The History and Scope of Psychology

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1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, The History and Scope of Psychology Module 1 2 I have made a ceaseless effort not to ridicule, not to bewail, not to scorn human actions, but to understand them. Benedict Spinoza, A Political Treatise, The History and Scope of Psychology The Need for Psychological Science The limits of Intuition and Common Sense The Scientific Attitude The Scientific Method 3 OBJECTIVE 1 1 Define psychology. To questions like, Who are we? From where come our thoughts? Our feelings? Our actions? Discipline of psychology comes to our aid. This discipline of psychology is defined as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 1

2 The History and Scope of Psychology Description The Case Study The Survey Naturalistic Observation OBJECTIVE 1 2 Trace psychology s prescientific roots from, from early understandings of mind and body to the beginnings of modern science. Through out human history thinkers have wondered: How do our minds work? How do our bodies relate to our minds? How much of what we know comes built in? How much is acquired through 4 experience? Psychology s Roots In India, the Buddha pondered how sensations and perceptions combined to form ideas. 5 Confucius ( BCE) In China, Confucius stressed the power of ideas and of an educated mind. home.tiscali.be/alain.ernotte/livre/confucius.jpg 6 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 2

3 Hebrew Scriptures Hebrew scriptures linked mind and emotion to the body. 7 Socrates ( BCE) and Plato ( BCE) Socrates Socrates and his student Plato believed that the mind was separate from the body, that it continued to exist after death, and that ideas were innate. Plato 8 Aristotle ( BCE) The soul is not separable from the body and the same holds good of particular parts of the soul. Aristotle, De Anima, 350 B.C. Aristotle suggested that the soul is not separable from the body and that knowledge (ideas) grow from experience. 9 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 3

4 Rene Descartes ( ) Descartes like Plato believed the immaterial mind and physical body were separate but communicated in the brain at pineal gland. Animal spirits moved from the brain to act on Descartes, like Plato, believed in soul (mind) body separation but speculated on how the immaterial mind and the physical body communicated the muscles and experiences lead the nerves to open up pores in the brain to form memories. Descartes was right about the nerves connecting the inside and the outside worlds but had no notion of how these nerves functioned. Francis Bacon ( ) Bacon was one of the founders of modern science, especially the experimental method John Locke ( ) Locke held that the mind is a tabula rasa or blank sheet at birth and experience writes on it. biografieonline.it/img/bio/john_locke.jpg 12 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 4

5 What is the relation of the mind to the body? Mind and body are connected Mind and body are distinct The Hebrews Aristotle Augustine Socrates Plato Descartes 13 Some ideas are inborn How are ideas formed? The mind is a blank slate Socrates Plato Aristotle Locke 14 Psychological Science is Born Structuralism OBJECTIVE 1 3 Explain how early psychologists sought to understand the mind s structure and functions, and identify some of the leading psychologists who worked in these Wundt ( ) Wundt and Titchner studied the elements (atoms) of the mind by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany in Titchner ( ) areas. Structuralism: Wundt and his student Titchner focused on the elements of mind, and studied it by using introspection (self reflection). Wundt established the first laboratory of psychology in 1879 at Leipzig, Germany, and wrote the first textbook of psychology. Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 5

6 Psychological Science is Born Functionalism Functionalism: James suggested that it would be more fruitful to consider the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings than simply studying the elements of mind. Based on Influenced by Darwin, William James established the school of functionalism, opposing structuralism. James ( ) 16 the theory of evolution, he suggested that the function of these thoughts and feelings was adaptive. James admitted the first woman student Mary Calkins to Harvard and tutored her. Despite his efforts she was not able to attain her PhD from Harvard. Freud ( ) Psychological Science is Born The Unconscious Mind Sigmund Freud and his followers emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior. 17 Jung ( ) Psychological Science Develops Behaviorism OBJECTIVE 1 4 Describe the evolution of psychology as defined from 1920s to through today. Ivan Pavlov a Russian Physiologist, Watson ( ) Watson (1913) and later Skinner emphasized the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology. Skinner ( ) 18 James Watson and Skinner were all instrumental in developing the science of psychology and emphasized behavior instead of mind or mental thoughts. From 1920 to 1960, psychology in the US was heavily oriented towards behaviorism. Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 6

7 Psychological Science Develops Maslow ( ) Humanistic Psychology Maslow and Rogers emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our needs for love and acceptance. 19 Rogers ( ) Psychology Today We define psychology today as the scientific study of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings). 20 Psychological Associations & Societies American Psychological Association is the largest organization of psychology with 160,000 members world wide, followed by The British Psychological Society with 34,000 members. 21 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 7

8 Contemporary Psychology Psychology s Big Debate Nature versus Nurture OBJECTIVE 1 5 Summarize the naturenurture debate in psychology, and describe the principle of natural selection. Darwin states that nature selects those traits that best enable the organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment. 22 Darwin ( ) Contemporary Psychology Psychology s Three Main Level of Analysis Biological influences genetic predispositions genetic mutations natural selection of adaptive physiology and behaviors genes responding to environment Psychological Influences learned fears and other learnt expectations emotional responses cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations OBJECTIVE 1 6 Identify the three main levels of analysis in the biopsychosocial approach, and explain why psychology s varied perspectives are complementary. Biopsychosocial approach considers the Behavior or mental process Social-cultural Influences presence of others cultural, societal, and family expectations peer and other group influences compelling models (such as media) 23 influence of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors on behavior. Each approach provides an incomplete explanation of behaviors. Psychology s Current Perspectives Perspective Neuroscience Evolutionary Behavior genetics Focus How the body and brain enables emotions. How the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of one s genes. How much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences. Sample Questions How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives? How does evolution influence behavior tendencies? To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment? 24 Although debates arise among the psychologists working from differing perspectives, each point of view addresses important questions. Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 8

9 Psychology s Current Perspectives Perspective Psychodynamic Behavioral Focus How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts. How we learn observable responses. Sample Questions How can someone s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas? How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say lose weight or quit smoking? 25 Psychology s Current Perspectives Perspective Cognitive Social cultural Focus How we encode, process, store and retrieve information. How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures. Sample Questions How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving? How are we as Africans, Asians, Australian or North American alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ? 26 Psychologist Biological Developmental Cognitive Personality Social Psychology s Subfields Research What s/he does Explores the links between brain and mind. Studies changing abilities from womb to tomb. Studies how we perceive, think, and solve problems. Investigates our persistent traits. explore how we view and affect one another. 27 OBJECTIVE 1 7 Identify some of the psychology s subfields, and explain the difference between clinical psychology and psychiatry. Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 9

10 Psychology s Subfields: Research Other 11.5% Biological 9.9% Data: APA 1997 Experimental 14.1% Psychometrics 5.5% Social 21.6% Cognitive 8.0% Personality 4.8% Developmental 24.6% 28 Psychology s Subfields Applied Psychologist What s/he does Industrial/ Organizational Counseling Clinical Studies and advise on behavior in the workplace. Helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges. Study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders 29 Psychology s Subfields: Applied Industrial 6% Educational 9% Other 3% Counseling 15% Clinical 67% Data: APA Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 10

11 Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies, assesses, and treats troubled people with psychotherapy. Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients. 31 Close up Your Study of Psychology Survey, Question, Read, Review and Reflect (SQ3R) Survey: what you are about to read, including chapter outlines and section heads Question: Ask questions. Make notes. Read: Make sure you read outlines, sections and chapters in entirety. Review: Marginal definitions. Study learning outcomes. Reflect: On what you have learnt. Test yourself with quizzes. 32 Close up Additional Study Hints Distribute your time In class, listen actively Overlearn Be a smart test taker 33 Psychology 8 ed., David Myers Module 1 PowerPoint Slides, Aneeq Ahmad 11

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