ANCIENT ROME. - Rome was ruled by a monarchy ( BC) the last king was deposted (or dethrone) by a rebelion because he was a tyrant.

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1 ANCIENT ROME - Birth of Rome. Acording to the legend, Rome was ruled by the twins Romulus and Remus. They were abandoned when they were babies, and a she-wolf took care of them. Romulus became the first king of Rome. Birth of Rome A statue of the two twins with the she-wolf. Rome was situated at the left of the center of Italy. Sourronded by seven hills and at the banks of the river Tiber > - Rome was ruled by a monarchy ( BC) the last king was deposted (or dethrone) by a rebelion because he was a tyrant. - From the year 509 BC to the year 27 BC a new form of government was established. Rome was a republic. * The main institution of the republic was: - The comidians: these were assemblies where Roman citizens met to vote laws and elect magistrated. - The magistratus: magistrates held political, military and sometimes religious power. They were elected for a year. The highest magistrates were two consuls who controlled political life and the army. - The senate: this was the most important institution. It established the laws, directed foreing policy and gave instructions to magistrates.

2 * Tipes of citizens in the republic: - The Patricians were a minory formed by the richest and most power full families. They claimed to be descenants of the founders of Rome. - The Plebeians were all the other citizens. Initially, only the patricians had political rights. After (between the 5th to 4th century) the plebeians had political rights too. - Territorial expansions during the time of the republic gave rome control of the Mediterranean Sea [ Marenostrum (nuestro mar)]. During the republic rome conquerd many territories but, they came into comflict with Carthage (Cartago), a North African power. The 3 punic wars ( BC) between the Romans and the Carthaginians (Cartagineses) lasted over a hundred years. After of this victory, Rome extend his power arround the Mediterranean. Hannibal in the 2rd Punic War Roman Republic and Carthaginian Empire after Punic Wars (Guerras Púnicas) in years BC. - In the 1st Century BC was weakend by corruption and international conflicts, so a new form of government appeared: The Empire. Octabian Augustus took control and in 27 BC, he reached maximum powers. MONARCHY 509 BC 735 BC REPUBLIC EMPIRE 27 BC 476 AD

3 - The Empire started in 27 BC and Octavian Augustus was proclaimed first emperor of Rome. In 27 BC, Octavian became to known as Augustus, wich means 'chosen by de gods' (elegido por los dioses). First, he eliminated his enemies and pacified the situation. Then, he introduced a new form of government: The Empire. Augustus was the first emperor of Rome. He presided over the senate, he was the head of the army and also the highest religious leader. He directed the foreign policy (politica exterior), dictated the laws and decided the taxes (impuestos). The Roman Empire got is maximum size because of territorial conquests. Some territories of the Roman Empire were: Hispania, Lusitania, Gaul (La Gallia), Britannia, Italy, Pannonia, Thracia, Moesia... MARENOSRUM The Roman Empire at its height (El Imperio Romano en su apogeo). The Empire at its maximum peak. The Romans conquerd a lot of cities from South Europe, North Africa and West Asia. All the cities that sourronded the Mediterranean Sea were of they, for this reason they called it Marenostrum that means 'our sea' (nuestro mar). - In the 1st and 2nd Century AD, The Roman World reached its peak, with very important emperors; like Claudius, Vespasian, Trajan and Marcus Aurelius. In these centuries, conquerst and romanization were close in a period called the Pax Romana (Paz Romana). - At the Beginnin of the 3rd century, the Roman Empire suffered a crisis. The empire entred a period of decline caused by corruption, economic problems and... BARBARIAN INVASIONS: The Germanic Tribes invaded from the north. Some of these Barbarian Tribes were: Huns, Suebi, Cantabri, Vascones, Vishigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Franks, Angles, Saxons, Slaus, Avars, Thiringii... Huns, with his king, Attila.

4 - In the 4th Century (year 313 AD) the Emperor Constantine published the Edict of Milan that established freedom of worship (liberdad de culto) in the Empire. The romans worsipped many differents gods (politheism) like: Mercurio, Venus, Marte, Júpiter, Saturno, Neptuno, Plutón, Vulcano... But, the Christians were persecuted by the romans for worshipped only one god: Christ (monotheism), they were throw to the lions in the Coliseum (to entretein people) or crucified. After the year 313 they had freedom of worshipping in the Empire thanks to the Edict of Milan (Edicto de Milán). The Romans throw the Christians to the lion in the Coliseum after the 'Edict of Milan'. In the Coliseum also there were fights into Christians trained to be gladiators. - In 380 AD, the Emperor Theodosius proclameid Christianity to be the official religion of the Roman Empire. The legend says that it's because he was ill and he promised to Christ that if he was cured he put the Christianity official religion in the Empire (and he was cured). It can was because the majority of the romans was baptizated into Christianity and because the Empire needed more union, and the religion unite it. Theodosius proclaimed Christianity official religion of the Empire because he was cured of a disease. Teodosio proclamó el Cristianismo religión oficial del Imperio porque él fue curado de una enfermedad.

5 - In 395 AD, the end of the Roman Empire is dated when Theodosius divided the Empire in two parts: Wester Roman Empire (whith his capital in the city of Rome) and the Eastern Roman Empire (with his capital in Constantinople). Theodosius give the Empire to his two sons. The Wester Roman Empire was for Honorio and the Eastern Roman Empire was for Arcadio. The Roman Empire was divided into two parts: The Western Roman Empire (Imperio Romano de Occidente) and the Eastern Roman Empire (Imperio Romano de Oriente). - In 476 AD, the last roman emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustus was deposted by the Germanic People and the King Odoacer (Odoacro). The Easter Roman Empire, on the contrary, survived until the 15th century with the name of Byzantine Empire (Imperio Bizantino. The Weatern Roman Empire was conquerd by many germanic tribes. But the Eastern Roman Empire survived and changed his name for Byzantine Empire. - In the other side, in the Western Roman Empire... Darkness began. It was time of the Middle Ages (Edad Media), the Medieval Time (Medioevo), the Dark Ages (Eras Oscuras)... And the end of Ancient Times. The Medieval times start with the Fall of Roman Empire (476 AD).

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