History Of the Middle East

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1 History Of the Middle East

2 Mesopotamia 3500 BC Mesopotamia- Between the rivers Region along the Tigris and Euphrates River where a very successful civilization lived. Center of farming and trade Developed an irrigation system Developed a sailboat Developed a writing system Networked with other people to develop ideas about agriculture, laws, and religion.

3 Founding of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam All three monotheistic religions claim Jerusalem, Israel as their holy city. Creation of Judaism: BCE Creation of Christianity: CE Creation of Islam: 610 CE

4 Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire The Turks from Central Asia established the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East Region. Islam was the empire s official religion. Ottoman rulers did allow people of other faiths to live in peace in their empire.

5 USSR Gains Control 1922 Ottoman Empire Collapses Soviet Union takes over Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

6 Nation of Israel Created 1948 Israel is founded as a Jewish State. Israel is recognized by the United Nations as a separate country. Since the creation of the nation, Israel has fought many bloody wars with the Arab nations that border it.

7 Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) Founded 1964 The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is founded with the aim of destroying Israel and returning lands in Israel to the Palestinian people. This well known terrorist organization uses violence and terrorism to send its messages to the world.

8 Wars in Palestine 1967 Six Day War: Egypt, Syria, and Jordan form an alliance against Israel. Israel retaliates and gains control of the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem Yon Kipper War: Egypt, Syria, and other Muslim nations attack Israel. Israel rebounds and controls even more Palestinian lands War: : Israeli jets bomb PLO strongholds in Beirut, Lebanon. The Israelis hoped to eliminate the PLO and sign a new peace treaty. A peace treaty was not signed and the violence continues today.

9 Saddam Hussein Rules Iraq A violent, harsh and cruel dictator that ruled Iraq with an iron fist. Saddam supported the nation of Palestine, used chemical weapons in battle against their neighbor Iran, and committed genocide against the Kurds of Northern Iraq. It has been estimated that the regime of Saddam killed around 180,000 people. In 2006, Saddam was captured and hanged for his crimes against humanity.

10 Iranian Revolution A revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy, to an Islamic Republic. The country is ruled by the Ayatollah: a religious scholar of Islam. Government is formed from Islamic ideals with the goal of removing western culture from Iran. The revolution made Islamic fundamentalism a political force. There is evidence of financial and military support of terrorist groups like Hammas,, Hezbollah, and the PLO by the Iranian government. Iranians believe that obeying the Islamic government is an expression of obedience to Allah. Human rights are often violated. Death and imprisonment for those who oppose the republic, restricted freedom of speech, and gender inequality is present. Women are often given lashes or imprisonment for exposing body parts other than faces and hands. Women that are caught interacting with males other than their relatives are also punished severely.

11 Gulf War 1991 Gulf War- A conflict between Iraq led by Hussein and 30 nations led by the United States. Iraq accused Kuwait of illegally drilling oil in their country to sell for profit. Iraq was defeated and Kuwait was set free.

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13 War on Terrorism 2001 War in Afghanistan The war began in October of 2001 in response to the terrorists attacks of September 11 th, The war marked the beginning of the United States war on terrorism. The goal of the war was to remove the Taliban from power and find the al-qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden. This war is not related to Iraq or to Saddam Hussein.

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15 2003: Iraqi Freedom A coalition of countries led by the United States attacks Iraq and removes Saddam Hussein (violent dictator) from power as an attempt to establish a democracy and remove weapons of mass destruction. The United Nations inspectors have never found any of the nuclear weapons. There are questions to intentions of the USA in Iraq. Some people feel that the war in Iraq is a ploy of the United States government to establish a presence in the Middle East and control the oil reserves that the United States desperately depends on. Saddam Hussein is not connected Osama Bin Laden s al-qaeda terrorist network. There is NO connection between the terrorists and the war in Iraq. War in Iraq

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