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