ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS

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1 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS

2 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA-GEOGRAPHY LOCATED BETWEEN THE TIGRIS-EUPHRATES RIVERS BOTH RIVERS FLOW SOUTH INTO THE PERSIAN GULF LOCATED IN PRESENT DAY IRAQ

3 Fertile Crescent

4 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- GEOGRAPHY POSITIVE abundant amount of clay easy till-able soil water supply from Tigris- Euphrates Rivers NEGATIVE few natural resources minimal protection from deserts and mountains

5 City-States

6 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- City States CITY STATES- self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmland.

7 Mesopotamia

8 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION BELIEVED TO BE SETTLED CA B.C. DIVIDED INTO CITY-STATES FIRST FORM OF ORGANIZED RELIGION EARLIEST FORM OF WRITING

9 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CITY-STATES ALWAYS IN CONSTANT CONFLICT OVER WATER RIGHTS AND LAND CREATED WALLS FOR PROTECTION, WITH MOATS ALONG THE OUTSIDE FARMS WERE LOCATED ALONG THE OUTSIDE OF THE CITY

10 Sumerians invented: Wheel Time 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute 12 month lunar calendar arch ramp

11

12 Religion

13 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN RELIGION Each city-state had their own gods and goddesses Wind god most important. Life after death was an extension of life.

14 Sumerian Religion Monotheism: worshiping one god. Mono means one Polytheism: worshiping many gods. Poly means many

15 Ziggurat Holy Mountain

16 Ziggurat Large pyramid shaped structures temples of the main gods Connected to heaven and earth Center for learning and religion

17

18 Writing: Cuneiform

19 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN WRITING CALLED CUNEIFORM (LATIN FOR WEDGE) WRITTEN ON CLAY TABLETS NEEDED FOR RELIGION, GOVERNMENT, AND TRADE LEARNED IN SCHOOL, BY MALES THAT LASTED FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET

20 Sumerian Writing: cuneiform Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.

21 Cuneiform

22 Economy

23 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY Make, sell or barter goods. Trade helped expansion. Development of money Evolved over time.

24 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMY RICH government officials religious leaders traders POOR Farmers craftsman

25 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN PASTIMES Entertainment No longer had to hunt and gather. More time for fun times. Rich had more time than poor. Activities: BOARD GAMES INSTRUMENTS BARE FISTED BOXING Activities geared toward young and used for socializing.

26 Akkadians Persians Babylonians Sumeria Mesopotamian Civilization Hittites Chaldeans Lydians Phoenicians Assyrians

27 Hittites Iron Weapons Located in Turkey

28 Assyrians Chief god Assur Chariots used First Cavalry

29 Akkadians People from Akkad, north of Sumer who adopted the Sumerian culture as their own. King Sargon, the first Mesopotamian Emperor, had his capital in Akkad. His Empire was called the Akkadian Empire. When heaven above was not yet named, nor earth below pronounced by name, Apsu, the first one, their begetter and maker Tiamat, who bore them all, had mixed their waters together, but had not formed pastures, nor discovered reed-beds. When yet no gods were manifest, nor names pronounced, nor destinies decreed, then gods were born within them.

30 Babylonians Chief god: Marduk Prayed for good harvest and success in business. King Hammurabi Hammurabi s Code Earliest code of law Based on equal retaliation.

31 Hammurabi s Code 282 laws. Harsh punishment for crimes. Based on equal retaliation. If a man bring an accusation against a man and charge him with a capital crime, but cannot prove it, the accuser, shall be put to death If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off Laws favored the wealthy and powerful.

32 What do you think? If a man bring an accusation against a man and charge him with a capital crime, but cannot prove it, the accuser, shall be put to death If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss. If the woman die, his daughter shall be put to death.

33 Chaldeans Skilled astronomers Hanging Gardens of Babylon King Nebuchadnezzar built them for his wife One of the Ancient Wonders of the World

34 Persians Present day Iran Zoroastrianism Belief in final judgment and training for it

35 Phoenicians Major natural resource: lumber from cedar forests. Invented the art of glassblowing. Alphabet Then adopted by Greeks and the Romans

36 Lydians First to use a money economy. An economic system based in the use of money as a measure of value and a unit of account.

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