Respiratory failure and Oxygen Therapy

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1 Respiratory failure and Oxygen Therapy

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4 A patient with Hb 15 G % will carry 3X more O2 in his blood than someone with Hb 5G % Give Controlled O2 treatment in acute pulmonary oedema to avoid CO2 retention Exacerbation of COPD is a classical example of type 1 respiratory failure % FIO2 should be given in COPD exacerbation Oxygen is routinely recommended for AMI patient Oxygen is routinely recommended for acute stroke patient

5

6 O2 dissociation curve

7 Essential pressure concepts Partial pressure = % (total pressure) x Room Air = 21% P(atmos) =760 mm Hg Partial pressure O2 in room air =760 (21/100)= mm Hg x

8 More pressure concepts In airways water vapour Pressure =47 mm Hg Dry gas pressure = =713 mm Hg inspired i air =713 21% PO2 x PI(O2) =149 mm Hg

9 Finally! Alveolar Gas Equation PAO2 = PIO2 -(PACO2)/(0.8) = =100

10 O2 dissociation curve

11 Haemoglobin and O2 Carriage Dissolved O2 =0.3ml in 100ml blood 1G Hb = 1.4ml O2 15G Hb = 20ml O2 (un 100 ml blood) i.e Hb O2 carriage X 70-fold

12 Importance of anaemia 15 G Hb = 20ml O2 10 G Hb = 13.3ml 3ml O2 5G Hb = 6.6ml O2

13 Hb level and O2 transport

14 Respiratory Failure 1 Hypoxaemia (PaO2 < 60 mmhg or SaO2 < 90% with N or PaCO2 TYPE Hypercapnia (PaCO2 > 46 mm Hg) II Usually with hypoxaemia

15 Type I Parenchymal disease Hypoxic environments

16 Type II COPD Obesity hypoventilation syndrome Neuromuscular disease Kyphoscoliosis

17 Hypoxaemia assessment - pitfalls Detection of cyanosis -fraught with error ie hypoxaemia often missed specially if anaemic oximetry much better Tachypnoea, tachycardia a often present but not always so

18 Hypoxaemia assessment- pitfalls Confusion, restlessness maybe more prominent especially in the elderly respiratory rate is the single best predictor of severe e illness- but beware e the calm patient hypoventilating from opiates!

19 Assessment of hypoxaemia Hx and examination Previously healthy or features of COPD Other illnesses predisposing to CO2 retention Clinical picture will usually point towards correct diagnosis In dire emergencies resuscitate first then go In dire emergencies resuscitate first then go through above steps

20 Pulse Oximetry Principle : differential absorption of Infrared light by HbO2 and deoxy Hb Accurate at SPO2> 88% ( cf ABGs) THE FIFTH VITAL SIGN

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24 Pulse Oximetry-Disadvantages Inaccurate when poor perfusion, shock Does not measure Hb, ph, PaCO2 Normal reading with COHb and methb

25 Pulse Oximetry-Disadvantages Dark skinned subjects ( overestimates SpO2) Sickle cell crisis (underestimates) Nail varnish, false nails Thick fingers

26 Pulse Oximetry Does not mean Arterial blood gases should not be done

27 Arterial blood gases: indications All critically ill patient Unexpected hypoxaemia Worsening hypoxaemia Any patient at risk of type II respiratory failure who worsens Breathless patient who could be metabolic Unable to obtain reliable pulse oximetry

28 How to give O2 Set a target 94-98% SpO2 in those without hypercapnic risk ik 88-92% when risk of CO2 retention exists

29 O2 administration Administering O2 via most appropriate device 24-28% if risk of CO2 retention Monitor( pulse oximetry) )O2 saturation Do ABG after 1hr if risk of retention Careful clinical observation

30 Essentials of O2 treatment Aim at PaO2 and Sa O2 Acute therapy High FIO2 eg Pneumonia, pulmonary oedema Controlled FIO2 (when risk of CO2 retention and coma Chronic O2 treatment - home Chronic O2 treatment home O2 (COPD, CF, ILD, BPD

31 Remember O2 delivery to tissues is what matters SO SaO2 is important But so are [Hb] and Cardiac output

32 COPD dx. - pointers Age > 50 yrs > 10 pack yr smoking Chronic cough, Sputum Pre existing exertional dyspnoea Previous exacerbations

33 O2 - dangers CO2 retention (hypercapnia) Respiratory Acidosis (ph decreased) Occurs in pathology associated with hypoventilation Commonest: COPD Also Morbid Obesity Neuromuscular disease Kyphoscoliosis

34 Mechanism of CO2 retention Classically loss of hypoxic drive Current favourite V/Q mismatch (loss of hypoxic vasoconstriction) ti

35 CO2 retention: ti Symptom and Headache Tremor (flap) Confusion signs COMA (PaCO2 > 90mmHg) Flushed Bounding pulse

36 Rebound Hypoxaemia Room Air Excess Air O2 Stopped PaO2 6.5 (49) 32(240) 3.4 (255) PaCO2 7.5 (56) 10(75) 10(75) PAO (87) 8.5 (64)

37 O2 - Dangers Paraquat poisoning Bleomycin lung injury

38 Oxygen- Potentially dangerous Post MI (normoxaemic) Post Stroke Paediatric resuscitation

39 Hyperoxaemia - beneficial CO poisoning Pneumothorax 2hr Post-op bowel surgery? Diabetic foot ulcers? Cluster headaches

40 Oxygen cylinders Size C (170 L) G (3400) J(6800) Black cylinder with white shoulder Check label l Check state of filling

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43 Oxygen Concentration Air intake Filter out non- O2 gases 95-99% 99% pure O2 out Up to 6 Lpm

44 High FIO2 High reservoir mask 60-90% O L/min Major trauma ER when no CO2 retention likely

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46 Simple face mask O2 concentration 40 60% Never er use O2 flow < 5l/min * inappropriate for COPD

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49 Venturi principle Gas flowing out from small orifice will lead to a flli fall in pressure

50 Venturi principle

51 Venturi masks

52 Fixed O2 conc provided minimum O2 flow rate

53 Venturi masks Most suitable for controlled O2 in COPD Also if RR > 30 Lpm with very high h inspiratory flow rate

54 Nasal Cannulae Low to medium O2 concentration 1 4 Lpm = 24% - 40 % O2 Breathing pattern dependent d thus, monitor oximetry

55 Nasal cannulae vs Simple face mask Comparable efficacy to deliver 02 around 40% NC mm appropriate for low concentration O2 cf. simple mask NC better than venturi to achieve longer NC better than venturi to achieve longer periods > 90% saturation

56 Nasal cannulae v face mask Advantages Comfort Adjustable flow gives wide oxygen dose range Patient preference No claustrophobic sensation Not taken off to eat or speak Less affected by movement of the face Less inspiratory resistance than simple face masks No risk of rebreathing of fcarbon dioxide id cheaper

57 Nasal cannulae v face mask Disadvantages May cause nasal irritation or soreness Will not work if nose is severely congested or blocked

58 Humidification i Not required for low flow O2 Possibly required for high flow O2 >24 hrs Needed for tracheotomy mask May be of value to assist clearance of secretions

59 Humidification devices Bubble humidification No benefit re:comfort Infection risk

60 Large volume nebulisation based humidifier Used in patients with viscid sputum

61 Nebulisation Asthma: Use O2 COPD: Use compressed air or electrical nebuliser

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