DRAW CONCLUSIONS As you read, draw conclusions about the importance of the Nile River to life in Egypt. Focus Skill

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1 Lesson 1 PAGES OBJECTIVES Evaluate the impact of the Nile River on life in ancient Egypt. Analyze the relationship between nature and the religion of the ancient Egyptians. Examine how the peoples of Upper and Lower Egypt were in conflict and then unified. Skill Draw Conclusions pp. 115, 116, 118, 119, 121 Vocabulary SEE READING AND VOCABULARY TRANSPARENCY 2-6 OR THE WORD CARDS ON P. V27. predict p. 118 inundation p. 118 deity p. 119 afterlife p. 119 mummy p. 120 cataract p. 120 nation-state p. 120 dynasty p. 121 When Minutes Count Ask students to examine the images and captions in this lesson. Then have them write a brief summary that describes the main ideas of the lesson. Quick Summary The natural resources of the Nile River defined ancient Egypt. Early farming settlements arose along the Nile about 5000 B.C., and the Egyptians organized life around the river s annual flooding. The Egyptians believed in many deities, many tied to acts of nature. By about 3100 B.C. Upper and Lower Egypt formed the first nation-state in the world. Skill DRAW CONCLUSIONS As you read, draw conclusions about the importance of the Nile River to life in Egypt. BIG IDEA The Nile River affected the development of Egyptian civilization. VOCABULARY predict inundation deity afterlife mummy cataract nation-state dynasty The ancient Egyptians picked the flax plant while it was in full bloom (above). The Egyptians used flax to make clothing and to make oil for foods. 116 Unit 2 WORD WORK The Gift of the Nile 3500 B.C B.C B.C. 500 B.C B.C B.C. In the same centuries B.C. in which civilization was flourishing in Mesopotamia, another civilization was growing in what is now Egypt. Egypt is a country in the northeastern corner of Africa. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea on the north and by the vast desert known as the Sahara on the west. Most of present-day Egypt is dry, windswept desert. Through it, however, runs the world s longest river, the Nile. On the fertile land along its banks, one of the world s longest-lasting civilizations developed. It thrived for more than 3,000 years. The Importance of the Nile Near the Mediterranean Sea the Nile River divides into several branches and spreads out over a wide area. There it drops the soil it has carried from far upriver. Over time, this soil has formed a huge delta of low-lying land. Around 6000 B.C. early people began This scene shows ancient Egyptian farmers along the Nile. Preview the Vocabulary Ask students to preview the vocabulary terms by guessing at the meaning of each, based upon familiar words or word parts that it may contain. If students need help, point out that afterlife and nation-state are compound words made up of smaller words, and predict contains the common prefix pre-. Then have students look the words up in a dictionary and write the definitions. Students can revise the definitions to match the way each term is used in the lesson. 116 UNIT 2

2 Movement The Nile River flows from higher land in the south to lower land in the north. The model of an ancient Egyptian sailboat (below) is from about 1800 B.C. Into what sea does the Nile River flow? farming on the delta and in the river valley leading to it. By 5000 B.C. people had built small farming settlements on the delta and in the valley to the south. Later, people called this place Kemet, meaning Black Land, because of the rich, dark soil, also called kemet, found along the banks of the Nile. By contrast, the desert beyond Kemet they called Deshuret (deh SHOO ret), or the Red Land. Every year at about the same time, the Nile River flooded, depositing a fresh strip of rich, black soil along each bank. After the floodwaters drained away, the early farmers sprinkled seeds on top of the soil. Then they led livestock through the fields to walk over the seeds and push them into the ground. In this fertile soil, farmers were able to raise a huge supply of food. Egypt is a hot country in which little rain falls. The great river provided not only good farmland but also water. Early farmers grew crops through most of the year by irrigating their land. Like the Sumerians, the Egyptians built canals to carry water from the Nile to their fields. They also built dams to form ponds to store floodwater for later use. The Nile was Egypt s main transportation route. The ancient Egyptians built boats and barges to use the Nile as a river highway. The first Egyptian boats were made of bundles of reeds, or tall water plants. Later, Egyptians began to make boats and barges out of wooden planks. Some of these were longer than 140 feet (43 m). BACKGROUND The Nile Delta North of Cairo, the Nile River fans out into several branches that drain into the Mediterranean Sea. These streams flow over low land known as the Nile Delta. The delta is 100 miles (160 km) long and 155 miles (249 km) wide at its broadest point. In prehistoric times the delta region was a gulf of the Mediterranean, but over thousands of years it filled with silt carried downstream to the sea. For centuries, floods covered the Nile Delta with silt, making it among the most fertile lands in the world. At first, the Egyptians used poles to move their boats. Later, they used oars to row them. Around 3000 B.C. the Egyptians developed sails and began to rely on the wind for power. Wind power made it easier for boats to travel upriver against the current. This improvement in transportation brought the many groups living along the Nile River into contact with one another. In what ways was the Nile River important to the ancient Egyptians? as a source of water, for transportation, and because it deposited fertile soil Chapter REACH ALL LEARNERS English as a Second Language Invite students acquiring English to work with an English-fluent partner. Have them draw and label cartoon strips to describe the sequence of events related to the annual flooding of the Nile River and the planting season. Motivate Set the Purpose Big Idea Make sure that students can identify Egypt and the Nile River on a map. Access Prior Knowledge Ask students what they know about ancient Egypt. READING SOCIAL STUDIES Anticipation Guide Have students predict whether the following statements will prove to be true or false. Students may correct their predictions as they read. 1. Rain in ancient Egypt was abundant and dependable. FALSE 2. The Egyptians preserved dead bodies as mummies because of their belief in an afterlife. TRUE USE READING AND VOCABULARY 2-6 TRANSPARENCY 2-6. Teach The Importance of the Nile Link Geography with Culture and Society Model using self-questioning strategies before reading. I wonder how the Nile was important to Egypt? Perhaps people used it for drinking and bathing. I will read to find out. Map Have students use the key to the map on page 117 to determine the direction of the Nile River s current. CAPTION ANSWER: the Mediterranean Sea CHAPTER 4 117

3 A Source of New Ideas Link History with Geography Ask students what problems the Nile River caused and what the ancient Egyptians did as a result. Excess flooding drowned people and livestock and ruined crops; occasionally the Nile did not flood, resulting in starvation. As a result, Egyptians tried to predict when the Nile would flood. Point out that today, a dam at Aswan controls the flow of the Nile and helps generate hydroelectric power. History Encourage students to complete a graphic organizer for this lesson that shows the Nile River as a source of Egyptian culture. Religion stories about gods explained floods and droughts Gifts of the Nile River New Ideas calendar predict floods A Source of New Ideas Because of the importance of the Nile River to the Egyptians, the ancient Greek historian Herodotus (hih RAH duh tuhs) called Egypt the gift of the Nile. Without the Nile River, people in Egypt would not have been able to survive. In some years, though, the Nile also took life away. When the rainy season began in eastern Africa near the Nile s source, the level of the Nile River rose. In most years the river gently overflowed its banks. When too much rain fell upstream, however, the Nile flooded wildly. It washed away crops SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY A Shaduf A shaduf (shuh DOOF) is a device that has been used in Egypt since early times to get water for irrigation. It consists of a container made of animal skins or of pottery attached to a lever and balanced by stones. The container is dipped into a well or river. When full, it is lifted out, and the water is dumped into a canal. Shadufs are still used in rural parts of Egypt. and drowned people and livestock. When too little rain fell, the river did not flood at all. Then the land along the river lay baked by the sun. Crops dried up, and people went hungry or starved. Usually farmers could depend on regular Nile floods. Over the centuries, the ancient Egyptians worked out ways to predict, or tell ahead of time, when the river would flood. By studying the skies, they observed that the yearly flooding, or inundation, began soon after the star Sirius (SER ee uhs) reappeared after months of being out of sight. This event occurred on about June 20 each year. Using careful observations such as this, the Egyptians developed a calendar with 365 days in a year. The Egyptian calendar divided the year into three seasons, based on events along the Nile River and their importance to agriculture. These three seasons were called Inundation, Emergence, and Harvest. Some farmers in present-day Egypt (left) still use a shaduf for irrigation like farmers did in ancient times (below). Unity settlements along Nile joined by the river Picture Ask students how the illustration on page 118 shows cooperation among farmers. Encourage them to draw comparisons with early farmers they read about in Chapter 2. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY A Shaduf Invite students to share what they know about other farm tools and equipment used in various cultures. What are some of the similarities and differences? How do these technologies help farmers? Point out that in complex agricultural societies such as ours, farmers invest in expensive equipment, which affects their profits. 118 Unit 2 INTEGRATE SCIENCE Study Levers Point out to students that the shaduf is a lever, which is one type of simple machine. Encourage interested students to find out more about levers in science books or on the Internet. Then have them build a model shaduf or draw a diagram showing how a shaduf works. Display students work in the classroom. READING SKILL Draw Conclusions Point out to students that ancient Egypt s major cities were located in the fertile area along the Nile. Ask students what conclusions they can draw about the importance of waterways for the economy of a growing civilization. 118 UNIT 2

4 This calendar is a copy of a design found on the ceiling of the Temple of Hathor in Egypt. Because the time of flooding was so important to the Egyptians, they considered it to be the start of the new year. During Inundation the land received a fresh supply of kemet from the floodwaters that covered the farmland. Emergence, or the growing season, followed Inundation. It was the time when the land emerged, or came out, from beneath the waters. As this season began, farmers plowed and seeded the rich soil. The growing season was only long enough to produce one crop of a grain, such as barley or wheat. However, as many as three or four crops of some fruits and vegetables could be produced during this time. Farmers grew lettuce, beans, onions, figs, dates, grapes, and cucumbers. Many also grew flax, which was used to make linen cloth. INTEGRATE LANGUAGE ARTS Informative Writing Invite partners or individuals to research an Egyptian god or goddess of their choice. Students should prepare and deliver an oral report accompanied by representations of the deity in Egyptian art or in drawings by the students themselves. Suggest that they explain any links between the deities and nature. The final season was Harvest, the time when the crops were ready. In most years Egyptian farmers could be certain of a surplus. It is to be a beautiful year, free from want and rich in all herbs, an Egyptian farmer might say in a year of plentiful crops. Why did the Egyptians develop a calendar? Skill DRAW CONCLUSIONS to track when floods would occur and when it was time to plant and time to harvest A Source of Religion The ancient Egyptians believed in many different deities, or gods, each with a different responsibility. The people of ancient Egypt used stories about their gods to explain why flooding, drought, and other acts of nature took place. The sun god Re (RAY), also known as Ra (RAH), was among the most important of the gods in ancient Egypt. Egyptians believed that Re was born each day and died each night. This explained to them why the sun seemed to come up each morning and go down at night. The sun became a symbol of the life cycle. Each Egyptian settlement along the Nile also had its special god in addition to Re. People in Memphis, for example, worshipped Ptah, the god of the arts. The people of Hermopolis worshipped Thoth, the god of wisdom and writing. The people of Thebes worshipped Amon, a sun god. Amon was later identified with Re and called Amon-Re. In time Amon-Re became the chief deity of all ancient Egyptians. Most Egyptians prayed to their gods and believed in a life after death, or afterlife. By 1500 B.C. some Egyptian prayers had been collected in what is now known as The Book of the Dead. A copy of this book was placed in the tombs of those who had died. A statue of the sun god Re Chapter READING SOCIAL STUDIES Reread Aloud Invite students to explain the role of Re, the sun god, in their own words. Remind them that if they have trouble doing this, they can quietly reread aloud paragraph 2 of the section titled A Source of Religion. This strategy may help auditory learners recall key facts and details in the correct sequence. History Ask students to create a three-part circle chart in which they label and describe each part of the ancient Egyptian calendar. A Source of Religion Link Geography with Culture and Society Ask students how nature affected ancient Egyptians religious beliefs. Natural events like floods were explained in stories about the gods. Ancient Egypt's 365-Day Calendar Inundation begins around June 20, Nile floods Harvest gathering crops Calendar Point out that temple priests and the pharaoh, or ruler, worshipped at the temples. They believed that each temple was home to one god. Statue As students examine the artifacts in this chapter, suggest they list features common to Egyptian sculpture and painting. For instance, they might notice examples of relief sculpture and painting, front and side views of the human figure, sculpture that shows symmetry, and flat colors. Emergence plowing and seeding Culture and Society Ask students how what they read about mummies changed their understanding of Egyptian culture. Students might say that they learned that the Egyptians believed they would need their bodies in the afterlife. CHAPTER 4 119

5 Analyze Primary Sources An Egyptian Mummy Point out that all the images on a mummy s coffin had religious significance to the Egyptians. Invite students to study the photograph closely to find images that interest them and to think about their significance. CAPTION ANSWER: Perhaps Egyptians believed that the prayers and images of gods would protect the deceased in the afterlife. A Source of Unity An Egyptian Mummy In ancient times the bodies of wealthy Egyptians were mummified, or preserved, in preparation for the afterlife. The mummies were placed in wooden coffins, or cases, that were covered with pictures of gods and picture writings. The writings were prayers and messages praising the person who had died. 1 Mummy wrapped in linen that protects the body 2 Body of the mummy case 3 Carved likeness of the dead person 4 Lid of the mummy case 5 Red straps to indicate that the person was probably a member of the priesthood 6 Picture of Nut, the sky goddess Why do you think prayers and images of gods were placed on the mummy s coffin? History Ask students how and when ancient Egypt became the world s first nation-state. Stories suggest that it was after Upper Egypt s King Menes conquered Lower Egypt about 3100 B.C. Illustration Ask students to compare features of the United States flag with those of the double crown of unified Egypt pictured on page 121. How do they show unity? Students may say that the double crown of Egypt shows unity by combining the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt, and the United States flag shows unity by representing all 50 states of the Union as stars. CAPTION ANSWER: to represent unity between the regions and loyalty to a single ruler The Egyptians believed that it would serve as a guide for the dead in the afterlife. The ancient Egyptians believed that they would need their bodies in the afterlife. Because of this, they developed ways to preserve dead bodies. Making a mummy, or preserved body, took about 70 days. First, the Egyptians removed all the internal organs, except for the heart, and placed them in special containers. They left the heart in the body because they believed that all thinking took place there. Next, they covered the body with powdered salt to dry it out and prevent it from decaying. Then, they rubbed the dried-out body with special oils. Finally, they wrapped the body from head to toe in linen cloth. The mummy was then ready to be placed in its tomb. How did the Egyptians explain events in nature? through stories about their gods 120 Unit 2 A Source of Unity Most of the small farming settlements in ancient Egypt developed on the Nile Delta and along the Nile River between the delta and the first of six cataracts, or waterfalls. The settlements on the Nile Delta became part of a kingdom known as Lower Egypt. The settlements in the Nile Valley to the south of the delta became a part of the kingdom of Upper Egypt. Stories passed down from generation to generation say that King Menes (MEE neez) of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt in about 3100 B.C. He then united the two kingdoms and formed the world s first nation-state. A nation-state is a region with a united group of people and a single This statue represents Thoth, the ancient Egyptian god of wisdom and writing. Close Summarize Key Content Early farming settlements arose along the Nile about 5000 B.C. Ancient Egyptians based their calendar around the flooding season. Ancient Egyptians believed in many deities, most tied to nature. Upper and Lower Egypt formed the first nation-state in about 3100 B.C. STUDY/RESEARCH SKILLS Skimming and Scanning Ask students to describe the difference between a city-state (see Chapter 2, page 73) and a nation-state (see page 120). If they have trouble, suggest that they skim and scan for each boldfaced term. Students should understand that a citystate is a civilization based upon a central city, such as Ur; a nation-state is a civilization based upon a united region, such as ancient Egypt. EXTEND AND ENRICH Research Instruct students to begin an I-chart, or inquiry chart, about mummies. For instance, they may wish to learn about the discoveries of ancient tombs. They can share their findings using diagrams, maps, or other graphic aids. 120 UNIT 2

6 READING SOCIAL STUDIES Upper Lower Unified government. According to ancient Egyptian stories, Menes set up his central government in the capital city of Memphis, in Lower Egypt. Who really united the two kingdoms is not known. Some experts who study ancient Egypt think that a king named Narmer may have been the one who brought the two regions together. In some ancient artwork, King Narmer is shown wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt and in others, the red crown of Lower Summary Time Line 3500 B.C B.C. Analyze Illustrations The double crown of unified Egypt was formed by placing the crown of Upper Egypt inside the crown of Lower Egypt. Why do you think the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt were combined? Egypt. Later, pharaohs wore a double crown that combined the two crowns. The double crown stood for unity between the two regions. Many experts also believe that it was Narmer who began the first Egyptian dynasty. A dynasty is a series of rulers who belong to the same family. More than 30 dynasties ruled ancient Egypt in the thousands of years that followed. Why do some historians believe King Narmer may have united Egypt? In pictures he wears crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt B.C. Anticipation Guide Ask students to share their responses to the Anticipation Guide at the start of the lesson. 1. Rain in ancient Egypt was abundant and dependable. scarce 2. The Egyptians preserved dead bodies as mummies because of their belief in an afterlife. Assess Lesson 1 Review Answers Skill USE READING AND VOCABULARY 2-6 TRANSPARENCY 2-6. DRAW CONCLUSIONS Soldiers could travel on the Nile River to conquer Lower Egypt. People could travel along the Nile to trade and communicate between the regions B.C. Upper and Lower Egypt are united DRAW CONCLUSIONS How do you think the Skill Nile River affected the uniting of Upper and Lower Egypt? 1 BIG IDEA How did the Nile River affect the development of Egyptian civilization? 2 VOCABULARY Use the terms nation-state and dynasty in a sentence describing Egyptian civilization. 3 TIME LINE When were Upper and Lower Egypt united? 4 ECONOMICS How did the yearly flooding of the Nile River help shape the economy of Egypt? RETEACH THE LESSON Graphic Organizer Ask students to choose a section in the lesson and to complete a main idea and supporting details organizer. Have groups meet and share what they learned. Detail: deposits rich soil for planting Detail: water source for crop irrigation Detail: Egypt's main transportation route Main Idea: The Importance of the Nile River 3000 B.C. Egyptians begin to use sails on their boats 1500 B.C. Egyptian prayers are collected in The Book of the Dead 5 CRITICAL THINKING Analyze Why do you think settlements developed along the Nile despite the danger of floods? 6 CRITICAL THINKING Evaluate Why do you think the Egyptians united into a single nationstate while the Sumerians did not? PERFORMANCE Make a Map Draw a map of ancient Egypt. Be sure to include labels showing the Nile River, Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt, and the location of the cataracts. Use different colors to show the desert and river valley regions. Display your map in the classroom. Chapter ACTIVITY BOOK Use ACTIVITY BOOK pp to reinforce and extend student learning. 1 BIG IDEA Its floods provided fertile land for farming. The religion was based on natural phenomena, including the river. 2 VOCABULARY After ancient Egypt was united into a nation-state, its leaders formed dynasties. 3 TIME LINE 3100 B.C. 4 ECONOMICS It either provided good soil for farming or washed away crops. 5 CRITICAL THINKING Analyze The land along rivers is usually fertile enough for farming, so these areas are very attractive as locations for settlements. Rivers also provide water and a means of transportation. 6 CRITICAL THINKING Evaluate A strong king and the Nile River helped unite Egypt into a single nation-state. Sumer was split into city-states that were nearly always at war. Performance Assessment Guidelines Students maps of ancient Egypt should include labels for the Nile River, Upper Egypt, and Lower Egypt and the location of the first cataract. Different colors should indicate the desert and river valley regions. Students can use the map on page 117 as a reference. CHAPTER 4 121

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