# Computer Department Chapter 9 Eng. Ahmed M. Ayash Date: 05/12/2012. Chapter 9 SPREAD SPECTRUM

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1 Islamic University Of Gaza Data Communication Faculty of Engineering Discussion Computer Department Chapter 9 Eng. Ahmed M. Ayash Date: 05/12/2012 Chapter 9 SPREAD SPECTRUM Spread Spectrum is an important form of encoding for wireless communications. In spread spectrum (SS), we combine signals from different sources to fit into a larger bandwidth, but our goals are to prevent eavesdropping and jamming. Figure 9.1 General Model of Spread Spectrum System A signal that occupies a bandwidth of B, is spread out to occupy a bandwidth of Bss. All signals are spread to occupy the same bandwidth Bss. The bandwidth is wider after the signal has been encoded using spread spectrum.(bss >> B). 1

2 Figure 9.2 Spread Spectrum Example: 9.1 Assume we wish to transmit a 56-kbps data stream using spread spectrum. a. Find the channel bandwidth required to achieve a 56-kbps channel capacity when SNR = 0.1, 0.01, and b. In an ordinary (not spread spectrum) system, a reasonable goal for bandwidth efficiency might be 1 bps/hz. That is, to transmit a data stream of 56 kbps; a bandwidth of 56 khz is used. In this case, what is the minimum SNR that can be endured for transmission without appreciable errors? Compare to the spread spectrum case. a) C = B log 2 (1 + SNR). For SNR = 0.1, B= 0.41 MHz For SNR = 0. 01, B =3.9 MHz For SNR = 0.001, B = MHz Thus, to achieve the desired SNR, the signal must be spread so that 56 KHz is carried in very large bandwidths. b. For 1 bps/hz=(c / B), the equation C = B log 2 (1 + SNR) becomes log 2 (1 + SNR) = 1. SNR = 1. Thus a far higher SNR is required without spread spectrum. 2

3 Spread Spectrum Approaches are: 1. Frequency-hopping spread spectrum. 2. Direct sequence spread spectrum. Frequency-hopping spread spectrum: is a form of spread spectrum in which the signal is broadcast over a seemingly random series of radio frequencies, hopping from frequency to frequency at fixed intervals. Figure 9.3 Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) Figure 9.4 Frequency selection in FHSS 3

4 Figure 9.5 FHSS cycles Examples: 1. What is the minimum number of bits in a PN sequence if we use FHSS with a channel bandwidth of B =4 KHz and B ss =100 KHz? The number of hops = 100 KHz/4 KHz = 25. So we need log 2 25 = bits 2. An FHSS system uses a 4-bit PN sequence. If the bit rate of the PN is 64 bits per second, answer the following questions: a. What is the total number of possible hops? b. What is number of finished cycles per time of PN? a. 2 4 = 16 hops b. (64 bits/s) / 4 bits = 16 cycles/s 4

5 3. A pseudorandom number generator uses the following formula to create a random series: N i+1 =(5 +7N i ) mod 17-1 In which N i defines the current random number and N i +1 defines the next random number. The term mod means the value of the remainder when dividing (5 + 7N i ) by 17. Find the random numbers. i=0 N 1 = (5 +7N 0 ) mod 17-1 = 11, where N 0 = 1 i=1 N 2 = (5 +7*11) mod 17-1 = 13 i=2 N 3 = (5 +7*13) mod 17-1 = 10 i=3 N 4 = (5 +7*10) mod 17-1 = 6 i=4 N 5 = (5 +7*6) mod 17-1 = 12 i=5 N 6 = (5 +7*12) mod 17-1 = 3 i=6 N 7 = (5 +7*3) mod 17-1 = 8 i=7 N 8 = (5 +7*8) mod 17-1 = 9 i=8 N 9 = (5 +7*9) mod 17-1 = -1, Now we stop because we have a negative value. Random numbers are 11, 13, 10, 6, 12, 3, 8, 9 4. (Q9.2) An FHSS system employs a total bandwidth of Ws = 400 MHz and an individual channel bandwidth of 100 Hz. What is the minimum number of PN bits required for each frequency hop? # of hops = (400*10 6 ) / 100 = 4*10 6 The minimum number of PN bits = log 2 ( ) = 22 bits Slow and Fast FHSS Commonly use multiple FSK (MFSK), MFSK uses M = 2 L different frequencies to encode the digital input L bits at a time. Total MFSK bandwidth W d = 2 L f d Total FHSS bandwidth Ws = 2 k W d 5

6 have frequency shifted every T c seconds duration of signal element is T s seconds Slow FHSS = multiple signal elements per hop; has T c T s, (T c = 2T s = 4T). Fast FHSS = multiple hops per signal element; has T c < T s, (T s = 2T c = 2T). Figure 9.6 Slow MFSK FHSS(M = 4, k = 2) Examples: Figure 9.6 Fast MFSK FHSS (M = 4, k = 2) 1. (Q9.4) The following table illustrates the operation of FHSS system for one complete period of the PN sequence. Time Input data Frequency f 1 f 3 f 23 f 22 f 8 f 10 f 1 f 3 f 2 f 2 PN sequence

7 a. What is the period of the PN sequence, in terms of bits in the sequence? b. The system makes use of a form of FSK. What form of FSK is it? c. What is the number of bits per signal element (symbol)? d. What is the number of FSK frequencies? e. What is the length of a PN sequence per hop? f. Is this a slow or fast FH system? g. What is the total number of possible carrier frequencies? h. Show the variation of the base, or demodulated, frequency with time. a) Period of the PN sequence is 15 b) MFSK c) L = 2 d) M = 2 L = 2 2 = 4 e) k = 3 f) Slow FHSS g) 2 k = 2 3 = 8 h) We have 4 FSK Frequencies (f 0 f 3 ) for f mod 4 = 3 So f 23 = f 3 Time Input data Frequency f 1 f 3 f 3 f 2 f 0 f 2 f 1 f 3 f 2 f 2 2. (Q9.5) The following table illustrates the operation of FHSS system using the same PN sequence as previous questions a. What is the period of the PN sequence? b. The system makes use of a form of FSK. What form of FSK is it? c. What is the number of bits per signal element? 7

8 d. What is the number of FSK frequencies? e. What is the length of a PN sequence per hop? f. Is this a slow or fast FH system? g. What is the total number of possible carrier frequencies? h. Show the variation of the base, or demodulated, frequency with time. a) Period of the PN sequence is 15 b) MFSK c) L = 2 d) M = 2 L = 2 2 = 4 e) k = 3 f) FAST FHSS g) 2 k = 2 3 = 8 h) We have 4 FSK Frequencies (f 0 f 3 ) for f mod 4 = 2 So f 22 = f 2 Time Input data Frequency f 1 f 3 f 3 f 2 f 0 f 2 f 1 f 3 f 2 f 2 Direct sequence spread spectrum: is a form of spread spectrum in which each bit in the original signal is represented by multiple bits in the transmitted signal, using a spreading code. For an N-bit spreading code, the bit rate after spreading (usually called the chip rate) is N times the original bit rate. Figure 9.7 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 8

9 Figure 9.8 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Example In Figure 9.9, the spreading code is 11 bits chip (Barker chip) with the pattern (in this case). If the original signal rate is N, the rate of the spread signal is 11N. This means that the required bandwidth for the spread signal is 11 times larger than the bandwidth of the original signal. (Spread signal = Original signal * Spreading code) Figure 9.9 DSSS example 9

10 Example: We have a digital medium with a data rate of 10 Mbps. How many 64-kbps voice channels can be carried by this medium if we use DSSS with the Barker sequence? The Barker chip is 11 bits, which means that it increases the bit rate 11 times. A voice channel of 64 kbps needs kbps = 704 kbps. This means that the bandpass channel can carry: (10 Mbps) / (704 kbps) 14 channels. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) a multiplexing technique used with spread spectrum given a data signal rate D break each bit into k chips according to a fixed chipping code specific to each user resulting new channel has chip data rate kd chips per second can have multiple channels superimposed Code division multiple access exploits the nature of spread spectrum transmission to enable multiple users to independently use the same bandwidth with very little interference. CDMA allows multiple users to transmit over the same wireless channel using spread spectrum. Each user uses a different spreading code. The receiver picks out one signal by matching the spreading code. 10

11 Now imagine station 3, which we said is silent, is listening to station 2. Station 3 multiplies the total data on the channel by the code for station 2, which is [ ], to get: Example: [ ] [ ] =-4/4 =-1... bit 0 Consider a CDMA system in which users A and B have codes ( ) and ( ) respectively. (a) Show the output at the receiver if A transmits a data 1 and B does not transmit; d a c a = +1 * [ ] = [ ] = Data Output at receiver = c a Data = [ ] [ ] = 8 (b) Show the output at the receiver if A transmits a data 0 and B does not transmit; d a c a = -1 * [ ] = [ ] = Data Output at receiver = c a Data = [ ] [ ] = -8 11

12 (c) Show the output at the receiver if A transmits a data bit 1 and B transmits a data bit 1. Assume the received power from both A and B is the same. (d) Show the output at the receiver if A transmits a data bit 0 and B transmits a data bit 1. Assume the received power from both A and B is the same. (e) Show the output at the receiver if A transmits a data bit 1 and B transmits a data bit 0. Assume the received power from both A and B is the same. (f) Show the output at the receiver if A transmits a data bit 0 and B transmits a data bit 0. Assume the received power from both A and B is the same. 12

13 (g) Show the output at the receiver if A transmits a data bit 1 and B transmits a data bit 1. Assume the received power from B is twice the received power from A. This can be represented by showing the received signal component from A as consisting of elements of magnitude 1(+1, -1) and the received signal component from B as consisting of elements of magnitude 2(+2, - 2). (h) Show the output at the receiver if A transmits a data bit 0 and B transmits a data bit 1. Assume the received power from B is twice the received power from A. 13

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