2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system

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1 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system

2 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system Essential questions What are the functions of the respiratory system? What are some disorders of the respiratory system? How are disorders of the respiratory system treated? What is the importance of the respiratory system as it relates to immunity? How do you relate the body s use of nutrients to the respiratory system? of the respiratory system 2

3 Functions of the Respiratory System Upper Respiratory System Nose Sinuses Pharynx Epiglottis Larynx Lower Respiratory System Trachea Lungs of the respiratory system 3

4 Discuss the Functions of the Upper Respiratory System Structures Nose Sinuses- warm and moisten air Pharynx- common passageway for air and food Epiglottis- Flap of cartilage allows air to pass through and closes during swallowing. Larynx- Voice box Trachea- Windpipe of the respiratory system 4

5 Discuss the Functions of the Lower Respiratory System Structures Trachea Lungs Bronchi Bronchial tubes Bronchioles Alveoli Pleura Mediastinum Diaphragm of the respiratory system 5

6 Functions of the Respiratory System Discuss the functions of the respiratory system. What is the relevance to your health? of the respiratory system 6

7 Breathing Discuss the process of breathing. External respiration- Breathing or ventilation Exhalation Internal respiration- The exchange of CO2 and O2 between the cells and lymph surrounding them Inhalation of the respiratory system 7

8 Breathing 1 inspiration + 1 expiration = 1 respiration How many times does a normal adult breath per minute? of the respiratory system 8

9 Control of breathing Neural Factors Explain the role of the Medulla Oblongata- The respiratory center is located here. What does the Phrenic Nerve do? It is a nerve that controls the diaphragm of the respiratory system 9

10 Control of breathing Chemical Factors What are the chemical factors involved in breathing? Respiration is dependent on the level of carbon dioxide in the blood. Compare to NEURAL FACTORS. An increase in CO2 or lack of CO2 will trigger the respiratory center in the medulla of the respiratory system 10

11 Respiratory Movements Compare respiratory movements. Coughing - clear the respiratory tract Hiccups Caused by a spasm of the diaphragm and spasmodic closure of the glottis. Perhaps due to irritation of the diaphragm. Sneezing Done to clear the upper respiratory tract. Yawning Believed to be caused by the need to increase O2 in the blood. Why do they occur? of the respiratory system 11

12 Types of breathing Apnea- No breathing Dyspnea- difficult breathing Eupnea- Normal breathing Hyperpnea- fast breathing Orthopnea- difficult breathing while in a horizontal position. Tachypnea- abnormal rapid and shallow breathing Hyperventilation- rapid breathing which causes the body to lose CO2 too quickly. of the respiratory system 12

13 Lung capacity and volume Tidal volume- The amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs with each breath. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)- The amount of air you can force a person to take in, over and above the tidal volume. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)- The amount of air you can force a person to exhale over and above the tidal volume. of the respiratory system 13

14 Lung capacity and volume Vital lung capacity- The total amount of air involved with tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume. Residual volume- The amount of air that cannot be voluntarily expelled from the lungs. Functional residual capacity- The sum of the expiratory reserve volume plus the residual volume. of the respiratory system 14

15 Lung capacity and volume Total lung capacity Tidal volume Inspiratory reserve Expiratory reserve Residual air Sample of the respiratory system 15

16 Respiratory disorders Asthma What is asthma? A disease in which the airway becomes obstructed due to an inflammatory response to stimuli. Who most likely has it? 5 % of the American population have asthma. of the respiratory system 16

17 Respiratory disorders Bronchitis Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchial tubes Acute- Caused by the spreading of inflammation from the nasopharynx Chronic- Can be caused by cigarette smoking. of the respiratory system 17

18 Respiratory disorders Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease- A disease that is characterized by obstruction to a patient s airflow that interferes with normal breathing. of the respiratory system 18

19 Respiratory disorders COMMON COLD What is it? What causes it? Highly contagious, usually caused by a virus. Hand-washing best preventative measure of the respiratory system 19

20 Respiratory disorders Emphysema When the alveoli of the lung become overdilated, lose their elasticity and cannot rebound. The patient will have dyspnea that becomes more severe as the disease progresses. of the respiratory system 20

21 Respiratory disorders Influenza- Caused by a virus Symptoms as shown of the respiratory system 21

22 Respiratory disorders Pneumonia- An infection of the lung. Caused by a bacteria or virus Alveoli become filled with thick fluid of the respiratory system 22

23 Respiratory disorders Sinusitis- Infection of the mucous membrane which lines the sinus cavities of the respiratory system 23

24 Respiratory disorders Tuberculosis- An infectious contagious disease of the lungs caused by a bacteria. Symptoms are cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weight loss and night sweats. of the respiratory system 24

25 Relevance of nutrients to the respiratory system The respiratory system plays a vital role in homeostasis Discuss the relevance to your health. What is the relevance to the body s use of nutrients? of the respiratory system 25

26 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system Essential questions What are the functions of the respiratory system? What are some disorders of the respiratory system? How are disorders of the respiratory system treated? What is the importance of the respiratory system as it relates to immunity? How do you relate the body s use of nutrients to the respiratory system? of the respiratory system 26

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