JARINGAN KOMPUTER I Modul 3 Transmission Media

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1 JARINGAN KOMPUTER I Modul 3 Transmission Media 1

2 A Digital Signal Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 2

3 Bit Rate and Bit Interval Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 3

4 An Analog Signal Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 4

5 Amplitude Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 5

6 Period and Frequency Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 6

7 Time and Frequency Domains Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 7

8 A Signal with a DC Component Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 8

9 Electromagnetic Spectrum Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 9

10 Design Factors Bandwidth Higher bandwidth gives higher data rate Transmission impairments Attenuation Interference Number of receivers In guided media More receivers (multi-point) introduce more attenuation Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 10

11 Classes of Transmission Media Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 11

12 Categories of Guided Media Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 12

13 Transmission Characteristics of Guided Media Twisted pair (with loading) Twisted pairs (multi-pair cables) Coaxial cable Optical fiber Frequency Range 0 to 3.5 khz Typical Attenuation khz Typical Delay 50 µs/km Repeater Spacing 2 km 0 to 1 MHz khz 5 µs/km 2 km 0 to 500 MHz 7 10 MHz 0.2 to 0.5 db/km 4 µs/km 1 to 9 km 5 µs/km 40 km 186 to 370 THz Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 13

14 Twisted-Pair Cable Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 14

15 Twisted Pair - Applications Most common medium Telephone network Between house and local exchange (subscriber loop) Within buildings To private branch exchange (PBX) For local area networks (LAN) 10Mbps or 100Mbps Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 15

16 Twisted Pair - Transmission Characteristics Analog Amplifiers every 5km to 6km Digital Use either analog or digital signals repeater every 2km or 3km Limited distance Limited bandwidth (1MHz) Limited data rate (100MHz) Susceptible to interference and noise Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 16

17 Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 17

18 Unshielded Twisted Pair Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 18

19 Unshielded Twisted Pair (2) Advantages Inexpensive Easy to terminate Widely used, tested Supports many network types Disadvantages Susceptible to interference Prone to damage during installation Distance limitations not understood or followed Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 19

20 Unshielded and Shielded TP Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ordinary telephone wire Cheapest Easiest to install Suffers from external EM interference Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Metal braid or sheathing that reduces interference More expensive Harder to handle (thick, heavy) Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 20

21 UTP Categories Cat 3 up to 16MHz Voice grade found in most offices Twist length of 7.5 cm to 10 cm Cat 4 up to 20 MHz Cat 5 up to 100MHz Commonly pre-installed in new office buildings Twist length 0.6 cm to 0.85 cm Cat 5E (Enhanced) see tables Cat 6 Cat 7 Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 21

22 Twisted Pair Categories and Classes Category 3 Class C Category 5 Class D Category 5E Category 6 Class E Category 7 Class F Bandwidth 16 MHz 100 MHz 100 MHz 200 MHz 600 MHz Cable Type UTP UTP/FTP UTP/FTP UTP/FTP SSTP Link Cost (Cat 5 =1) Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 22

23 Coaxial Cable Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 23

24 Coaxial Cable (2) Merupakan tipe media pertama digunakan dalam jaringan Ada beberapa tipe (RG-6 Cable TV, RG58/U Thin Ethernet, RG8 Thick Ethernet Paling banyak digantikan oleh twisted pair untuk jaringan Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 24

25 Coaxial Cable (3) Advantages of Thinnet Easy to Install Small in diameter Shielded to reduce EMI and RFI interference Disadvantages of Thinnet One break whole network goes down Must be grounded to prevent interference More expensive than twisted pair Does not support high speed transmissions Its baseband transmissions does not allow for integrated video and voice Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 25

26 Coaxial Cable Applications Most versatile medium Television distribution Ariel to TV Cable TV Long distance telephone transmission Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously Being replaced by fiber optic Short distance computer systems links Local area networks Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 26

27 Coaxial Cable - Transmission Characteristics Analog Amplifiers every few km Closer if higher frequency Up to 500MHz Digital Repeater every 1km Closer for higher data rates Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 27

28 Refraction and Reflection Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 28

29 Propagation Modes Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 29

30 Fiber Construction Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 30

31 Optical Fiber - Benefits Greater capacity Data rates of hundreds of Gbps Smaller size & weight Lower attenuation Electromagnetic isolation Greater repeater spacing 10s of km at least Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 31

32 Optical Fiber - Applications Long-haul trunks Metropolitan trunks Rural exchange trunks Subscriber loops LANs Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 32

33 Radio Communication Band Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 33

34 Broadcast Radio Omnidirectional FM radio UHF and VHF television Line of sight Suffers from multipath interference Reflections Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 34

35 Infrared Modulate noncoherent infrared light Line of sight (or reflection) Blocked by walls e.g. TV remote control, IRD port Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 35

36 Wireless Transmission Frequencies 2GHz to 40GHz Microwave Highly directional Point to point Satellite 30MHz to 1GHz Omnidirectional Broadcast radio 3 x 1011 to 2 x 1014 Infrared Local Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 36

37 Types of Propagation Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 37

38 Wireless Propagation Signal travels along three routes Ground wave Follows contour of earth Up to 2MHz AM radio Sky wave Amateur radio, BBC world service, Voice of America Signal reflected from ionosphere layer of upper atmosphere (Actually refracted) Line of sight Above 30Mhz May be further than optical line of sight due to refraction More later Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 38

39 Ground Wave Propagation Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 39

40 Sky Wave Propagation Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 40

41 Line of Sight Propagation Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 41

42 Frequency Range Frequency Range for VLF Frequency Range for LF Frequency Range for MF Frequency Range for HF Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 42

43 Frequency Range for VHF Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 43

44 Frequency Range for UHF Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 44

45 Frequency Range for SHF Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 45

46 Frequency Range for EHF Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 46

47 Terrestrial Microwave Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 47

48 Satellite Communication Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 48

49 Satellite Point to Point Link Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 49

50 Satellite Broadcast Link Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 50

51 Satellite in Geosynchronous Orbit Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 51

52 Wireless Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 52

53 Konektor Fibre Optic RJ45 Token Ring Thicknet T-Piece Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 53

54 Batas Jarak Thicknet 500m 10bps Thinnet 185m 10Mbps STP 100m 10Mbps Cat 3 UTP 100m 10Mbps Cat 5 UTP 100m 100Mbps Enhanced Cat 5 100m 350Mbps Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 54

55 Batas Jarak (2) Single-mode Fibre 3Km 100Mbps 100Gbps Multimode Fibre 2Km 100Mbps 9.92Gbps Single frequency Radio 50 75m 1 10Mbps Spread-spectrum radio Several miles 1 6Mbps Terrestrial Microwave 1 50 miles 1 10Mbps Satellite Microwave Global 1 10Mbps Abas A. Pangera: Network1-02 : 55

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