Page 1 of Notes. MISSING Head of an Akkadian ruler from Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq. ca. 2,250-2,200 B.C.E. copper 14 3/8 in.

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1 Akkaddian Dynasty 1

2 2

3 Page 1 of Notes MISSING Head of an Akkadian ruler from Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca. 2,250-2,200 B.C.E. copper 14 3/8 in. high 3

4 Page 1 of Notes Figure 2-14 Votive disk of Enheduanna, from Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca BCE. Alabaster, diameter 10. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 4 Philadelphia

5 Pages 1-2 of Notes Victory stele of Naram-Sin from Susa, Iran ca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E. sandstone 79 in. high 5

6 Horned Helmet of Divinity 6

7 Victory stele of Naram-Sin from Susa, Iran ca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E. sandstone 79 in. high 7

8 Ziggurat of King Ur-nammu, Ur, ca BCE Page 2 of Notes 8

9 Ziggurat of Ur-nammu, Ur, ca BCE (photo from 1920) 9

10 Temple Area, Ur 10

11 Ziggurat at Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,100 B.C.E. mud brick 11

12 Ur Ziggurat of Ur-nammu, ca BCE (reconstructed) 12

13 U.S. Soldiers Climbing Urnammu Ziggurat,

14 14

15 Marduk Ziggurat 15

16 16

17 17

18 Gudea Page 2 of Notes 18

19 Figure 2-16 Seated statue of Gudea holding temple plan, from Girsu (modern Telloh), Iraq, ca BCE. Diorite, 2 5 high. Louvre, Paris. 19

20 Temple Plans - detail 20

21 21

22 Neo-Sumerian Dynasty soon fell to Elamites. Mesopotamia was then governed as independent city-states for two centuries. 22

23 Babylonian King Hammurabi Reestablishes Centralized Government in Mesopotamia 23

24 24

25 Page 3 of Notes Stele with code of Hammurabi from Susa, Iran ca. 1,780 B.C.E. basalt 88 in. high 25

26 26

27 Hittite Art 27

28 28

29 Pages 3-4 of Notes Lion Gate Hattusa (modern Boghazköy) Turkey ca B.C.E. 29

30 Elamite Art 30

31 31

32 Page 4 of Notes Statue of Queen Napir-Asu from Susa, Iran ca. 1,350-1,300 B.C.E. bronze and copper 50 3/4 in. high 32

33 Statue of Queen Napir-Asu from Susa, Iran ca. 1,350-1,300 B.C.E. bronze and copper 50 3/4 in. high 33

34 Assyrian Art 34

35 35

36 Page 4 of Notes Reconstruction drawing of the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraq ca B.C.E. 36

37 Reconstruction drawing of the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraq ca B.C.E. 37

38 Page 5 of Notes Lamassu (winged human headed bull) from the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraq ca B.C.E. limestone 13 ft. 10 in. high 38

39 39

40 40

41 41

42 42

43 Page 6 of Notes Ashurbanipal hunting lions from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca B.C.E. gypsum approximately 5 ft. high 43

44 Ashurbanipal hunting lions from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca B.C.E. gypsum approximately 5 ft. high 44

45 Ashurbanipal hunting lions from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca B.C.E. gypsum approximately 5 ft. high 45

46 46

47 47

48 48

49 Ashurbanipal hunting lions from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca B.C.E. gypsum approximately 5 ft. high 49

50 Pages 6 of Notes Assyrian archers pursuing enemies, relief from the Northwest Palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Kalhu (modern Nimrud), Iraq, ca BCE. Gypsum, /8 50 high. British Museum, London.

51 Page 6 of Notes Assyrian Infantry 51

52 Page 6 of Notes Assyrians killing Elamites 52

53 Celebrate your victories!!! (make sure everyone knows you won) 53

54 Start by stealing their gods!!! 54

55 King Jehu Bowing Before Shalmanesar III 55

56 56

57 Tiglath-pilesar III s Army Spoiling a City 57

58 58

59 59

60 60

61 61

62 The Assyrians meant business when it came to war! Some more war scenes: 62

63 Wall relief, Assurnasirpal laying siege Siege Machine 63

64 64

65 One of Ashurbanipal's inscriptions reads: "I destroyed them, tore down the walls, and burned the towns with fire; I caught the survivors and impaled them on stakes in front of their towns." 65

66 Assurbanipal relaxes with head of enemy in a tree! Assurbanipal relaxes with head of enemy in a tree! 66

67 This guy has a head in a tree in his garden are you going to mess with him??? 67

68 Neo-Babylonian Art 68

69 Pages 7-8 of Notes 69

70 70

71 71

72 72

73 Double Thick Wall 73

74 A double fortified wall enclosed the city, protecting it from attack 74

75 Page 15 of Notes Ishtar Gate (restored) from Babylon, Iraq ca. 575 B.C.E. glazed brick 75

76 Ishtar Gate (restored) details of dragon (Marduk) and bull (Adad) from Babylon, Iraq ca. 575 B.C.E. glazed brick 76

77 Ishtar Gate (restored) details of lion (Ishtar) from Babylon, Iraq ca. 575 B.C.E. glazed brick 77

78 78

79 Ishtar Gate 79

80 Smaller version in Iraq 80

81 81

82 Mushhushshu (Sirrush) The Dragon of the Ishtar Gate 82

83 83

84 Processional Avenue 84

85 Model of Ishtar Gate & Processional Way 85

86 86

87 Inscription on processional way: "I am Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon...I paved the road of Babylon with mountain stones for the procession of the mighty lord Marduk. May Marduk, my lord, grant me eternal life!" 87

88 88

89 89

90 90

91 Page 8 of Notes The Tower of Babel (Marduk Ziggurat) 91

92 The Tower of Babel, oil painting by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1563; in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. 92

93 93

94 Temple of Marduk (blue) 94

95 95

96 The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Page 9 of Notes 96

97 97

98 98

99 Persian (Achaemenid) Empire Page 10 of Notes 99

100 100

101 Conquered by the Persians 101

102 Page 10 of Notes Apadana: Royal Audience Hall Built in Persepolis, capital of Persian Empire ca. 500 BCE Built during reign of King Darius and his son and successor King Xerxes (think of the movie 300 ) 102

103 Palace of Darius I and Xerxes I Persepolis, Iran ca B.C.E. 103

104 This is what is left of the apadana 104

105 Processional Frieze (detail) on the terrace of the Apadana Palace of Darius I and Xerxes I Persepolis, Iran ca B.C.E. 8 ft. 4 in. high 105

106 Palace of Darius I and Xerxes I Persepolis, Iran ca B.C.E. 106

107 Palace of Darius I and Xerxes I Persepolis, Iran ca B.C.E. 107

108 Page 11 of Notes Sasanian Empire (New Persian Empire) 108

109 109

110 Palace of Shapur I from Ctesiphon, Iraq ca. 250 C.E. 110

111 Palace of Shapur I from Ctesiphon, Iraq ca. 250 C.E. 111

112 112

113 Triumph of Shapur I over Valerian from Bishapur, Iraq ca. 260 C.E. rock-cut relief 113

114 Triumph of Shapur I over Valerian from Bishapur, Iraq ca. 260 C.E. rock-cut relief 114

115 Shapur I drachim ca. 260 C.E. cast silver coins 115

116 Head of Sasanian King (Shapur II?) from Ctesiphon, Iraq ca. 350 C.E. silver with mercury gilding 15 3/4 in. high 116

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