Module 1: Introduction. Operating System Concepts. Terminology. What is an Operating System? Where are OSs found? Distributed Real-Time Systems

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Module 1: Introduction. Operating System Concepts. Terminology. What is an Operating System? Where are OSs found? Distributed Real-Time Systems"

Transcription

1 Operating System Concepts Module 1: INTRODUCTION Andrzej Bednarski, Ph.D. student Department of Computer and Information Science Linköping University, Sweden Module 1: Introduction What is an operating system? Simple Batch Systems Multiprogramming Batched Systems Time-Sharing Systems Personal-Computer Systems Parallel Systems Distributed Systems Real -Time Systems URL: The lecture notes are mainly based on Silberschatz s, Galvin s and Gagne s book ( Operating System Concepts, 6th ed., Addison-Wesley, 2002). No part of the lecture notes may be reproduced in any form, due to the copyrights reserved by Addison-Wesley. These lecture notes should only be used for internal teaching purposes at the Linköping University. TDDB63 Operating System Concepts 1.2 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.3 Terminology What is an Operating System? Job = program Process = Job kept in memory, i.e. program in execution Job = Process A program that acts as an intermediary between an application (or a user of a computer) and the computer hardware. Operating system goals: Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier. Make the computer system convenient to use. + E.g., consider assembler programming as opposed to modern programming Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner + E.g., consider multiprocessor systems An operating system provides an environment within which other programs can do useful work; the OS does not perform any useful function itself. TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.4 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.5 Distributed Real-Time Systems Where are OSs found? General purpose systems Embedded systems Microprocessor market shares in % 1% T Safety critical applications (e.g. Drive-by-Wire): T time constraints, T data and control dependencies. T Communication protocols: Time Triggered Protocol (TTP), Controller Area Network (CAN). TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.9 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski

2 Operating Systems Computer System Components General purpose operating systems Windows 95/98/2000/NT/XP Linux Sun Solaris HP-UX MacOS Application specific operating systems, e.g. real-time OSE-Delta VxWorks Chorus RT-Linux, RED-Linux EPOC, RT-Mach etc. 1. Hardware provides basic computing resources (CPU, memory, I/O devices). 2. Operating system controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various users. 3. Applications programs define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users (compilers, database systems, video games, business programs). 4. Users (people, machines, other computers). TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.11 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.12 Abstract View of System Components Different Views on Operating Systems (and their Definition) (i) OS as a User/Computer Interface Program creation Program execution + Load instructions, initialize files Access to I/O devices + Clean interface to filter details for the programmer Controlled access to files + Concept of file (formats etc), protection mechanism System access Error detection and response + Hardware errors, software errors... Accounting TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.13 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.14 Different Views on Operating Systems (and their Definition) Different Views on Operating Systems (and their Definition) (ii) Resource allocator manages and allocates resources. Processing Elements, CPUs Memory + Volatile vs. non-volatile memory Devices Data resources (iii) Control program controls the execution of user programs and operations of I/O devices. Unusual control mechanism + Control program functions in the same way as ordinary computer software (executed by the CPU) + The OS frequently relinquishes control and must depend on the processor to regain control (iv) Kernel the one program running at all times (all else being application programs, which includes system utilities). TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.15 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski

3 OS Objectives and Functions Ease of Evolution of an Operating System Convenience + An OS makes (or at least should) a computer more convenient to use Efficiency + An OS allows the computer system resources to be used in an efficient manner Abilitiy to evolve + An OS should be constructed in such a way as to permit the effective development, testing, and introduction of new system functions without at the same time interfering with service Functionality and features vary from OS to OS + No universal definition + E.g., IBM AIX provided database support Major operating systems will evolve over time for a number of reasons Hardware upgrades (issue of flexibility) + E.g., Faster processors, hardware memory management support, new types of storage media New hardware platforms (issue of portability) New services (issue of extensibility) + E.g., window management system + E.g., multimedia requirements calling for real-time performance Fixes + bug handling TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.17 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.18 Simple Batch Systems Simple Batch Systems Input devices + Card readers + Tape drives Output devices + Line printers + Tape drives + Card punches Input: Program on cards Output of program: result and/or memory dumps (including registers) No interaction between the user and the job while the job is executing Hire an operator User operator Add a card reader Reduce setup time by batching similar jobs Automatic job sequencing automatically transfers control from one job to another. First rudimentary operating system. OS always resident in main memory Resident monitor + initial control in monitor + control transfers to job + when job completes control transfers back to monitor Memory Layout for a Simple Batch System TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.19 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.20 Simple Batch Systems cont d Disadvantages Monitor Schedules the jobs Controls the sequence of events -> must always be available -> resident in main-memory Desirable hardware features + Memory protection - user programs should not alter memory containing monitor code - if so, interrupt and transfer control to monitor + Timer - avoid a single job monopolizing the CPU - if timer expires, interrupt and transfer control to monitor + Privileged instructions + Interrupts - flexibility in relinquishing to/ regaining control from user programs Only sequential execution (first-come first-served) No interaction between user and the job while the job is executed. Programs must be debugged off-line (from snapshot dumps). Turnaround time long, i.e., time between job submission and job completion. CPU is often idle (due to the slow mechanical I/O devices) E.g., consider reading 20 cards/sec to >1000 CPU instructions/sec TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.21 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski

4 Spooling Utilization Example Spooling = Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line Overlap I/O of one job with computation of another job. While executing one job, the OS: + Reads next job from card reader into a storage area on the disk (job queue). + Outputs printout of previous job from disk to printer. Used for processing data at remote sites (just need notification when processing is complete) A program processes a file of records and performs on average 100 machine instructions per record. Time for reading one record Execute 100 instructions Time for writing one record CPU Utilization = / = 3.2% seconds seconds seconds > 96% is spent on I/O (i.e., the CPU is idle a lot) Job pool data structure that allows the OS to select which job to run next in order to increase CPU utilization. TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.26 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.27 Uniprogramming Multi-programmed Batch Systems Several jobs are kept in main memory at the same time, and the CPU is multiplexed among them. Process execution time: CPU: time units I/O: time units I.e., I/O intensive (200/220 = 90.9%) TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.28 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.29 Multiprogramming with two programs Multiprogramming with three programs A A (printer) B B (disk) C (network) combined TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.30 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski

5 Advantages of Multi-programming OS Features Needed for Multi-Programming Decreased elapsed time + Sequential execution: 660 time units + Multiprogramming: 240 time units Shorter turn-around time + Sequential execution: A: 220 B: 440 C: 660 Avg: Multiprogramming: A: 220 B: 230 C: 240 Avg: 230 Better average response time + Sequential execution: ( ) / 3 = 220 time units + Multiprogramming ( ) / 3 = 10 time units Increased throughput Multiprogramming = The ability of having multiple programs organized in order to increase CPU utilization. I/O routine supplied by the OS. Memory management the OS must allocate the memory to several jobs. Job scheduling the OS must choose which jobs that should be loaded into main memory, assuming that not all jobs can fit there. CPU scheduling the OS must choose among several jobs ready to run, that is, jobs that are already in main-memory. Allocation of devices. TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.32 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.33 Time Sharing Systems Interactive Computing Requirements of Time Sharing and Multi-Programming Time sharing = multi-tasking + An extension to multi-programming. + Frequency of job switching is high, enabling the users to interact with each program while it is running. The CPU is multiplexed among several jobs that are kept in memory and on disk (the CPU is allocated to a job only if the job is in memory). A job is swapped in and out of memory to the disk. On-line communication between the user and the system is provided; when the operating system finishes the execution of one command, it seeks the next control statement not from a card reader, but rather from the user s keyboard. On-line system must be available for users to access data and code. Memory management + E.g, swapping, virtual memory Memory protection On-line file system + E.g., disk management system Job and CPU scheduling (performed by OS) controlling concurrent execution + Job synchronization and process communication TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.34 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.35 Multi-Programming vs Time Sharing Personal Computer Systems Multi-Programming Time Sharing Personal computers computer system dedicated to a single user. + E.g., Sun, HP, and IBM Workstation, PC, Mac etc. Principal objective Maximize CPU use Minimize response time I/O devices keyboards, mice, display screens, small printers. User convenience and responsiveness. Source of instructions to OS Job control language provided with the job Commands entered at the terminal Can adopt technology developed for larger operating systems Often individuals have sole use of computer and do not need advanced CPU utilization of protection features. (However, consider multi-tasking) TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.36 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski

6 Migration of Operating-System Concepts and Features Parallel Systems Multiprocessor systems with more than one CPU in close communication. Tightly coupled system processors share memory and a clock; communication usually takes place through the shared memory. Advantages of parallel system: + Increased throughput + Economical Scalability of performance Multiprocessor system vs multiple single-processor system (reduction of hardware such as disks, controllers etc) + Increased reliability graceful degradation (fault tolerance, ) fail-soft systems (replication, ) TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.38 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.39 Parallel Systems (Cont.) Symmetric Multiprocessor Architecture Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) + Each processor runs an identical copy of the operating system. + Many processes can run at once without performance deterioration. + Most modern operating systems support SMP Asymmetric multiprocessing + Each processor is assigned a specific task; master processor schedules and allocates work to slave processors. + More common in extremely large systems Observation: the notion of processor is relative, e.g., a PC are normally considered to only have one CPU, but it normally has a graphic processor, a communication processor etc, and these are not considered to be multi-processing systems. TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.40 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.41 Distributed Systems Distributed Systems (Cont.) Distribute the computation among several physical processors. Loosely coupled system each processor has its own local memory; processors communicate with one another through various communications lines, such as high-speed buses or telephone lines (LAN, WAN, MAN, Bluetooth, ). Advantages of distributed systems. + Resource sharing + Computation speed up load sharing (migration of jobs) + Reliability + Communications Network Operating System + provides file sharing, e.g., NFS - Network File Systems + provides communication scheme + runs independently from other computers on the network Distributed Operating System + less autonomy between computers + gives the impression there is a single operating system controlling the network. The network is the computer - Scott McNealy TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.42 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski

7 Real-Time Systems Summary Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems. Well-defined and fixed time constraints. Hard real-time system. + Secondary storage limited or absent, data stored in short-term memory, or read-only memory (ROM) + Conflicts with time-sharing systems, not supported by general-purpose operating systems. Soft real-time system + Limited utility in industrial control or robotics + Useful in applications (multimedia, virtual reality) requiring advanced operating system features. Purpose of operating systems Different types of operating systems and their complexities Uniprocessor, multi-processor vs distributed systems Multi-tasking vs multi-programming Resource management + Job vs. CPU scheduling + Memory etc. TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.44 TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski 1.48 Recommended Reading and Exercises Reading: + Chapter 1 Exercises: + All TDDB63 Operating System Concepts A. Bednarski

Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner

Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner Chapter 1: Introduction What is an Operating System? Mainframe Systems Desktop Systems Multiprocessor Systems Distributed Systems Clustered System Real -Time Systems Handheld Systems Feature Migration

More information

Chapter 1: Introduction. What is an Operating System?

Chapter 1: Introduction. What is an Operating System? Chapter 1: Introduction What is an Operating System? Mainframe Systems Desktop Systems Multiprocessor Systems Distributed Systems Clustered System Real -Time Systems Handheld Systems Computing Environments

More information

Types Of Operating Systems

Types Of Operating Systems Types Of Operating Systems Date 10/01/2004 1/24/2004 Operating Systems 1 Brief history of OS design In the beginning OSes were runtime libraries The OS was just code you linked with your program and loaded

More information

Contents. Chapter 1. Introduction

Contents. Chapter 1. Introduction Contents 1. Introduction 2. Computer-System Structures 3. Operating-System Structures 4. Processes 5. Threads 6. CPU Scheduling 7. Process Synchronization 8. Deadlocks 9. Memory Management 10. Virtual

More information

3 - Introduction to Operating Systems

3 - Introduction to Operating Systems 3 - Introduction to Operating Systems Mark Handley What is an Operating System? An OS is a program that: manages the computer hardware. provides the basis on which application programs can be built and

More information

Overview and History of Operating Systems

Overview and History of Operating Systems Overview and History of Operating Systems These are the notes for lecture 1. Please review the Syllabus notes before these. Overview / Historical Developments An Operating System... Sits between hardware

More information

Chapter 2 Operating System Overview

Chapter 2 Operating System Overview Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E William Stallings Chapter 2 Operating System Overview Dave Bremer Otago Polytechnic, N.Z. 2008, Prentice Hall Roadmap Operating System Objectives/Functions

More information

CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts. Basic Concepts. CPU Scheduler. Histogram of CPU-burst Times

CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts. Basic Concepts. CPU Scheduler. Histogram of CPU-burst Times Operating System Concepts Module 5: CPU SCHEDULING Andrzej Bednarski, Ph.D. student Department of Computer and Information Science Linköping University, Sweden CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling

More information

Components of a Computing System. What is an Operating System? Resources. Abstract Resources. Goals of an OS. System Software

Components of a Computing System. What is an Operating System? Resources. Abstract Resources. Goals of an OS. System Software What is an Operating System? An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that acts as an intermediary between users and the computer hardware One can view an OS as a manager of system resources

More information

Operating Systems 4 th Class

Operating Systems 4 th Class Operating Systems 4 th Class Lecture 1 Operating Systems Operating systems are essential part of any computer system. Therefore, a course in operating systems is an essential part of any computer science

More information

Introduction. System Calls

Introduction. System Calls TDDB68 Concurrent programming and operating systems Introduction. System Calls [SGG7/8/9] Chapter 1.1-1.7 Chapter 2.3-2.5 Overview of the major operating systems components Interrupts, Dual mode, System

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 7 th Edition, Jan 14, 2005

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 7 th Edition, Jan 14, 2005 Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Operating System Concepts 7 th Edition, Jan 14, 2005 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2005 Outline Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling

More information

Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Operating System Tutorial OPERATING SYSTEM TUTORIAL Simply Easy Learning by tutorialspoint.com tutorialspoint.com i ABOUT THE TUTORIAL Operating System Tutorial An operating system (OS) is a collection

More information

ELEC 377 Operating Systems. Thomas R. Dean

ELEC 377 Operating Systems. Thomas R. Dean ELEC 377 Operating Systems Thomas R. Dean Instructor Tom Dean Office:! WLH 421 Email:! tom.dean@queensu.ca Hours:! Wed 14:30 16:00 (Tentative)! and by appointment! 6 years industrial experience ECE Rep

More information

Chapter 2: OS Overview

Chapter 2: OS Overview Chapter 2: OS Overview CmSc 335 Operating Systems 1. Operating system objectives and functions Operating systems control and support the usage of computer systems. a. usage users of a computer system:

More information

ICS 143 - Principles of Operating Systems

ICS 143 - Principles of Operating Systems ICS 143 - Principles of Operating Systems Lecture 1 - Introduction and Overview MWF 11:00-11:50 a.m. Prof. Nalini Venkatasubramanian ( nalini@ics.uci.edu ) [lecture slides contains some content adapted

More information

Overview of Operating Systems Instructor: Dr. Tongping Liu

Overview of Operating Systems Instructor: Dr. Tongping Liu Overview of Operating Systems Instructor: Dr. Tongping Liu Thank Dr. Dakai Zhu and Dr. Palden Lama for providing their slides. 1 Lecture Outline Operating System: what is it? Evolution of Computer Systems

More information

Chapter 3. Operating Systems

Chapter 3. Operating Systems Christian Jacob Chapter 3 Operating Systems 3.1 Evolution of Operating Systems 3.2 Booting an Operating System 3.3 Operating System Architecture 3.4 References Chapter Overview Page 2 Chapter 3: Operating

More information

CS 3530 Operating Systems. L02 OS Intro Part 1 Dr. Ken Hoganson

CS 3530 Operating Systems. L02 OS Intro Part 1 Dr. Ken Hoganson CS 3530 Operating Systems L02 OS Intro Part 1 Dr. Ken Hoganson Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Operating Systems Computer Systems A computer system consists of two basic types of components: Hardware components,

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling 1 Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation 6.1 2 Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization

More information

Operating Systems Introduction

Operating Systems Introduction Operating Systems Introduction Chester Rebeiro IIT Madras Webpage : http://www.cse.iitm.ac.in/~chester/courses/15o_os/index.html The Layers in Systems Applications Operating Systems Computer Organization

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts 1 Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation 6.1 Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization obtained

More information

Operating system Dr. Shroouq J.

Operating system Dr. Shroouq J. 3 OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURES An operating system provides the environment within which programs are executed. The design of a new operating system is a major task. The goals of the system must be well

More information

CHAPTER 15: Operating Systems: An Overview

CHAPTER 15: Operating Systems: An Overview CHAPTER 15: Operating Systems: An Overview The Architecture of Computer Hardware, Systems Software & Networking: An Information Technology Approach 4th Edition, Irv Englander John Wiley and Sons 2010 PowerPoint

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multiple-Processor Scheduling 1.1 Maximum CPU utilization obtained with multiprogramming CPU I/O Burst

More information

CSC 539: Operating Systems Structure and Design. Spring 2006

CSC 539: Operating Systems Structure and Design. Spring 2006 CSC 539: Operating Systems Structure and Design Spring 2006 CPU scheduling historical perspective CPU-I/O bursts preemptive vs. nonpreemptive scheduling scheduling criteria scheduling algorithms: FCFS,

More information

This tutorial will take you through step by step approach while learning Operating System concepts.

This tutorial will take you through step by step approach while learning Operating System concepts. About the Tutorial An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component

More information

Deciding which process to run. (Deciding which thread to run) Deciding how long the chosen process can run

Deciding which process to run. (Deciding which thread to run) Deciding how long the chosen process can run SFWR ENG 3BB4 Software Design 3 Concurrent System Design 2 SFWR ENG 3BB4 Software Design 3 Concurrent System Design 11.8 10 CPU Scheduling Chapter 11 CPU Scheduling Policies Deciding which process to run

More information

Lesson Objectives. To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems components To provide coverage of basic computer system organization

Lesson Objectives. To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems components To provide coverage of basic computer system organization Lesson Objectives To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems components To provide coverage of basic computer system organization AE3B33OSD Lesson 1 / Page 2 What is an Operating System? A

More information

Computers: Tools for an Information Age

Computers: Tools for an Information Age Computers: Tools for an Information Age Chapter 3 Operating Systems: Software in the Background Objectives of Chapter 3 Describe the functions of an Operating System Explain the basics of a personal computer

More information

III. Process Scheduling

III. Process Scheduling Intended Schedule III. Process Scheduling Date Lecture Hand out Submission 0 20.04. Introduction to Operating Systems Course registration 1 27.04. Systems Programming using C (File Subsystem) 1. Assignment

More information

III. Process Scheduling

III. Process Scheduling III. Process Scheduling 1 Intended Schedule Date Lecture Hand out Submission 0 20.04. Introduction to Operating Systems Course registration 1 27.04. Systems Programming using C (File Subsystem) 1. Assignment

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Thread Scheduling Operating Systems Examples

More information

Operating Systems Prof. Ashok K Agrawala

Operating Systems Prof. Ashok K Agrawala CSMC 412 Operating Systems Prof. Ashok K Agrawala 2006 Ashok Agrawala 1.1 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2005 Dayalbagh Eductional Institute Welcome Review Syllabus Today read the warning about the size

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Thread Scheduling Operating Systems Examples

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 8 th Edition,

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 8 th Edition, Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling, Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009 Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multiple-Processor Scheduling Linux Example

More information

7 Operating Systems. Source: Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning. After studying this chapter, the student should be able to:

7 Operating Systems. Source: Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning. After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: 7 Operating Systems 7.1 Source: Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: 7.2 Understand the role of the operating system.

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling!

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling! Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Operating System Concepts 8 th Edition, Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009 Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling

More information

Objectives. Chapter 5: Process Scheduling. Chapter 5: Process Scheduling. 5.1 Basic Concepts. To introduce CPU scheduling

Objectives. Chapter 5: Process Scheduling. Chapter 5: Process Scheduling. 5.1 Basic Concepts. To introduce CPU scheduling Objectives To introduce CPU scheduling To describe various CPU-scheduling algorithms Chapter 5: Process Scheduling To discuss evaluation criteria for selecting the CPUscheduling algorithm for a particular

More information

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW M02_STAL6329_06_SE_C02.QXD 2/28/08 3:33 AM Page 50 CHAPTER OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW 50 2.1 Operating System Objectives and Functions The Operating System as a User/Computer Interface The Operating System

More information

Operating Systems. Rafael Ramirez (T, S) rafael.ramirez@upf.edu 55.316

Operating Systems. Rafael Ramirez (T, S) rafael.ramirez@upf.edu 55.316 Operating Systems Rafael Ramirez (T, S) rafael.ramirez@upf.edu 55.316 Sergio Giraldo(P, S) sergio.giraldo@upf.edu Matteo Segnorini (P, S) matteo.segnorini@upf.edu T=Teoria; S=Seminarios; P=Prácticas Operating

More information

Components of a Computer System

Components of a Computer System SFWR ENG 3B04 Software Design III 1.1 3 Hardware Processor(s) Memory I/O devices Operating system Kernel System programs Components of a Computer System Application programs Users SFWR ENG 3B04 Software

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Previous Lectures. Basic Concepts. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Previous Lectures. Basic Concepts. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts Previous Lectures Multithreading Memory Layout Kernel vs User threads Representation in OS Difference between thread and process Thread scheduling Mapping between user and kernel threads Multithreading

More information

Chapter 5: Process Scheduling. Operating System Concepts with Java 8 th Edition

Chapter 5: Process Scheduling. Operating System Concepts with Java 8 th Edition Chapter 5: Process Scheduling Operating System Concepts with Java 8 th Edition 5.1 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009 Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms

More information

Objectives. 5.1 Basic Concepts. Scheduling Criteria. Multiple-Processor Scheduling. Algorithm Evaluation. Maximum CPU.

Objectives. 5.1 Basic Concepts. Scheduling Criteria. Multiple-Processor Scheduling. Algorithm Evaluation. Maximum CPU. Chapter 5: Process Scheduling Objectives To introduce CPU scheduling To describe various CPU-scheduling algorithms To discuss evaluation criteria for selecting the CPU-scheduling algorithm for a particular

More information

Threads (Ch.4) ! Many software packages are multi-threaded. ! A thread is sometimes called a lightweight process

Threads (Ch.4) ! Many software packages are multi-threaded. ! A thread is sometimes called a lightweight process Threads (Ch.4)! Many software packages are multi-threaded l Web browser: one thread display images, another thread retrieves data from the network l Word processor: threads for displaying graphics, reading

More information

Module 5: CPU Scheduling

Module 5: CPU Scheduling Module 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation Operating System Concepts 5.1 Silberschatz and

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling!

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling! Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling! Basic Concepts! Scheduling Criteria! Scheduling Algorithms! Multiple-Processor Scheduling! Real-Time Scheduling! Algorithm Evaluation! 6.1! Basic Concepts! Long-term scheduler

More information

CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts. Basic Concepts (2) Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Batch systems Interactive systems

CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts. Basic Concepts (2) Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Batch systems Interactive systems Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Batch systems Interactive systems Based on original slides by Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 1 Basic Concepts CPU I/O Burst Cycle Process execution

More information

Objectives and Functions

Objectives and Functions Objectives and Functions William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 6 th Edition Week 10 Operating System Support Convenience Making the computer easier to use Efficiency Allowing better

More information

Operating Systems: Basic Concepts and History

Operating Systems: Basic Concepts and History Introduction to Operating Systems Operating Systems: Basic Concepts and History An operating system is the interface between the user and the architecture. User Applications Operating System Hardware Virtual

More information

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Operating System Services User Operating System Interface System Calls Types of System Calls System Programs Operating System

More information

Client/Server Computing Distributed Processing, Client/Server, and Clusters

Client/Server Computing Distributed Processing, Client/Server, and Clusters Client/Server Computing Distributed Processing, Client/Server, and Clusters Chapter 13 Client machines are generally single-user PCs or workstations that provide a highly userfriendly interface to the

More information

Introduction. What is an Operating System?

Introduction. What is an Operating System? Introduction What is an Operating System? 1 What is an Operating System? 2 Why is an Operating System Needed? 3 How Did They Develop? Historical Approach Affect of Architecture 4 Efficient Utilization

More information

Introduction to process scheduling. Process scheduling and schedulers Process scheduling criteria Process scheduling algorithms

Introduction to process scheduling. Process scheduling and schedulers Process scheduling criteria Process scheduling algorithms Lecture Overview Introduction to process scheduling Process scheduling and schedulers Process scheduling criteria Process scheduling algorithms First-come, first-serve Shortest-job-first Priority Round-robin

More information

Operating Systems Overview

Operating Systems Overview Operating Systems Overview No single definition, but many perspectives: Role in an overall system: Intermediary between computer hardware and everything else User view: Provides an environment, preferably

More information

Unit 2 Distributed Systems R.Yamini Dept. Of CA, SRM University Kattankulathur

Unit 2 Distributed Systems R.Yamini Dept. Of CA, SRM University Kattankulathur Unit 2 Distributed Systems R.Yamini Dept. Of CA, SRM University Kattankulathur 1 Introduction to Distributed Systems Why do we develop distributed systems? availability of powerful yet cheap microprocessors

More information

I.-C. Lin, Assistant Professor. Textbook: Operating System Concepts 8ed

I.-C. Lin, Assistant Professor. Textbook: Operating System Concepts 8ed I.-C. Lin, Assistant Professor. Textbook: Operating System Concepts 8ed CHAPTER 5: PROCESS SCHEDULING Chapter 5: Process Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor

More information

Multiprocessor Scheduling and Scheduling in Linux Kernel 2.6

Multiprocessor Scheduling and Scheduling in Linux Kernel 2.6 Multiprocessor Scheduling and Scheduling in Linux Kernel 2.6 Winter Term 2008 / 2009 Jun.-Prof. Dr. André Brinkmann Andre.Brinkmann@uni-paderborn.de Universität Paderborn PC² Agenda Multiprocessor and

More information

CPU scheduling. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts. Histogram of CPU-burst Times. CPU Scheduler

CPU scheduling. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts. Histogram of CPU-burst Times. CPU Scheduler CPU scheduling Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts Maximum CPU utilization is obtained by multiprogramming. CPU I/O Burst Cycle Process execution consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait.

More information

Virtual machine interface. Operating system. Physical machine interface

Virtual machine interface. Operating system. Physical machine interface Software Concepts User applications Operating system Hardware Virtual machine interface Physical machine interface Operating system: Interface between users and hardware Implements a virtual machine that

More information

Operating System Structures

Operating System Structures Operating System Structures Meelis ROOS mroos@ut.ee Institute of Computer Science Tartu University fall 2009 Literature A. S. Tanenbaum. Modern Operating Systems. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall. 2001. G. Nutt.

More information

Computer Science 4302 Operating Systems. Student Learning Outcomes

Computer Science 4302 Operating Systems. Student Learning Outcomes Computer Science 4302 Operating Systems Student Learning Outcomes 1. The student will learn what operating systems are, what they do, and how they are designed and constructed. The student will be introduced

More information

Computer-System Architecture

Computer-System Architecture Chapter 2: Computer-System Structures Computer System Operation I/O Structure Storage Structure Storage Hierarchy Hardware Protection General System Architecture 2.1 Computer-System Architecture 2.2 Computer-System

More information

PES Institute Of Technology Bangalore South Campus

PES Institute Of Technology Bangalore South Campus PES Institute Of Technology Bangalore South Campus (Hosur Road, 1KM before Electronic City, Bangalore-560 102) Sem: V A and B Date: 27/8/1 Subject & Code: Operating Systems Marks: 50 Name of faculty: Y.

More information

Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation

Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation 1 Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization obtained

More information

Chapter 5: System Software: Operating Systems and Utility Programs

Chapter 5: System Software: Operating Systems and Utility Programs Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow 12 th Edition Chapter 5: System Software: Operating Systems and Utility Programs Learning Objectives Understand the difference between system software and application

More information

Kernel. What is an Operating System? Systems Software and Application Software. The core of an OS is called kernel, which. Module 9: Operating Systems

Kernel. What is an Operating System? Systems Software and Application Software. The core of an OS is called kernel, which. Module 9: Operating Systems Module 9: Operating Systems Objective What is an operating system (OS)? OS kernel, and basic functions OS Examples: MS-DOS, MS Windows, Mac OS Unix/Linux Features of modern OS Graphical operating system

More information

Operating Systems. III. Scheduling. http://soc.eurecom.fr/os/

Operating Systems. III. Scheduling. http://soc.eurecom.fr/os/ Operating Systems Institut Mines-Telecom III. Scheduling Ludovic Apvrille ludovic.apvrille@telecom-paristech.fr Eurecom, office 470 http://soc.eurecom.fr/os/ Outline Basics of Scheduling Definitions Switching

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Thread Scheduling Operating Systems Examples

More information

CPU Scheduling. Overview: CPU Scheduling. [SGG7/8/9] Chapter 5. Basic Concepts. CPU Scheduler. Scheduling Criteria. Optimization Criteria

CPU Scheduling. Overview: CPU Scheduling. [SGG7/8/9] Chapter 5. Basic Concepts. CPU Scheduler. Scheduling Criteria. Optimization Criteria TDDB68 Concurrent programming and operating systems CPU Scheduling Overview: CPU Scheduling CPU bursts and I/O bursts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Priority Inversion Problem Multiprocessor

More information

Scheduling. Scheduling. Scheduling levels. Decision to switch the running process can take place under the following circumstances:

Scheduling. Scheduling. Scheduling levels. Decision to switch the running process can take place under the following circumstances: Scheduling Scheduling Scheduling levels Long-term scheduling. Selects which jobs shall be allowed to enter the system. Only used in batch systems. Medium-term scheduling. Performs swapin-swapout operations

More information

Operating Systems OBJECTIVES 7.1 DEFINITION. Chapter 7. Note:

Operating Systems OBJECTIVES 7.1 DEFINITION. Chapter 7. Note: Chapter 7 OBJECTIVES Operating Systems Define the purpose and functions of an operating system. Understand the components of an operating system. Understand the concept of virtual memory. Understand the

More information

Introduction to Operating Systems. Perspective of the Computer. System Software. Indiana University Chen Yu

Introduction to Operating Systems. Perspective of the Computer. System Software. Indiana University Chen Yu Introduction to Operating Systems Indiana University Chen Yu Perspective of the Computer System Software A general piece of software with common functionalities that support many applications. Example:

More information

Basic Concepts. Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Histogram of CPU-burst Times. Dispatcher. CPU Scheduler. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts

Basic Concepts. Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Histogram of CPU-burst Times. Dispatcher. CPU Scheduler. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation Maximum CPU utilization obtained

More information

Principles of Operating Systems CS 446/646

Principles of Operating Systems CS 446/646 Principles of Operating Systems CS 446/646 1. Introduction to Operating Systems a. Role of an O/S b. O/S History and Features c. Types of O/S Mainframe systems Desktop & laptop systems Parallel systems

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Thread Scheduling Operating Systems Examples

More information

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. Common System Components

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. Common System Components Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines System Design and Implementation System Generation 3.1

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Thread Scheduling Operating Systems Examples

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation Oct-03 1 Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization

More information

1 Organization of Operating Systems

1 Organization of Operating Systems COMP 730 (242) Class Notes Section 10: Organization of Operating Systems 1 Organization of Operating Systems We have studied in detail the organization of Xinu. Naturally, this organization is far from

More information

CPU Scheduling. Core Definitions

CPU Scheduling. Core Definitions CPU Scheduling General rule keep the CPU busy; an idle CPU is a wasted CPU Major source of CPU idleness: I/O (or waiting for it) Many programs have a characteristic CPU I/O burst cycle alternating phases

More information

Tools Page 1 of 13 ON PROGRAM TRANSLATION. A priori, we have two translation mechanisms available:

Tools Page 1 of 13 ON PROGRAM TRANSLATION. A priori, we have two translation mechanisms available: Tools Page 1 of 13 ON PROGRAM TRANSLATION A priori, we have two translation mechanisms available: Interpretation Compilation On interpretation: Statements are translated one at a time and executed immediately.

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation 6.1 Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization obtained

More information

Star System. 2004 Deitel & Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.

Star System. 2004 Deitel & Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Star System Apple Macintosh 1984 First commercial OS GUI Chapter 1 Introduction to Operating Systems Outline 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 Introduction What Is an Operating System?

More information

Chap-02, Hardware and Software. Hardware Model

Chap-02, Hardware and Software. Hardware Model Philadelphia University School of Business Administration INFO-101 Information Systems Prof London Chap-02, Hardware and Software Hardware Components Central processing unit (CPU) Arithmetic/logic unit

More information

Fall 2009. Lecture 1. Operating Systems: Configuration & Use CIS345. Introduction to Operating Systems. Mostafa Z. Ali. mzali@just.edu.

Fall 2009. Lecture 1. Operating Systems: Configuration & Use CIS345. Introduction to Operating Systems. Mostafa Z. Ali. mzali@just.edu. Fall 2009 Lecture 1 Operating Systems: Configuration & Use CIS345 Introduction to Operating Systems Mostafa Z. Ali mzali@just.edu.jo 1-1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Operating Systems An Overview of Microcomputers

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 9 th Edition,

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 9 th Edition, Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling, Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009 Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multiple-Processor Scheduling Operating

More information

EECS 678: Introduction to Operating Systems

EECS 678: Introduction to Operating Systems EECS 678: Introduction to Operating Systems 1 About Me Heechul Yun, Assistant Prof., Dept. of EECS Office: 3040 Eaton, 236 Nichols Email: heechul.yun@ku.edu Research Areas Operating systems and architecture

More information

Software systems and issues

Software systems and issues Software systems and issues operating systems controlling the computer file systems and databases storing information applications programs that do things cloud computing, virtual machines, platforms where

More information

Chapter 1 Computer System Overview

Chapter 1 Computer System Overview Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles Chapter 1 Computer System Overview Eighth Edition By William Stallings Operating System Exploits the hardware resources of one or more processors Provides

More information

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines Operating System Concepts 3.1 Common System Components

More information

Operating Systems. Notice that, before you can run programs that you write in JavaScript, you need to jump through a few hoops first

Operating Systems. Notice that, before you can run programs that you write in JavaScript, you need to jump through a few hoops first Operating Systems Notice that, before you can run programs that you write in JavaScript, you need to jump through a few hoops first JavaScript interpreter Web browser menu / icon / dock??? login??? CPU,

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts. Histogram of CPU-burst Times. CPU Scheduler

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts. Histogram of CPU-burst Times. CPU Scheduler Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Thread Scheduling Operating Systems Examples

More information

Lecture 5 Process Scheduling (chapter 5)

Lecture 5 Process Scheduling (chapter 5) Bilkent University Department of Computer Engineering CS342 Operating Systems Lecture 5 Process Scheduling (chapter 5) Dr. İbrahim Körpeoğlu http://www.cs.bilkent.edu.tr/~korpe 1 References The slides

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 8 th Edition,

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 8 th Edition, Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling, Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009 Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multiple-Processor Scheduling Operating

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Operating System Concepts 6.1 Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization obtained with multiprogramming. CPU I/O Burst Cycle

More information

Operating Systems for Parallel Processing Assistent Lecturer Alecu Felician Economic Informatics Department Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest

Operating Systems for Parallel Processing Assistent Lecturer Alecu Felician Economic Informatics Department Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest Operating Systems for Parallel Processing Assistent Lecturer Alecu Felician Economic Informatics Department Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest 1. Introduction Few years ago, parallel computers could

More information

Chapter 5: Process Scheduling

Chapter 5: Process Scheduling Chapter 5: Process Scheduling, Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009 Chapter 5: Process Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multiple-Processor Scheduling

More information

Chapter 5: Process Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 8 th Edition,

Chapter 5: Process Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 8 th Edition, Chapter 5: Process Scheduling, Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2009 Chapter 5: Process Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multiple-Processor Scheduling

More information