1 Religious Studies (Short Course) Revision Religion, War and Peace
2 How to use this presentation The first part of this presentation (blue headings) will give you brief information, religious viewpoints and pictures for the Religion, War and Peace topic. The second part of the presentation (green headings) will have exam questions and tasks for you to work through for this topic.
3 What topics could be on the paper? Peace, Justice and the Sanctity of life The causes of war Conflict including examples of recent wars The reasons why religious people may go to war including Just War and Holy War Religious believers and pacifism Victims of war including refugees and those maimed Organisations to help the victims of war Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal The work of a religious believer who has worked for peace Peacekeeping forces, UN and NATO Terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and nuclear proliferation Arguments for and against nuclear weapons Religious beliefs and teachings and modern statements about war and peace
4 Peace, Justice and the Sanctity of life Peace Stillness or silence, absence of anxiety, freedom from war, harmony between people. Justice Fairness bringing about what is fair according to the law or making up for what has been done wrong. Make sure you know these definitions and how they link to war. Sanctity of life The belief that all life is precious and should not be destroyed. Religious people say life comes from God.
5 The causes of war You will need to be aware of a range of different reasons why countries may go to war. To defend their country from attack. To defend their beliefs, religion, way of life, or to protect these things for other countries. To defend an ally or weaker country from attack. To remove their leader or government (civil war). To gain more land or land lost in a previous war. To gain wealth, power or resources such as oil. To stop genocide (mass murder) or to depose a dictator. Can you think of examples of war for each of these?
6 Any recent wars can be used as examples. These are two we studied in class. Conflict including examples of recent wars The Vietnam War From a war took place in Vietnam, South Asia. The communist North fought against the non communist south. The south was supported by the USA as the USA did not want communism to spread. Despite the USA having much superior equipment, the north was successful and the USA eventually withdrew. Millions of lives were lost in what was a very unpopular war. Vietnam eventually united under a communist government. The Falklands Conflict In 1982 Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands. These are small islands in the Southern Atlantic. They claimed that the islands belonged to them, but the people wanted to remain British. The UK government led by Margaret Thatcher, sent a task force down to the islands. They quickly won the war, but soldiers on both sides died. Civilians however were protected. The islands remain a self governing overseas territory of Britain, but the Argentinians still claim sovereignty.
7 The reasons why religious people may go to war including Just War and Holy War - Christianity The Just War Theory The war must... Have a just cause Be declared by a proper authority Have a good intention Be the last resort Have a good chance of success Be fought by just means And the good achieved must outweigh the evil of going to war Some Christians believe that war is never justified. Others will follow the Just War or Holy War theory. Other Christians believe they have a responsibility to fight for reasons of self defence or injustice. The Holy War Theory The war must... Have a religious aim or goal Be authorised by God or a holy leader Have a spiritual reward for those taking part It can be declared to: Defend their religion To protect followers in other countries To win back a country that once followed the faith To spread the faith An example of a Holy War would be The Crusades.
8 The reasons why religious people may go to war including Just War and Holy War - Islam Jihad Muslims believe in the concept of Jihad which means struggle. Greater Jihad is the fight or struggle against temptation in everyday life. Lesser Jihad is military struggle in defence of Islam. The Qur an gives those who have been attacked permission to fight back. A Jihad or Holy War must... Be started and controlled by a religious leader Have a just cause Be a last resort Keep suffering, including that of innocent civilians to a minimum Protect trees, crops and animals Not be fought to gain territory or an act of aggression Aim to restore peace and freedom Enable the release of all prisoners of war Those killed in Jihad are seen as martyrs who will enter Paradise.
9 Religious believers and pacifism Pacifism is the belief that violence against other human beings is wrong. The sanctity of life is important. Every human life, even the enemy, deserves respect. Killing goes against teachings in sacred writings. War causes suffering to people and to the environment. There are other ways of solving disputes. Using violence to solve a problem can never be justified. Not all Christians are pacifists, in fact most are probably not. Early Christians tried to live without violence which is where modern Christian pacifists take their example. Many Christian groups support pacifism, but allow their members to make up their own minds. The Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) completely support pacifism. Many Christians are prepared to die in a war, but not kill, so will serve as ambulance drivers, nurses or in other non fighting roles.
10 Victims of war including refugees and those maimed People can be victims of war in many different ways. Soldiers can be killed or injured Cities can be destroyed Families and friends can be separated Children can be orphaned People may lose their homes Refugee camps may have poor conditions and little food and water
11 Organisations to help the victims of war Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal The Red Cross was founded in 1859 by Henry Dunant. The aim was to establish a voluntary relief organisation to protect neutral medical staff on the battlefield. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement now has 97 million volunteers worldwide. They do not discriminate on the grounds of nationality, religion, race, class or political opinion. It organises care for wounded soldiers and supervises the treatment of prisoners of war. It searches for missing people in war time. The Red Cross, Red Crescent and more recently Red Crystal are all equal organisations. Despite being neutral, ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross) workers have been killed in recent conflicts.
12 The work of a religious believer who has worked for peace Irene Sendler She was a Christian who helped protect Jewish children in WW2. Bono He is a Christian and is particularly interested in poverty and third world debt. Make sure you have detailed information of how one of these people has worked for peace. Muhammad Ali A Muslim who refused to fight in the Vietnam War. Involved in many charities helping victims of war. Cat Stevens A Muslim who is an ex pop star. He words to help refugees and cofounded Muslim Aid.
13 Peacekeeping forces, UN and NATO The UN (United nations) It was set up at the end of World War II and has 192 member states. It aims to help countries cooperate through international law. Economic development and social progress for all countries is encouraged. It helps to protect human rights. World peace is a long term aim. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) Was created in 1949 as a military alliance. It has 26 members from Europe and the USA and Canada. If a NATO country is attacked the others see it as an attack on their own country. It was initially set up because of the perceived threat from the Warsaw Pact countries (in Eastern Europe), but some of these are now members.
14 Terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and nuclear proliferation Terrorism is the use of extreme violence, usually against civilians (non military) to achieve a political goal. Most people believe it can never be justified as innocent people are affected. The attack on the World Trade Centre on September 11 th 2001 is an example of a terrorist attack. Weapons of mass destruction are weapons that can kill large numbers of people at once. These include chemical weapons, biological weapons and nuclear weapons. Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons to more countries worldwide and countries holding on to more and more of them. The nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan by the USA at the end of World War Two are the only nuclear weapons to have been used in wartime. They caused a huge number of deaths as well as devastation to buildings and the environment. These bombs were tiny in comparison to the weapons available today.
15 Arguments for and against nuclear weapons For It is OK to have them but not to use them. They act as a deterrent this means that you will not be attacked if you have the power to retaliate. If you do not have nuclear weapons it makes you vulnerable. Against Nuclear weapons are an unacceptable risk to humanity. Nuclear proliferation means that unstable governments could get hold of nuclear weapons and use them. Their use is never justified as too many innocent people are affected. Christians and Muslims would look to their Just War and Holy War theories to decide if nuclear weapons should be used. As both religions believe that innocent civilians should be protected in wartime, nuclear weapon would not be seen as acceptable.
16 Key Christian quotes and teachings about war and peace Some Christians are pacifists but most are not. Jesus said Blessed are the peacemakers. Also he did not resist arrest, perhaps indicating that he was a pacifist. However, Jesus is recorded as turning over the tables of traders in the Temple. This may indicate that it is right to fight for something that is important. One of the Ten Commandments in the Bible is Do not Murder. The Just War Theory and the Holy War Theory will be used by Christians to decide whether war is right or wrong. Jesus said... Do not take revenge on someone who wrongs you. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, let him slap your left cheek too.
17 Key Muslim quotes and teachings about war and peace The word Islam means Peace. The Qur an teaches that peace and reconciliation are better than fighting. Muslims should not seek revenge and should be prepared to forgive each other. Muslims believe in Jihad (struggle). Greater Jihad is the struggle to fight against temptation in their lives, Lesser Jihad is military struggle in defence of Islam. The Qur an says: Those who believe fight in the way of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight in the way of the Shaitan (Satan). The Qur an says: Fight in the cause of God against those who fight you, but do not transgress limits. God does not love transgressors. Holy war is allowed but must meet certain conditions which include civilians and the environment being protected.
18 Tasks The following slides contain tasks. Complete these in your book or on paper.
19 Alphabet challenge - Find a word or phrase linked to the war and peace topic for each letter. Try to include some religious teachings on your list.
20 Quick quiz Answer these one and two mark exam questions without using notes. 1. What is pacifism? (1 mark) 2. Give two examples of weapons of mass destruction. (2 mark) 3. Give two causes of war (2 mark) 6. What is a Just War?(1 mark) 4. Give an example of a group which supports victims of war (1 mark) 7. Give one reason why a religious person may refuse to fight in a war(1 mark) 5. Briefly explain what is meant by nuclear proliferation (2 mark) 8. Explain briefly how someone may be affected by war(2 mark)
21 Quick quiz - answers Answer these one and two mark exam questions without using notes. 3. Protecting your country, wanting to expand your empire, wanting more resources etc. 6. A war that is acceptable for a religious person if it follows certain rules. 1. The belief that war is wrong. 2. Chemical, biological or nuclear weapons. 4. Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal. 7. They are a pacifist; it is not a just war; they don t think the cause of the war is moral etc. 5. The spread of nuclear weapons to more countries and countries building up their supplies of them. 8. They may lose their home, relatives may die, families separated, children orphaned etc.
22 Print and complete the crossword
23 Brief religious teachings Without checking previous slides, can you identify a Muslim and a Christian teaching that could be used for each of the following topics. Pacifism Weapons of mass destruction Terrorism Just War and Holy War Refugees Nuclear proliferation
24 Flash cards Choose key religious information and create flash cards to help you remember. Aim for the key teaching and some pictures to help you remember. For example: Christianity If someone slaps you on the left cheek, turn to him the other also.
25 How can you develop an explain type answer? Some questions will ask you explain something. These questions will usually be worth 4, 5 or 6 marks. In order to get higher marks for these questions you will need to develop your answer. This means you will need to give reasons and examples to improve your answer. Look at the next slide to see how this can be done.
26 Question - Explain different viewpoints religious people may have on pacifism. (4 marks) Christians and Muslims are not always pacifists although some are. Some Christians will say that war is always wrong because it goes against the teaching Do not murder. Quakers will never fight in a war because they are all pacifists. Muslims believe that they should aim to bring about a peaceful world and not seek revenge, so many will be pacifists. Other Christians will follow the Just War Theory to decide whether or not they should go to war. This theory gives reasons why a war could be acceptable so some Christians are not pacifists because they believe that there are sometimes good reasons to go to war. They may also fight if the war is a Holy War. Muslims also have a Just War theory which is similar to that of Christians. It also sets out reasons why a war could be acceptable. Neither Christians or Muslims believe that war is a good thing, but they sometimes think it is necessary. This answer has backed up each point. It has explained why Christians and Muslims may or may not be pacifists. There is clear reference made to religious teachings (Do not Murder, Just War and Holy War etc.) and how this teaching affects the decision of a Christian or a Muslim. It would score 4 out of 4.
27 Try these explain questions Have a go at some of these explain questions. Try to develop your answers by thinking: What quote links with this? What would a Christian do? What would a Muslim do? Why? Explain the attitude of religious people nuclear weapons. Explain how religious people may help victims of war. Explain how one religious person has worked for peace.
28 Giving opinions Look at the statements below. List reasons why you may agree and disagree with what they say and why a religious person may agree or disagree. War doesn t solve anything. If your country goes to war you should be prepared to fight. In this Bible it says Do not murder. This means you should never kill in a war. There is no such thing as a Just War. It is unacceptable for any country to have nuclear weapons.
29 How to answer 6 mark evaluation questions Try to remember FARMER F For give arguments for the statement. A Against give arguments against the statement. R Religion say what religion thinks. M- Me say what I think. E ) Evaluate R - ) Religion Say what you think about the religious arguments.
30 Click to see how this answer uses the FARMER requirements Terrorism can never be justified. Do you agree? Give reasons showing you have considered other viewpoints. Refer to religious arguments in your answer. I agree that terrorism can never be justified. The point of terrorism is to frighten people and to kill innocent people for a political aim which is always wrong. Muslims would agree with me because one of the conditions of their Jihad (Just War) theory is that the suffering of civilians should be kept to a minimum which terrorism doesn t do. Christians would also disagree with me because one of their conditions for a Just War is that the war has to have a good intention which terrorism never does. I understand that some people will believe that terrorism is often a last resort that groups use to make their point when other means have failed. I however agree with the religious views as they are concerned with protecting life. Now use your mark scheme to work out how many marks this answer would achieve.
31 Try one of these exam questions using the FARMER requirements Weapons of mass destruction are a good deterrent. Do you agree? Give reasons showing you have considered other viewpoints. Refer to religious arguments in your answer. War brings about peace. Do you agree? Give reasons showing you have considered other viewpoints. Refer to religious arguments in your answer. Now use your mark scheme to check your answer.
32 Are you now confident with the War and Peace topic? Go back over the information slides at the start of this presentation. On a list or on a mind map, include all of the elements you still feel you need to revise.
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